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Professor Jock Collins

Biography

Jock Collins is Professor of Social Economics in the Management Discipline Group at the UTS Business School, Sydney, Australia. He has been teaching and conducting research at UTS since 1977.  He is Co-Director of the Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Research Centre at UTS.  His research interests centre on an interdisciplinary study of immigration and cultural diversity in the economy and society. His recent research has been on Australian immigration, ethnic crime, immigrant and Indigenous entrepreneurship, immigrant youth, ethnic precincts and tourism, multiculturalism, the Cronulla Beach Riots, global teachers, immigrants and the built environment and immigrants in regional and rural Australia and the social use of ethnic heritage and the built environment. He is the author or co-author of ten books, the most recent of which is Global Teachers, Australian Perspectives: Goodbye Mr. Chips Hello Ms. Banerjee (with Carol Reid and Michael Singh) to be published by Springer Press later this year. He is also the author of over 100 articles in international and national academic journals and book chapters. His work has been translated in Swedish, French, Japanese, Arabic, Dutch, Chinese, Portuguese, German, Turkish and Italian.  Jock Collins has had visiting academic appointments in the UK, Canada, Sweden and the United States and has consulted to the ILO and OECD.

Image of Jock Collins
Professor, Management Discipline Group
Core Member, Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Research Centre
BEc (Hons) (Syd), MEc (Syd), PhD (UOW)
Phone
+61 2 9514 3613
Room
CB05B.04.09

Research Interests

Australian immigration and the labour market, ethnic business and comparative immigration studies.

Can supervise: Yes

Postgraduate research degree students supervised:
Kirrily Jordan
Soheyla Gholamshahi

Economics for management, labour market economics, international economics and economics for leisure and tourism.

Books

Poynting, S., Noble, G., Tabar, P. & Collins, J. 2004, Bin Laden in the suburbs: criminalising the Arab other., The Federation Press, Sydney, Australia.
Collins, J., Castillo, A. & Reid, C.G. 2001, Cosmopolitan Sydney (Chinese Edition), Pluto Press, Sydney, Australia.
Collins, J., Childs, T., Mondello, L. & Breheny, J. 2001, Cosmopolitan Melbourne: Exploring the World in One City, Big Box Publishing, Sydney, Australia.
Collins, J., Noble, G., Poynting, S. & Tabar, P. 2000, Kebabs, kids, cops and crime, Pluto Press, Sydney, Australia.
Collins, J. & Castillo, A. 1999, Cosmopolitan Sydney: Explore the World in One City, 1, Comerford & Miller, UK.

Chapters

Jakubowicz, A.H., Collins, J. & Chafic, W.F. 2012, 'Young Australian Muslims: Social Ecology and Cultural Capital' in Mansouri, F. & Marotta, V. (eds), Muslims in the West and the Challenges of Belonging, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, pp. 34-59.
Young Australian Muslims are both a growing part of the wider Australian youth population, and a significant and rapidly expanding part of the Muslim population in Australia. Over the past decade or more, especially since the events of 9/11, their presence has increasingly been framed in public discourse as a tension between the Australian and the Muslim aspects of their identities and attitudes. Australias claim to be a multicultural society has thus been tested at the point that culture, religion and community intersect. This chapter explores this intersection, asking what are the dynamics that influence young Australian Muslims in their identities and their social practices?
Collins, J. 2012, 'Integration and Inclusion of Immigrants in Australia' in Frideres, J. & Biles, J. (eds), International Perspectives: Integration and Inclusion, Queen's University Press, Montreal, pp. 17-37.
The aim of this article is to investigate the extent to which immigrants have been included in, and integrated into, Australian society. This chapter critically evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of Australian multiculturalism from the point of view of Australias immigrants themselves. It first traces the policy responses to immigrant settlement in Australia from assimilation to integration to multiculturalism. This chapter then looks at the (contradictory) evidence across many different objective and subjective dimensions of immigrant social inclusion, social integration and social cohesion in economic, social, political and cultural life in Australia today. Finally this chapter highlights the key stumbling blocks for immigrant settlement in Australia in the coming decades, suggests the key strengths and weaknesses of Australian multiculturalism and raises the possibility of an introducing elements of cosmopolitanism Australian multiculturalism to address these strengths and weaknesses.
Jordan, K. & Collins, J. 2012, 'Symbols of Ethnicity in a Multi-ethnic Precinct: Marketing Perth's Northbridge for Cultural Consumption' in Aytar, V. & Rath, J. (eds), Selling Ethnic Neighborhoods: The Rise of Neighborhoods as Places of Leisure and Consumption, Routledge, New York, pp. 120-137.
This chapter explores the various attempts to market Northbridges ethnic diversity. It first outlines the history of Northbridge, detailing the changing historical patterns of immigrant settlement and the establishment of ethnic enterprises. It then looks at recent attempts to re-brand part of the neighborhood as a Chinatown, outlining the complex institutional environment of Northbridge and the role of various players in current strategies for redevelopment. The chapter concludes by considering the contradictory history of Northbridge as an ethnic precinct and reflecting on its ethnic identity and safety as an outcome of the interaction between key stakeholders among the critical infrastructure, regulators, immigrant entrepreneurs and ethnic community representatives.
Jordan, K., Krivokapic-Skoko, B. & Collins, J. 2011, 'Immigration and multicultural place-making in rural and regional Australia' in Luck, G., Race, D. & Black, R. (eds), Demographic change in Australia's rural landscapes: Implications for society and the environment, Springer and CSIRO, Australia, pp. 259-280.
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There has been comparatively little research on the relationship between immigrants and place in the context of rural and regional Australia. Considering that immigration to regional and rural Australia has been given important national importance we argue that the contemporary research on rural ethnic landscapes should be broadened to discuss the impact of different ethnic groups on the built environment of rural townships. The immigrants settling down in rural areas have transformed rural landscapes through the construction of public and private spaces expressing their cultural heritage. These sites can significantly impact the dynamics of social cohesion and intercultural relations in multicultural rural communities. They can also have a role in attracting and retaining immigrants in non-metropolitan areas. This chapter links the built environment and immigration in rural Australia and explores the potential role of the sites built by rural ethnic minorities in facilitating intra-group and inter-group social encounter, trust and networks. The chapter then outlines the empirical findings from applying these concepts to the sites built and used by non-Anglo-Celtic immigrants to Griffith, a regional city in south-western New South Wales (NSW), and Katanning, a small rural community south-east of Perth in Western Australia (WA).
Collins, J. 2011, 'The Governance of Immigration in Australia' in Nicola Phillips (ed), Migration in the global political economy, Lynne Rienner, Colorado, USA, pp. 231-255.
How does the evolution of global capitalism shape patterns and processes of migration? How does migration in turn shape and intersect with the forces at work in the global economy? How should we understand the relationship between migration and development, and how is migration connected with patterns of poverty and inequality? How are processes of migration and immigration governed in different parts of the world? The authors of Migration in the Global Political Economy tackle these questions in a set of engaging and authoritative chapters. Mobilizing the core insights of critical IPE scholarship and combining analysis of the big picture with attention to particular regions, countries, and actors, the authors seek to bring the increasingly important processes of migration to the center of inquiries into globalization and its social underpinnings.
Collins, J., Darcy, S.A. & Jordan, K. 2010, 'Multi-method research on ethnic cultural tourism in Australia' in Richards, G. & Munsters, W. (eds), Cultural Tourism Research Methods, CABI, UK, pp. 87-103.
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Jordan, K., Krivokapic-Skoko, B. & Collins, J. 2010, 'Italian immigrants and the built environment in rural Australia' in Bonanno, A., Bakker, H., Jussaume, R., Kawamura, Y. & Shucksmith, M. (eds), From Community to Consumption: New and Classical Themes in Rural Sociological Research, Emerald, UK, pp. 141-154.
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Non-Anglo-Celtic immigrants have transformed Australian rural landscape through the construction of public and private spaces expressing their cultural heritage. These sites can also significantly impact the dynamics of social cohesion and intercultural relations in multicultural rural communities. This chapter links heritage and multiculturalism in rural settings and explores the potential role of the sites built by rural ethnic minorities in facilitating intra- and intergroup social networks. The chapter is divided into two parts. The first part briefly explores the literature on immigration and heritage, place, belonging and social cohesion, and the relationship between social capital and the built environment. The second part outlines preliminary empirical findings from Griffith in New South Wales. Using the concepts of intercultural dialogue and bonding and bridging social capital, the chapter explores the role of the places built by Italian immigrants in facilitating social networks and improved relations within and between Griffith's ethnic communities.
Jordan, K. & Collins, J. 2009, 'Cosmopolitan Northbridge: A changing inner-city ethnic landscape' in Yiannakis, J.N. & Morel-EdnieBrown, F. (eds), Northbridge Studies Day Papers, Network Books, Perth, Australia, pp. 249-275.
Northbridge is an ethnic precinct in inner-city Perth. It is a precinct w.ith a changing ethnic history, at one tie 'Chinatown', at another 'Little Italy' and 'Little Saigon'. Its key character is the great ethnic diversity of the immigrant enterprises and other buildings, churches, mosques, clubs, community organisations that are part of its built environment. Successive waves of immigrants have helped to make Northbridge a colourful centre for cosmopolitan consumption and a key site for Perth's entertainment industries, with the dozens of small retail and hospitality businesses established by immigrant entrepreneurs making the area a favorite with many diners and gourmet shoppers. With the changing waves of immigration, the character of Northbridge'S enterprises has also changed as new immigrant owners have opened new businesses and others have shut down.
Collins, J. & Reid, C. 2009, 'The Sydney Cronulla beach riots: The contexts and contradictions of the racialization of young people' in Hier, A.P., Lett, D. & Bolaria, B.S. (eds), Racism and justice: Critical dialogue on the politics of identity, inequality and change, Fernwood Publishing, Halifax, Canada, pp. 123-136.
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Collins, J. 2009, 'Sydney's Cronulla riots: The context and implications' in Noble, G. (ed), Lines in the Sand: The Cronulla Riots, Multiculturalism and National Belonging, Institute of Criminology Press, Sydney, Australia, pp. 27-43.
Collins, J. 2008, 'Australian immigration policy in the age of globalisation' in Kondo, A. (ed), Migration and Globalisation: Comparing Immigration Policy in Developed Countries, Akashi Shoten, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 161-184.
Collins, J. 2007, 'The Landmark of Cronulla' in Jupp, Nieuwenhuysen & Dawson (eds), Social cohesion in Australia, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne, Australia, pp. 61-69.
Collins, J. 2007, 'The Disloyal Loyalty of Economic Rationalism and Neo-Liberalism' in Mason, V. (ed), Loyalties, Network Books, Perth, Australia, pp. 87-99.
Collins, J. 2007, 'Ethnic Precincts as Contradictory Tourist Spaces' in Jan Rath (ed), Tourism, Ethnic Diversity and the City, Routledge, USA, pp. 67-86.
Collins, J. & Kunz, P. 2007, 'Ethnic Entrepreneurs, Ethnic Precincts and Toursim: The Case of Sydney Australia' in Richards, G. & Wilson, J. (eds), Tourism, Creativity and Development, Routledge, UK, pp. 201-214.
Collins, J. 2006, 'Ethnic diversity and the ethnic economy in cosmopolitan Sydney' in Kaplan, D. & Li, W. (eds), Landscapes of the Ethnic Economy, Rowman and Littlefield, Maryland, USA, pp. 135-148.
Collins, J. 2005, 'From Beirut to Bankstown: The Lebanese Diaspora in Multicultural Australia' in Tabar, P. (ed), Lebanese diaspora : history, racism and belonging, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon, pp. 187-211.
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Collins, J. 2003, 'Australia: cosmopolitan capitalists down under' in Kloodterman, R. & Rath, J. (eds), Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Venturing Abroad in the Age if Globalization, Berg, Oxford, pp. 61-78.
Collins, J. 2002, 'Arab Entrepreneurs in Australia' in Arab-Australians Today: Citizenship and Belonging, Melbourne University Press, Carlton South VIC, Australia, pp. 92-127.
Collins, J. 2000, 'Immigration & immigrants: ethnic inequality and social cohesion' in Stokes, P., Boreham, G. & Hall, R. (eds), The Politics of Australian Society: political issues for the new century, Longman, Sydney, Australia, pp. 302-316.
Collins, J. 2000, 'The other Sydney: cultural & social diversity in western Sydney' in Poynting, J. & Collins, S. (eds), The Other Sydney: communities, identities and inequalities in western Sydney, Common Ground Publishing, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 34-60.
Collins, J. & Poynting, S. 2000, 'Introduction: communities, identities and inequalities in western Sydney' in Poynting, J. & Collins, S. (eds), The Other Sydney: communities, identities and inequalities in western Sydney, Common Ground Publishing, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 19-33.

Conferences

Collins, J. 2010, 'The media, immigrant minorities and ethnic crime in Sydney'.
Collins, J. 2010, 'Immigrants in rural and regional Australia: New arrivals and older legacies'.
Collins, J. 2010, 'Immigrants, unemployment, social disadvantage and the global financial crisis in Australia'.
Collins, J. 2010, 'The global financial crisis, immigration and immigrants in Australia'.
Collins, J. 2010, 'Ethnic diversity, leisure and social cohesion in Sydney: Contradictions in a cosmopolitan city'.
Collins, J. 2010, 'Immigrant youth in Australia: Aspirations, values, identity and belonging'.
Collins, J. 2009, 'The global financial crisis: Impacts of immigrants and diversity in western nations'.
Collins, J. 2009, 'The impact of the global financial crisis on poverty and inequality in Australia'.
Collins, J. 2009, 'The global financial crisis: A severe challenge for social inclusion in Australia'.
Collins, J. & Reid, C. 2009, 'Accents on teaching? Immigrant teachers in Australia'.
Collins, J. 2009, 'Australian immigrant minorities, unemployment and the global financial crisis'.
Collins, J. 2009, 'The global financial crisis and social inclusion in Australia'.
Collins, J. 2009, 'Ethnic diversity and youth in a cosmopolitan nation: First and second generation immigrant youth in Australia'.
Jordan, K. & Collins, J. 2008, 'Identity crisis: The many ethnic masks of Northbridge in inner city Perth'.
Collins, J. & Jordan, K. 2007, 'Sydney's Chinatown and Perth's Northbridge as places of ethnic leisure and consumption'.
Collins, J. & Jordan, K. 2007, 'Ethnic precincts as built and social environments: Sydney's Chinatown and Perth's Northbridge'.
Collins, J., Jordan, K. & Krivokapic-Skoko, B. 2007, 'Diversity beyond the metropolis: Heritage and multiculturalism in regional Australia'.
Collins, J. 2007, 'Immigrants in regional and rural Australia', Our Diverse Cities, Metropolis, Canada, pp. 36-41.
Collins, J. 2007, 'The Cronulla riots and social cohesion in Australia'.
Collins, J. 2007, 'Ethnic entrepreneurship in Australia: New research findings'.
Collins, J. 2007, 'Cosmpolitan civil societies and immigrant minorities in Australia: Challenges and opportunities'.
Collins, J. 2006, 'Ethnic gangs, ethnic youth and the Cronulla beach riots', Responding to Cronulla: Rethinking Multiculturalism Symposium.
Collins, J. 2006, 'Unity and diversity: The challenges and opportunities of a multicultural society', Unity and Diversity: A South Asian Conference.
Collins, J. & Jordan, K. 2006, 'Ethnic precincts and cultural landscapes of tourism in Australia: Sydney's Chinatown and Perth's Northbridge.', Workshop on the Transformation of Ethnic Neighborhoods into Places of Leisure and Consumption - 11th International Metropolis Conference.
Collins, J. & Jordan, K. 2006, 'Ethnic precincts as built and social environments: Sydney's Chinatown and Perth's Northbridge', TASA Conference.
Collins, J. & Reid, C. 2006, 'The global circulation of teachers in Australia', Globalisation, Migration, Transferable Skills and Education Workshop - 11th International Metropolis Conference.
Collins, J. 2004, 'Ethnic youth crime and gangs in Australia', Metropolis presents forum on youth crime in Canada, Australia, UK and USA., -, -.
Collins, J. 2004, 'The changing political economy of immigration', Workshop on the political economy of immigration, -, -.
Collins, J. 2004, 'Ethnic diversity down under: Ethnic precincts in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia', 4th International conference on diversity in organisations, communities and nations, -, -.
Collins, J. & Reid, C.G. 2004, 'Crime school: Education and youth crime', The 11th International Literacy and Education Research Network Conference on Learning, -, -.
Collins, J. 2004, 'Koorie capitalists: indigenous entrepreneurs in New South Wales', "Regional Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2004": Proceedings of the First Annual Regional Entrepreneurship Research Exchange, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, pp. 69-82.
Collins, J. 2003, 'Cosmopolitan tourism down under: Immigration, ethnic diversity and tourism in Melbourne and Sydney', The Immigrant Tourist Industry: the Commodification of Cultural Resources in Cosmopolitan Cities, European Science Foundation, Cedex.
Collins, J. 2003, 'Ethnic crime and cultural diversity: Perceptions and experiences of gangs, crime and community safety in multicultural Sydney', Third Diversity Conference, --, --.
Collins, J. 2003, 'Immigrant crime in Europe and Australia: Rational or racialised responses?', The Challenges of Immigration and Integration in the European Union and Australia, --, --.
Collins, J. 2003, 'Truth overboard: Media and public discourses about ethnic crime and boat people in Australia', Public Right to Know Conference, --, --.
Collins, J. 2003, 'Discourses perceptions and experiences of ethinic and gender aspects of youth crime and youth gangs in Sydney Australia', 15th Conference of the International Association for Research into Juvenile Criminology on migrations and ethnic minorities, --, --.
Collins, J. 2003, 'Immigration and immigrant settlement in Sydney', 8th International Metropolis Conference, --, --.
Collins, J. 2003, 'Immigration and crime in Australia: Myths, realities and policy responses', 8th International Metropolis Conference, --, --.
Collins, J. 2002, 'Ethnic entrepeneurs and the economic, spatial and social development of Sydney', American Association of Geographers Conference.
Collins, J. 2000, 'Globalisation, deregulation and the changing Australian labour market', Migrants in the New Economy: problems, perspectives and policy, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 13-45.

Journal articles

Reid, C. & Collins, J. 2013, ''No-one ever asked me': the invisible experiences and contribution of Australian emigrant teachers', Race Ethnicity and Education, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 268-290.
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Globalisation is characterized by the increasing global mobility of professionals. Global teachers are internationally mobile professionals, part of the process of circular migration. Australia receives teachers from other countries (immigrant teachers) while Australian teachers (emigrant teachers) leave Australia on a permanent or temporary basis to teach in outer countries. The story of Australia emigrant teachers provides insights into the increasingly globally-mobile Australian professional, the worker of tomorrow, not yesterday. This article discusses their emigration experiences, their stories in getting teacher registration for and teaching in schools other countries.
Collins, J. 2013, 'Rethinking Australian Immigration and Immigrant Settlement Policy', Journal of Intercultural Studies, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 160-177.
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In the past two decades the Australian immigration experience has changed considerably in response to the changing impact of globalisation and the changing geopolitics post 9/11. During this time immigration and multiculturalism have remained controversial. This article reviews the Australian experience with immigration and immigrant settlement over the past few decades. The aim was to provide the guidelines for Australian immigration and settlement policy in coming decades. The paper makes the case for a future Australian immigration policy that favours continued large-scale immigration but within a framework with an increasing emphasis on long-term nation building rather than the short-term economic benefits of increasing guest worker immigration. This would mean restoring the vision of Australia as a settler immigration country where primacy is once again given to permanent immigration intakes with relative increases in humanitarian and family migration while temporary immigration continues but is constrained and more carefully monitored. The paper also argues for a continuation of multiculturalism, but reimagined within a cosmopolitan framework and reassessed with revitalised programmatic content within a more explicitly anti-racism framework.
Chang, F., Low, A.G. & Collins, J. 2013, 'Two Sets of Business Cards: Responses of Chinese Immigrant Women Entrepreneurs in Canada and Australia to Sexism and Racism', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 63-83.
Existing entrepreneurial discourses have been dominated by white middle-class androcentric approach, giving little space to the discussions of racism and sexism experienced by minority women entrepreneurs. This paper aims to fill this gap through an examination of the experiences of Asian immigrant women entrepreneurs in Canada and Australia using an intersectional approach. The key research question addressed in the paper is to what extent, and in what ways, do racism and sexism impact on the entrepreneurial experiences of Asian immigrant women entrepreneurs and what strategies do they use in managing discrimination to protect themselves and their businesses? Four main strategies were derived from our findings, namely, creating a comfortable niche, playing the mainstream card, swallowing the pain, and resisting.
Collins, J. 2013, 'Multiculturalism and Immigrant Integration in Australia', Canadian Ethnic Studies, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 133-149.
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Australia has been a major immigration nation for over six decades, with immigration central to nation building in Australia. In the past two decades, the character of the Australian immigration intake has changed considerably while the issues of immigration and multiculturalism have been controversial at the level of public opinion and national politics. But what has happened to immigrants themselves in Australia? This article draws on a range of primary and secondary research to review the objective and subjective evidence on immigrant integration in Australia across a wide range of indicators. The central research question of this article is: to what extent are immigrants integrated into economic, social, cultural and political life in Australia and how successful has Australian multiculturalism been in achieving the objective of immigrant integration? Taking Kymlickas (2012) conceptualization of, and comparative measurement of, immigrant integration as a point of departure, this article argues that despite the fact that Kymlickas conceptualization of integration is constrained by a focus on the policy and institutional structures of immigrant integration rather than on the outcomes and experiences of immigrant settlers in these societies, his overall conclusion about the relative success of Australian immigrant integration and the central role of multiculturalism to that outcome is well supported by the evidence.
Collins, J. & Reid, C. 2012, 'Immigrant Teachers in Australia', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 38-61.
One of the features of contemporary society is the increasing global mobility of professionals. While the education industry is a key site of the demand for contemporary global professional migration, little attention has been given to the global circulation of education professionals. Over past decades, immigrant teachers have been an important component of skilled and professional immigration into Australia, there is no comprehensive contemporary national study of the experiences of immigrant teachers in Australia. This article aims to fill this gap and to answer questions about their decision to move to Australia, their experience with Australian Education Departments in getting appointed to a school, their experiences as teachers in the classroom and in their new Australian community. It draws on primary data sources - in the form of a survey of 269 immigrant teachers in schools in NSW, SA and WA conducted in 2008-9 - and secondary sources - in the form of the 2006 national census and Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants in Australia to provide insights into immigrant teachers in Australian schools, adding also to our understanding of Australias contemporary immigration experience.
Collins, J., Reid, C. & Fabiansson, C. 2011, 'Identities, Aspirations and Belonging of Cosmopolitan Youth in Australia', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 92-107.
This article presents the results of a survey of the attitudes, aspirations and belonging of mainly immigrant minority youth living in Western and south western Sydney conducted in 2007 to provide some evidence to contest the populist view of immigrant youth as being a threat to Australian society. Rather the survey points to the very positive aspirations of Sydneys immigrant youth, their strong sense of having a positive future role in Australian society, their sense of belonging and ownership of their neighbourhood. They live connected lives, with multicultural friendship networks rather than living their lives parallel to and separate from other youth. Only one in three surveyed identify as `Australian, with most offering some hybrid-Australian identity. This finding worried the Australian government, who did not give publication approval of the research until late 2010. The paper argues that a more cosmopolitan approach to multiculturalism would assist in valuing the globalised, fluid, hybrid identities of immigrant youth and assist in relieving the nationalist anxieties about Australian cultural, linguistic and cultural diversity.
Collins, J. & Kunz, P. 2010, 'Ethnicity and public space in the city: Ethnic precincts in Sydney', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 39-70.
Ethnic precincts are one example of the way that cultural diversity shapes public spaces in the postmodern metropolis. Ethnic precincts are essentially clusters of ethnic or immigrant entrepreneurs in areas that are designated as ethnic precincts by place marketers and government officials and display iconography related to that ethnicity in the build environment of the precinct. They are characterized by the presence of a substantial number of immigrant entrepreneurs of the same ethnicity as the precinct who line the streets of the precinct selling food, goods or services to many co-ethnics and non co-ethnics alike. Ethnic precincts are thus a key site of the production and consumption of the ethnic economy, a commodification of place where the symbolic economy of space (Zukin 1995:23-4) is constructed on representations of ethnicity and `immigrantness. To explore some dimensions of the way that ethnic diversity shapes public space we present the findings of recent fieldwork in four Sydney ethnic precincts: Chinatown, Little Italy, Auburn (Little Turkey) and Cabramatta (Vietnamatta). This fieldwork explores the complex and sometimes contradictory relationship between immigrant entrepreneurs, local government authorities, and ethnic community representatives in shaping the emergence of, and development of, ethnic precincts. It demonstrates how perceptions of the authenticity of precincts as ethnic places and spaces varies in the eyes of consumers or customers according to whether they are `co-ethnic, `co-cultural or `Others. It explores relations of production and consumption within the ethnic precinct and how these are embedded within the domain of regulation in the daily life of these four Sydney ethnic precincts.
Collins, J. & Low, A.G. 2010, 'Asian female immigrant entrepreneurs in small and medium-sized businesses in Australia', Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 97-111.
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Among western nations Australia has received, in relative terms, one of the largest and most diverse intakes of immigrants, many of who start up their own small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). While most immigrant entrepreneurs are male, there is growth in the number of female immigrants who have moved into entrepreneurship in Australia and other countries. Yet, research into female immigrant entrepreneurship and a theoretical investigation as to how the impact of ethnic diversity and gender on entrepreneurship can be conceptualized is not well developed in the literature. This article attempts to redress this gap. It reviews the theory of immigrant entrepreneurship and the Australian research, including the findings of unpublished fieldwork with 80 Asian female immigrant entrepreneurs in Sydney. While female immigrant entrepreneurs draw on their human capital and community and family networks as do all female small business owners, their small business experience is also shaped by broader societal responses to minority immigrants, embodied in the concept of the `accent ceiling, that creates labour market and entrepreneurial barriers for women of minority linguistic, ethnic or religious background that non-immigrant entrepreneurs do not face.
Collins, J. & Jordan, K. 2009, 'Ethnic precincts as ethnic tourism destinations in urban Australia', Tourism, Culture and Communication, vol. 9, no. 1-2, pp. 79-92.
Australia has received one of the relatively largest and most diverse intakes of immigrants of any of the Western nations, with more than half of the population of Australia's largest cities first- or second-generation immigrants. The tourism literature places great importance on the cultural industries and the growth of cultural tourism in countries like Australia. But the link between immigration, ethnic diversity, and tourism, which we call ethnic tourism, in Australia and elsewhere has received little attention by scholars. By ethnic tourism we mean not only the tourism by ethnic minorities to countries like Australia but also the way that nonminority touristsin Australia, this means British, New Zealand, and North American touristsare attracted to ethnic tourist sites such as ethnic precincts. The cosmopolitan character of Australia's largest cities, a result of the great ethnic diversity of Australia's immigration intake over the past 60 years, has lead to the development of ethnic tourism, a subset of cultural tourism. Ethnic tourism thus includes tourism to destinations that are labeled, marketed, and identified with the cultural diversity of a particular minority ethnic group. Ethnic precincts such as Chinatown, Little Italy, Thaitown, and Koreatown attract customers who are locals, national tourists, or international tourists to experience the "ethnic neighborhoods" of the city.
Jordan, K., Krivokapic-Skoko, B. & Collins, J. 2009, 'The ethnic landscape of rural Australia: Non-Anglo-Celtic immigrant communities and the built environment', Journal of Rural Studies, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 376-385.
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Rural ethnic minorities occupy unique economic, social, as well as geographical places in Australian society. Non-Anglo-Celtic immigrants have transformed the rural landscapes through the construction of public and private spaces expressing their cultural heritage. These sites can also significantly impact the dynamics of social cohesion and inter-cultural relations in multicultural rural communities. The paper explores the potential role of the sites built by rural ethnic minorities in promoting both intra-group solidarity and inter-group dialogue. It also provides insights into complexities of multicultural place-making. The paper is divided into two parts. The first part briefly explores the literature on the migration and heritage, place, belonging and social cohesion, and the relationship between social capital and the built environment. The second part outlines empirical findings from Griffith. a regional town in New South Wales. The focus is on the places built by Italian immigrants, such as the Italian clubs and the recently built Italian Museum and Cultural Centre. The construction of these places facilitated a sense of solidarity among the Italian immigrants and expressed their belonging to place. However, the immigrant's attempts at place-making simultaneously involved inscribing a degree of exclusivity and a strategy of becoming more a part of their new environment. In doing this there is also potential for multicultural place-making to intensify the existing intra- and inter-group tensions.
Collins, J. & Reid, C. 2009, 'Minority youth, crime, conflict and belonging in Australia', Journal of International Migration and Integration, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 377-391.
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In recent decades, the size and diversity of the minority population of contemporary western societies has increased significantly. To the critics of immigration, minority youth have been increasingly linked to crime, criminal gangs, anti-social behaviour, and riots. In this article, we draw on fieldwork conducted in Sydney, Australias largest and most ethnically diverse city, to probe aspects of the criminality, anti-social behaviour, national identity, and belonging of ethnic minority youth in Australia. We conclude that the evidence on minority youth criminality is weak and that the panic about immigrant youth crime and immigrant youth gangs is disproportionate to the reality, drawing on and in turn creating racist stereotypes, particularly with youth of `Middle Eastern appearance. A review of the events leading up to the Sydney Cronulla Beach riots of December 2005 suggests that the underlying cause of the riots were many years of international, national, and local anti-Arab, anti-Muslim media discourse, and political opportunism, embedded in changing but persistent racist attitudes and practises. Our argument is that such inter-ethnic conflict between minority and majority youth in Sydney is the exception, not the rule. Finally, we draw on a hitherto unpublished survey of youth in Sydney to explore issues of national identity and belonging among young people of diverse ethnic and religious background. We conclude that minority youth in Sydney do not live `parallel lives but contradictory, inter-connected cosmopolitan lives. They are connected to family and local place, have inter-ethnic friendships but are often disconnected to the nation and the flag.
Collins, J. 2008, 'Globalisation, Immigration and the Second Long Post-War Boom in Australia', Journal of Australian Political Economy, vol. 61, pp. 244-266.
Australia has a long history of immigration. From the Moccasins who traded with indigenous peoples in the far North West hundreds of years ago to the last person to fly into Sydney by 747 Qantas Jumbo Jet with a permanent or temporary entry visa, immigrants from all over the globe have called Australia home, particularly since the end of the second world war. While there have been many post-war immigration nations, the USA, Canada, New Zealand and Australia were different because of their focus on immigrants as settlers, as new members of society and its labour force. Among these settler immigration nations, Australia has had, in relative terms, the largest intake, and its profile of ethnic diversity is as great as that of the USA and Canada.
Collins, J. 2008, 'Immigrant entrepreneurs in Australia: Regulations and responses', Migracoes: Journal of the Portugal Immigration Observatory, vol. 3, no. October, pp. 49-59.
Australia has a long history of immigrant entrepreneurship. Immigrant enterprises, mainly small businesses, generate significant economic growth, employment opportunities and import export activity across a broad range of industries in Australia. Drawing on Australian research into immigrant entrepreneurship, this article seeks to explore the different forms of regulation and policy enacted by Federal, State and local governments that impact on immigrant entrepreneurs. The article interrogates the important policy question of how to best promote immigrant entrepreneurship and the establishment and survival of immigrant enterprises. The experiences of immigrant entrepreneurs in Australia vary considerably, with a diversity in pathways to immigrant entrepreneurship in Australia evident for both male and female immigrant entrepreneurs. Some cluster in ethnic precincts in the cities as owners of restaurants, cafs, shops and immigrant services. Others set up businesses in the suburbs or regional towns. This means that `one size will not fit all, pointing to the need for a diverse, complex policy response to immigrant entrepreneurship in Australia today.
Collins, J. 2007, 'Immigrants as Victims of Crime and Criminal Justice Discourse in Australia', International Review of Victimology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 57-79.
Jordan, K., Krivokapic-Skoko, B. & Collins, J. 2007, 'Ethnic Minorities and the Built Environment in Rural and Regional Australia', The International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 167-176.
Australia has one of the highest proportions of migrants of any country in the world. One aspect of this migration that is still poorly understood is the impact of different ethnic groups on the built environment of Australian cities and towns. Recent arrivals often seek to create a home by modifying their new landscape, transforming public spaces by building monuments, religious buildings, social clubs and community centres. These sites have often been overlooked in studies of Australia?s built environment heritage. However, they often hold enormous significance not only for migrant communities but also in reflecting contestation over space and the contribution of migrants to the Australian political economy. Crucially, in a time of increasing concern over inter-cultural relations in Australia, these places can also be sites of inter-cultural exchange. Based on preliminary fieldwork in Griffith in New South Wales, the paper will explore the social, political and economic significance of one place built by non-Anglo-Celtic migrants to Australia: the Griffith Italian Museum and Cultural Centre. Using the concepts of inter-cultural dialogue and bonding and bridging social capital, the paper explores the role of the Museum in facilitating social networks and improved relations within and between Griffith?s ethnic communities.
Collins, J. 2006, 'Ethnic diversity down under: ethnic precincts in Sydney', International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations, vol. 4, no. -, pp. 1043-1053.
Collins, J. 2006, 'The changing political economy of Australian immigration', Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 7-16.
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Immigration has been a significant and controversial part of Australian history since 1947, but the nature and composition of Australian immigration and the policies and philosophies of immigrant settlement have changed considerably over that time, particularly in the last few decades of globalisation. The aim of this paper is to assess the changing political economy of Australian immigration in two senses. First, the paper presents an overview of the major changes to the dynamics of the Australian immigration experience that have accompanied globalisation. Second, the paper investigates how the political economy of Australian immigration developed in the 1970s differs from a political economy of contemporary Australian immigration. The paper argues that the traditional political economy emphasis on immigration as providing a reserve army of unskilled migrant labour must be replaced by a version of political economy that not only includes labour across all permanent and temporary categories but that also has a stronger focus on immigrant settlement and migrant lives, including debates about national identity. In order to do this, the paper argues, it is important for traditional political economy to draw on new sensibilities and insights about the contemporary immigration experience that emerge from interdisciplinary insights drawn from disciplines outside the traditional political economy foundations.
Collins, J. 2005, 'Migration In The Asia Pacific: Population, Settlement And Citizenship Issues', Ethnic And Racial Studies, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 179-180.
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Collins, J. 2004, 'National identity in Australia : Cosmopolitan contradictions down under.', Canadian Diversity, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 47-50.
Collins, J. & Lalich, W.F. 2004, 'The dismantling of Australian multiculturalism and the migrant third sector: spotlight on the St George region of Sydney.', Third Sector Review, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 85-97.
Collins, J. 2003, 'Cultural diversity and entrepreneurship: policy responses to immigrant entrepreneurs in Australia', Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 137-149.
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Collins, J. 2003, 'Ethnic crimes and cultural diversity: perceptions and experience of gangs, crime and community safety in multicultural Sydney', International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations, vol. 3, pp. 1-25.
Collins, J. 2002, 'Chinese entrepreneurs - the Chinese diaspora in Australia', International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, vol. 8, no. 1/2, pp. 113-133.
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Recounts the history of the Chinese Diaspora in Australia, which dates back to the Gold Rush of the 1850s. In the past three decades, following the end of the white Australia policy, many ethnic Chinese immigrants have immigrated to Australia. Although there are only 300,000 people of Chinese ancestry living in Australia, Chinese immigration is a critical chapter of Australias immigration experience. Chinese entrepreneurs have played a major role in the history of the Chinese in Australia. Explores the experience of Chinese entrepreneurs in Australia from the earliest days till the present and reviews historical accounts of Chinese entrepreneurs in Australia, before presenting the results of recent research. Argues that it is necessary to investigate how ethnicity, gender and class have intersected to shape changing patterns of Chinese entrepreneurship in the Australian Chinese Diaspora. Suggests also that the dynamics of Chinese immigration and Chinese entrepreneurship in Australia have been shaped by the changing dynamics of globalisation, the state and the racialisation of Chinese immigrants in the Australian labour market and society as a whole.
Collins, J. 2000, 'Ethnicity, gender and Australian entrepreneurs: rethinking Marxist views on small business', Journal of Social Change and Critical Inquiry, vol. 2, no. August, pp. 1-27.
Australia provides a very fertile ground in which to carry out field research into ethnic enterprises. Changing global flows of capital, goods and people have been reflected in changes to the size and ethnic composition of Australias immigrant population. As a result of immigration, first generation immigrants comprise a greater proportion of Australias population than do immigrants in any other western country, with the exception of Israel1. Yet Australias immigrant population is far more diverse than Israel, with Australias immigrant population comprising more than 140 nationalities from all corners of the globe. There is also an important spatial dimension of Australian immigrant settlement. Australia is one of the most urbanised nations in the world2 and in Australias major urban centres like Sydney, Melbourne, Perth and Adelaide first and second-generation immigrants comprise more than half of the population.3 Many of these immigrants have moved into small business, although different birthplace groups have different experiences in this regard. Some birthplace groups of NESB immigrants such as the Koreans, Italians and Greeks - exhibit a rate of small business formation that significantly exceeds that of the Australian-born. Other NESB immigrant groups such as those born in Vietnam, India, Malaysia and Sri Lanka exhibit a lower rate of small business formation than the Australian-born. ESB immigrants from the UK, New Zealand, Canada and the USA have a similar entrepreneurial profile to the Australian-born
Collins, J. 1999, 'Ghassan Hage White Nation, Fantasies Of Write Supremacy In A Multicultural Society, Pluto Press, Sydney, 1999', Australian Journal Of Social Issues, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 387-394.
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Collins, J. 1993, 'Immigrant families In Australia', Journal Of Comparative Family Studies, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 291-313.
Australia has relatively more immigrant families, of greater ethnic diversity, than most western societies. In order to understand the diversity of experiences of immigrant families in Australia it is necessary to reject simplistic 'culturalist'' explana

Other

Collins, J. 2003, 'Ethnic entrepreneurship in Australia (Willy Brandt paper series, Uni of Malmo)'.
Collins, J. 2003, 'Immigration and immigrant settlement in Australia: political responses, discourses and new challenges (Willy Brandt paper series, Uni of Malmo)'.
Collins, J., Hiebert, D.J. & Spoonley, P. 2003, 'Uneven globalization: neoliberal regimes immigration a multiculturalism in Australia, Canada and New Zealand (RIIM paper #03-05)'.

Reports

Collins, J. UTS 2012, Korean immigrant entrepreneurs in the Sydney Restaurant Industry, pp. 1-54, Sydney.
This report presents the findings of a research project, contracted with UTS by Sushi Bay Pty Ltd, a Sydney-based business owned by Korean immigrants, into the dynamics of Korean immigrant entrepreneurs involved in food retailing in Sydney, particularly in the restaurants industry. Koreans have the highest rate of entrepreneurship of any immigrant group in Australia twice the Australian average. This report analyses the results of a survey of 65 Korean immigrant entrepreneurs with businesses in food retailing in Sydney. Most are restaurant owners, though some own cafes and take-away food businesses. Many of those surveyed have located their restaurants and cafes in key suburban Korean ethnic precincts such as the City of Sydney, Eastwood, Campsie and Strathfield.
Collins, J. Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2011, Voices Shaping the Perspectives of Young Muslim Australians, pp. 1-198, Canberra.
This is the final report on the research project the Voices Shaping the Perspectives of Young Muslim Australians Today to the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC). The aims of this research project are: 1) to provide a social ecology of the voices that inspire young Muslims, the voices they hear including their own, their peers and the official voices of the society and government; 2) to review the relevant literature in Australia and comparable nations; 3) to identify the plurality of voices of influence and the various ways in which young Muslim Australians mobilize religious and political symbols, and language around cultural, social and political issues; 4) to identify the relevant sources and voices of influence important for shaping the experience, attitudes, beliefs and opinions of young Muslims in Australia; and 5) to provide an assessment of current practical measures which support and facilitate voices and to identify consistent gaps in government, non-government and individual approaches in this regard.
Collins, J., Jakubowicz, A.H. & Chafic, W.F. Australian Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2011, Voices Shaping the Perspectives of Young Muslim Australians, pp. 1-197, Canberra.
This is the final report on the research project the `Voices Shaping the Perspectives of Young Muslim Australians Today to the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC). The aims of this research project are: 1) to provide a social ecology of the voices that inspire young Muslims, the voices they hear including their own, their peers and the official voices of the society and government; 2) to review the relevant literature in Australia and comparable nations; 3) to identify the plurality of voices of influence and the various ways in which young Muslim Australians mobilize religious and political symbols, and language around cultural, social and political issues; 4) to identify the relevant sources and voices of influence important for shaping the experience, attitudes, beliefs and opinions ofyoung Muslims in Australia; and 5) to provide an assessment of current practical measures which support and facilitate voices and to identify consistent gaps in government, non-government and individual approaches in this regard. The Department of Immigration and Citizenship's expressed aim for commissioning this research is to identify and support young people in general and where appropriate.
Collins, J., Reid, C., Fabiansson, C. & Healey, L. Department of Immigration and Citizenship, Australian Government 2010, Tapping the pulse of youth in cosmopolitan south-western Sydney: A pilot study 2007, pp. 1-93, Canberra, Australia.
In order to explore many aspects of the lives of cosmopolitan youth, we devised a survey that was trialled among 51 youth aged between 14 and 17 years living in Western or South-Western Sydney. On the basis of this trial, the final survey, which is the main research instrument of this project, was developed (See Appendix A).
Collins, J., Darcy, S.A., Jordan, K., Skilbeck, R., Faulkner, S., Peel, V., Dunstan, D., Lacey, G. & Firth, T. Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre 2008, Cultural landscapes of tourism in New South Wales and Victoria, pp. 1-91, Gold Coast, Queensland.
The field of cultural landscapes tourism is under-developed in Australia at the level of theory, research and policy development. Yet international research suggests that cultural landscapes tourism has significant potential in attracting new tourists. This research project is a scoping study designed to set out the parameters involved in cultural landscapes tourism research in Australia. It aims to identify how cultural heritage and contemporary cultural diversity impact on visitor experience and on local communities. The objective is to assist the Australian tourism industry particularly those located in regional and rural areas in understanding the growing importance of cultural tourism, by developing a number of case studies of cultural landscapes tourism in two Australia states. These case studies provide examples of existing tourism in a range of different cultural landscape sites, enabling the development of a process by which to identify change in cultural heritage tourism regions, including examining how multicultural precincts can operate as sustainable tourism destinations. Fieldwork with tourists and stakeholders will enable the development of industry strategies to increase tourism in the future. In addition, this fieldwork will facilitate the development of an innovative, multi-disciplinary theory of cultural landscapes tourism. This will set the stage for future research and policy development.
Collins, J., Darcy, S.A., Jordan, K., Skilbeck, R., Peel, V., Dunstan, D., Lacey, G. & Firth, T. STCRC 2008, Cultural landscapes of tourism in New South Wales and Victoria, Gold Coast, Australia.
Dreher, T.I. & Collins, J. UTS Shopfront unpublished report to Community Relations Commission for a multicultural NSW 2005, Building Bridges: community relations in NSW after September 11, 2001, Sydney.
Collins, J. & Lalich, W.F. Australian centre for co-operative research and development 2004, Unsettling migrant settlement services: spotlight on the St George region of Sydney., pp. 1-48, Sydney, Australia.