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Dr Graziella Caprarelli


Obtained her PhD in Earth Sciences in 1991 in Italy (University La Sapienza, Rome).

She held two post-doctoral positions in Japan, at the Geological Survey of Japan (Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken) and at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, before moving to Australia. She joined UTS in August 1996.

She was a NSF research scholar at NASA Johnson Space Center (Houston, TX, USA) in 2001-2002.

She received the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 2004 award for Excellence in Reviewing. She was awarded from the Australian Academy of Science a Scientific Visit to Europe Grant to carry out research at the International Research School of Planetary Science (Pescara, Italy).

Her current appointment at UTS is as Senior Lecturer in the Department of Environmental Sciences [DES]. She is also the Deputy Director of the Faculty of Science Computational Research Support Unit, and the Deputy Chair of the departmental Honours Management Committee.


Dr. Graziella Caprarelli is an external collaborator of the International Research School of Planetary Sciences (Pescara, Italy) and an external associate of the Mars Express MARSIS scientific team.

She is Chair of the Special Group in Planetary Geoscience of the Geological Society of Australia, and a member of the Information Technology Committee of the American Geophysical Union. She was the 2002-2003 Chair of the NSW Division of the Geological Society of Australia.

She is member of the Editorial Board of the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences and was principal editor of a set of thematic papers on Martian studies in 2005.

She is a member of the steering committee that produced the first Australian Decadal Plan for Space Science, and a member of its working group in Planetary Sciences.

She is a member, and from January 2012 Deputy Chair, of the National Committee for Space Science for the Australian Academy of Science. She is a member of the Australian Centre for Astrobiology (UNSW).

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Associate of the Faculty, School of Life Sciences
DipEngGeol (La Sapienza), MSc (La Sapienza), PhD (La Sapienza)

Research Interests

Dr. Caprarelli's area of research is in the study of volcanic and tectonic activity of Earth and Mars. She uses geochemical and geophysical data to draw interpretations regarding the specific geodynamic processes responsible for basaltic volcanism on terrestrial planets. She has published (as first author) in the peer-reviewed international journals:
Terra Nova
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Mineralogy and Petrology
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences

Can supervise: Yes

At UTS Dr. Caprarelli has taught geochemistry, petrology, tectonics. Her current teaching duties are as subject coordinator for Geological Processes (subject code: 91149) and GIS and Remote Sensing (91120), as well as lecturing in Astrobiology in the subject The Biosphere (91107).

She has been (and is) principal supervisor or co-supervisor of Honours and PhD projects in geology, planetary science (Mars), and GIS and remote sensing applied to the study of environmental problems.


Caprarelli, G. 2008, 'The state of planetary science in Australia', DVD-ROM Proceedings of the 8th Australian Space Science Conference, Australian Space Science Conference, National Space Society of Australia Ltd, Canberra, Australia, pp. 1-15.
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A head-count of Australia-based scientists doing research in planetary science was performed in the context of the drafting of the Decadal Plan for Space Sciences [1]. This paper builds on those findings. A search of papers published by Australia-based scientists in the period 2005-2008 was performed. The search returned 91 papers published in international journals by scientists distributed in 7 groups, of which 6 are identified by the affiliations of the researchers, and one, termed Others, is composed of individuals working independently. Correspondence analysis performed on the data returned distinctive associations of the ANU, UNSW and Others groups with the subdisciplines of cosmochemistry, astrobiology and mission data analysis, respectively. These associations are interpreted as indicating clusters of activity that are, or have the potential to grow into, areas of high productivity. A minimalist model to support and organise activity in the potential cluster represented by the Others is presented here.
Noman, M., Bennett, V., Caprarelli, G., Carter, B., Clarke, J., Nelson, D., Stegman, D., Taylor, S.R., Vladimirov, S. & Walter, M. 2007, 'Planetary science in Australia', Proceedings of the 7th Australian space science conference Sydney, Australian space science conference, National Space Society of Australia Ltd, Sydney, pp. 40-59.
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Planetary science studies the origin of the solar system and whether life exists on other planets. It has the potential to change the way we vie the world and our selves. Planetary science offers a cost effective means for Australia to participate in a pretigious international arena. Space engages the public's imagination and can inspire young people in tehir choice of careers. Students gain a strong foundation in mathematics, fundamental sciences and advanced technology, thereby fostering creativity and promoting a culture of innovation. Despite the absence of a national space program, Australian planetary scientists have strong international reputations in cosmochemistry, planetary geology and planetary geophysics.
Anania, E.M., Caprarelli, G., Lake, M. & Di Lorenzo, S. 2006, 'Using mars global surveyor and mars odyssey date to reconstruct the volcano-tectonic history of Phaethontis region, Mars', Proceedings of the 6th Australian Space Science Conference, Australian Space Science Conference, National Space Society of Australia Ltd, Canberra, pp. 1-16.
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In this paper we present part of an ongoing study to telemetry data of Phaethontis, aregion in the western hemisphere of Mars' Southern Highlands. in particular, we focus on an approximately 57,000 km2 area in Gorgonum Chaos. We selected THEMIS visual, MOC narrow angle and MOLA data abvailable from the Arizona State University and Malin Space Sceince Systems web-sites. We carried out multi-level processing of THEMIS and MOC data using the ISIS software and prcessed MOLA gridded data by the GMT software. After processing we input the images into ArcGIS software, We observed, identified and described, both 2- and 3-dimentionally, impact craters, chaotic and polygonal terrains, grabens and gullies. These landforms suggest a complex geological history involving sedimentary and tectonic processes such as meteoritic impact, the presence of underground water and ice, desiccation or freezing of wet sediemnts at least two episodes of extension, and recent aeolian activity.
Rickwood, P., Giurco, D., Glazebrook, G.J., Kazaglis, A., Thomas, L.E., Zeibots, M.E., Boydell, S., White, S., Caprarelli, G. & McDougall, J. 2007, 'Integrating population, land-use, transport, water and energy-use models to improve the sustainability of urban systems', State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, State of Australian Cities Conference, SOAC, Adelaide, pp. 314-324.
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Caprarelli, G., Pondrelli, M., Di, L.S., Marinangeli, L., Ori, G. & Neukum, G. 2006, 'Mars express high resolution stereo camera: results of observations of north Tyrrhena terra, Mars', Proceedings of the 6th Australian Space Science Conference, Australian Space Science Conference, National Space Society of Australia Ltd, Canberra, Australia, pp. 28-43.
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The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board Mars Express has been transmitting high quality imagery and altimetry data since reaching martian orbit. Observations from orbits h0962 and g0951 showed tectonic features in wto selected areas of north Tyrrhena Terra, in a sub-equitorial region of the southern hemisphere characterised by flat surfaces that could be interpreted as covered by either sedimentary or volcanic deposits. Morphometric analysis of a narrow N-S trending valley, about 80 km long, in the southernmost of the selected areas indicates that this valley formed by crstal extension. In the northernmost area, observation of NW-SE trending ridges characterised by steep SW facing lobate scarps and gentler NE sloping back carps is consistent with prior oberservations of NW-SE trending and NE dipping structures. The HRSC-aided identification of subtle structural features is important for geological reconstruction of Mars.

Journal articles

Fletcher-Lartey, S.M. & Caprarelli, G. 2016, 'Application of GIS technology in public health: successes and challenges', PARASITOLOGY, vol. 143, no. 4, pp. 401-415.
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Xie, Z., Huete, A., Restrepo-Coupe, N., Ma, X., Devadas, R. & Caprarelli, G. 2016, 'Spatial partitioning and temporal evolution of Australia's total water storage under extreme hydroclimatic impacts', Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 183, pp. 43-52.
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Australia experienced one of the worst droughts in history during the early 21st-century (termed the 'big dry'), exerting negative impacts on food production and water supply, with increased forest die-back and bushfires across large areas. Following the 'big dry', one of the largest La Niña events in the past century, in conjunction with an extreme positive excursion of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), resulted in dramatic increased precipitation from 2010 to 2011 (termed the 'big wet'), causing widespread flooding and a recorded sea level drop. Despite these extreme hydroclimatic impacts, the spatial partitioning and temporal evolution of total water storage across Australia remains unknown. In this study we investigated the spatial-temporal impacts of the recent 'big dry' and 'big wet' events on Australia's water storage dynamics using the total water storage anomaly (TWSA) data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. Results showed widespread, continental-scale decreases in TWS during the 'big dry', resulting in a net loss of 3.89 ± 0.47 cm (299 km3) total water, while the 'big wet' induced a sharp increase in TWS, equivalent to 11.68 ± 0.52 cm (898 km3) of water, or three times the total water loss during the 'big dry'. We found highly variable continental patterns in water resources, involving differences in the direction, magnitude, and duration of TWS responses to drought and wet periods. These responses clustered into three distinct geographic zones that correlated well with the influences from multiple large-scale climate modes. Specifically, a persistent increasing trend in TWS was recorded over northern and northeastern Australia, where the climate is strongly influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). By contrast, western Australia, a region predominantly controlled by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), exhibited a continuous decline in TWS during the 'big dry' and only a subtle increase during the 'big wet',...
Bathgate, E.J., Maynard-Casely, H.E., Caprarelli, G., Xiao, L., Stuart, B., Smith, K.T. & Pogson, R. 2015, 'Raman, FTIR and XRD study of Icelandic tephra minerals: implications for Mars', JOURNAL OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 846-855.
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Fletcher, S.M., Caprarelli, G., Merif, J., Andresen, D., Van Hal, S., Stark, D.J. & Ellis, J.T. 2014, 'Epidemiology and Geographical distribution of enteric protozoan infections in Sydney, Australia', Journal of Public Health Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 83-91.
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Caprarelli, G. & Fletcher, S. 2014, 'A brief review of spatial analysis concepts and tools used for mapping, containment and risk modelling of infectious diseases and other illnesses', PARASITOLOGY, vol. 141, no. 5, pp. 581-601.
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Caprarelli, G. 2014, 'Introducing and discussing a novel diagrammatic representation of impact crater dimensions', ICARUS, vol. 237, pp. 366-376.
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Jones, E., Caprarelli, G., Mills, F.P., Doran, B. & Clarke, J. 2014, 'An Alternative Approach to Mapping Thermophysical Units from Martian Thermal Inertia and Albedo Data Using a Combination of Unsupervised Classification Techniques', REMOTE SENSING, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 5184-5237.
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Caprarelli, G. & Wang, B.Y. 2012, 'Wet Mars implications of revised scaling calculations for Evros Vallis', Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 59, no. 2 Special Issue, pp. 263-276.
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In this paper we report the results of our investigation of Evros Vallis, a martian late Noachian dendritic valley network centered at similar to 12 degrees E, 12 degrees S. The study area is located SSW of Schiaparelli and SE relative to Meridiani Planum. After establishment of the valley system, the region underwent extensive erosion and tectonic activity, which partly obliterated and modified Evros Vallis's original features. We used Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System, and Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera imagery and altimetry data to carry out observations and morphometric analysis of the system, and applied network scaling parameters to our measurements of valley widths, slopes, lengths and drainage areas. We obtained the following results: (a) Hack's law exponent n-1.02; (b) width-area scaling exponent b-0.21; and (c) slope-area scaling exponent theta=0.23. These values are different from those previously derived from analysis of the eastern extent of the valley system. We found that network scaling is not applicable to the investigation of Evros Vallis, a conclusion that may be relevant also to other martian network valleys. The concave-up 790 km-long profile of the main valley suggests that a classic equilibrium status was reached. Our findings are in agreement with models of a warmer and wetter martian climate at the end of the Noachian.
Caprarelli, G. & Leitch, E.C. 2009, 'Volcanic and structural history of the rocks exposed at Pickering Crater (Daedalia Planum, Mars)', Icarus, vol. 202, no. 2, pp. 453-461.
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In the western hemisphere of Mars Amazonian volcanism from Arsia Mons produced the smooth surfaces of Daedalia Planum and masks older rocks. Close to the southern termination of Daedalia Planum basement rocks are exposed in which are preserved craters that escaped or were only partially filled by this most recent volcanism. Pickering Crater is an approximately 130 km diameter crater. The youngest lavas flowed into this crater from Daedalia Planum by way of a NW rim breach, covering its western part. East of a well-defined flow front an older lava sequence with a distinctive platy surface and derived from a more proximal unestablished source to the northeast is exposed. Several units are identified within this sequence on the basis of surface texture, which is more subdued in progressively older rocks. Only local mapping of the flow front boundaries of these units is possible because of incomplete coverage by high resolution imagery. During emplacement of the older lavas a NESW striking en echelon graben system and parallel smaller troughs and dikes formed under inferred regional NWSE extension. A much earlier strike-slip regime pre-dating the lavas exposed in the crater floor is postulated, based on the highly fretted nature of the rim of Pickering Crater and an elongated smaller crater to its northeast, approximately 40 km long in the NESW direction. The rims of these craters contrast with that of a smoother rimmed impact crater in the southeast that was excavated subsequent to strike-slip deformation but prior to the emplacement of platy surfaced lavas.
Och, D.J., Leitch, E.C. & Caprarelli, G. 2007, 'Geological units of the Port Macquarie- Tacking Point tract, north-eastern Port Macquarie Block, Mid North Coast region of NSW', Quarterly Notes Geological Survey of New South Wales, vol. October 20, no. 126, pp. 1-19.
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The Point macquarie-Tacking Point coastline provides excellent exposures of the accretionary subduction complex and youger magmatic arc rocks that make up much of the New England Fold Belt (also known as the New Enagland Orogen) in north-eastern New South Wales. None geological units, including six formally defined here (Port macquarie Serpentineite, Rocky Beach Metamorphic Melange, Tacking Point Gabbro,Town beach Diorite, Nobbys Beach Lamprophyre and Sea Acres Dolerite) have been identified along this coastline tract. The kaikeree Metadolerite has been redefined. The oldest rocks are prograde lawsoniate eclogite and retrograde blueschist blocks embedded in the chlorite-actinolite schist matrix of the Rocky Beach Metamorphic Melange that occurs as a slab within te Port Macquarie Serpentine. The Port Macquartie Serpentine is a product of alteration of cumulate ultramafic rocks of a c.530 Ma forearc ophiolote. The Watonga Formation is a mostly broen formation that consists of Middle-Late Ordovician pelagic rocks, the mafic oceanic substrate on which these were deposited; younger basalt and olistostromes of porbable ocean island origin; and stuff, sultstone and sandstone infered to be trench fill accreted in te Late Ordovician-Carbvoniferous interval.
Caprarelli, G., Pondrelli, M., Di, L.S., Marinangeli, L., Ori, G., Greeley, R. & Neukum, G. 2007, 'A description of surface features in north Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: evidence for extension and lava flooding', Icarus, vol. 191, no. 2, pp. 524-544.
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We studied north Tyrrhena Terra, an approxinmatley 39,000 km2 area, located in the transition region straddling the Amenthes and Mare Tyrrhenum Mars Chart quadrangles 14 and 22, respectively. The study area comprises ancient terrains with infilled craters, ridges and valleys. Interpretation of orbiter data of ancient terrains is inherently difficult, but valuable information can be obtained using multiple dataseets and analysing various geological features. Using data from the high resolution stereo Camera on board Mars Express, complemented by Mars Global Surveyor MOLA DEM and MOC Narrow Angle datasets, we observed and interpreted surface morphologies at a scale suitable for geologic investigation. Morphometric examination of a 31 km diameter large impact crater indicated that tectonism and volcanism were responsible for its morphologic modification. Small impact crater depth/diameter relationships inidctaed that smooth surfaces of valleys are composed of highly consolidfated material. Surface cracks and lobate fronts further suggested that the rocks are volcanic. Examiantion of tectonic features revealed that in the study area: a dominant NW-SE fabric is related to a ridge/bench-scarp-valley repition consistent with synthetic and antithetic normal faulting: a NNW-SSE linement represents the surface expression of normal faulting post-dating all other tectonic features. A weak NE-SW fabric is observable as small sublinear depressions and at the contact between units internal to one large crater. One 20 km diameter crater is the study area was interpreted to be a caldera infilled by thick volcanic rock layers. Identification of wrinkle ridges further indicated that thick layered lava flows infilled the main depression of the study area. The available evidence suggests that the study area underwent multiple episodes of extension and volcanism.
Caprarelli, G. & Reidel, S.P. 2005, 'A clinopyroxene-basalt geothermobarometry perspective of Columbia Plateau (NW-USA) Miocene magmatism', Terra Nova, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 265-277.
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The origin of NW-USA Columbia River Basalt Group Miocene magmatism and its relation to tectonism has been widely debated and is still open to study. We investigated the pre-eruptive evolution of the magmas, to constrain pressures and temperatures of the
Caprarelli, G. 2005, 'Mars perspectives from Australian landscapes', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 327-328.
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Caprarelli, G. & Reidel, S.P. 2004, 'Physical evolution of Grande Ronde Basalt magmas, Columbia River Basalt group, north-western USA', Mineralogy and Petrology, vol. 80, no. 1-2, pp. 1-25.
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In this paper we present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first comprehensive study of clinopyroxenes and plagioclases contained in the flows of the Grande Ronde Basalt member of the Columbia River Basalt Group (northwestern USA). The rocks have MgO(wt%)<6%, and trace amounts of Cr and Ni. About 56% of extracted solid containing normative clinopyroxene and plagioclase explains the liquid line of descent from the more mafic sample (MgO wt%=5.89) to the most evolved. The most ubiquitous phases in the basalts are plagioclase and augite. Ilmenite and magnetite are accessories in all rocks. Olivine is present in small amount only in one sample (RT 89-7). Based on principles of CaNa plagioclaseliquid exchange, estimates of pre-eruptive magmatic water are < 2.4thinspwt%. From clinopyroxeneliquid equilibria, calculated pressures and temperatures of ascending magmas are between 1thinspatm and 0.617thinspGPa, and 1068thinsp&deg;C and 1166thinsp&deg;C, respectively. Compositions of magnetiteilmenite pairs and olivineclinopyroxeneoxide assemblages yield post-eruptive oxygen fugacities of DeltaNNO=1.923, and one pre-eruptive value of DeltaNNO= 2.455. A simple model of asthenospheric melting and magma ponding in the lower crust fits the physical parameters.
Och, D.J., Leitch, E.C., Caprarelli, G. & Watanabe, T. 2003, 'Blueschist and eclogite in tectonic melange, Port Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia', Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 609-624.
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The Rocky Beach Metamorphic Melange contains metre-scale phacoids of high-P low-T metamorphic rocks embedded in chlorite-actinolite schist. The phacoids include eclogite, glaucophane schist and omphacitite and provide evidence for four episodes of metamorphism with mineral assemblages: M1 = actinolite-glaucophane-titanite-apatite, M2 = almandine-omphacite-lawsonite &plusmn; quartz, M3 = phengiteglaucophane-K-feldspar-quartz, and M4 = chlorite-actinolite-calcite-quartz-titanite-white mica &plusmn; albite &plusmn; talc. M1-M3 occurred at a Neoproterozoic-Early Palaeozoic convergent plate boundary close to the eastern margin of Gondwana. Peak metamorphic conditions were attained during the static phase M2, with temperatures of ~560&ordm;C and pressures in excess of 1.8 GPa, equivalent to a depth of burial of at least 54 km.
Harrison, J., Heijnis, H. & Caprarelli, G. 2003, 'Historical pollution variability from abandoned mine sites, Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, New South Wales, Australia', ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 680-687.
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Caprarelli, G. & Leitch, E.C. 2002, 'MORB-like rocks in a Palaeozoic convergent margin setting, northeast NSW', Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 367-374.
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The Devonian mafic rocks from the Folly Basalt, northeast New South Wales, were emplaced in the forearc section of the DevonianCarboniferous magmatic arc preserved in the western part of the New England Fold Belt. Trace-element abundances in fractionated metadolerites (maximum concentration of Ni = 85 ppm) from the Folly Basalt outcropping near Nundle demonstrate that these rocks have MORB affinity. Chondrite-normalised rare-earth element patterns are smooth and quasi-horizontal; Ce/Yb ratios are 3.347.98; (La/Yb)N ratios range from 0.69 to 2.23; (La/Sm)N ratios of the rocks range from 0.63 to 1.55. The data are compatible with an origin of the melts from large degrees (>15%) of partial melting of mantle peridotite. A plausible mechanism for the production and emplacement of depleted magmas in the forearc zone of the Middle Palaeozoic eastern Australian magmatic arc involves the subduction of a hot oceanic spreading centre, which could cause the presence of a region of asthenospheric temperatures below the upper plate. It is also suggested that sustained high-temperature conditions may have prevailed in the eastern Australian mantle for at least the last 400 million years.
Harrison, J., Heijnis, H. & Caprarelli, G. 2002, 'Historical pollution variability from abandoned mine sites, Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, NSW Australia', Environmental Geology, vol. N/A, no. N/A, pp. N/A-687.
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Caprarelli, G. & Leitch, E.C. 2001, 'Geochemical evidence from lower permian volcanic rocks of northeast NSW for asthenospheric upwelling following slab breakoff', Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 48, pp. 151-166.
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Caprarelli, G. & Leitch, E.C. 1998, 'Magmatic changes during the stabilisation of a cordilleran fold belt: the Late Carboniferous Triassic igneous history of eastern New South Wales, Australia', Lithos, vol. 45, pp. 413-430.
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In a 60 Ma interval between the Late Carboniferous and the Late Permian, the magmatic are associated with the cordilleran-type New England Fold Belt in northeast New South Wales shifted eastward and changed in trend from north-northwest to north. The eastern margin of the earlier (Devonian-Late Carboniferous) are is marked by a sequence of calcalkaline lava flows, tuffs and coarse volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks preserved in the west of the Fold Belt. The younger are (Late Permian-Triassic) is marked by I-type calcalkaline granitoids and comagmatic volcanic rocks emplaced mostly in the earlier forearc, but extending into the southern Sydney Basin, in the former backarc region. The growth of the younger are was accompanied by widespread compressional deformation that stabilised the New England Fold Belt. During the transitional interval, two suites of S-type granitoids were emplaced, the Hillgrove Suite at about 305 Ma during an episode of compressive deformation and regional metamorphism, and the Bundarra Suite at about 280 Ma, during the later stages of an extensional episode. Isotopic and REE data indicate that both suites resulted from the partial melting of young silicic sedimentary rocks, probably part of the Carboniferous accretionary subduction complex, with heat supplied by the rise of asthenospheric material. Both mafic and silicic volcanic activity were widespread within and behind the Fold Belt from the onset of rifting (ca. 295 Ma) until the reestablishment of the are. These volcanic rocks range in composition from MORE-like to calcalkaline and alkaline. The termination of the earlier are, and the subsequent widespread and diverse igneous activity are considered to have resulted from the shallow breakoff of the downgoing plate, which allowed the rise of asthenosphere through a widening lithospheric gap. In this setting, division of the igneous rocks into pre-, syn-, and post-collisional groups is of limited value
Caprarelli, G., Tsutsumi, M. & Turi, B. 1997, 'Chemical and isotopic signatures of the basement rocks from the Campi Flegrei geothermal field (Naples, southern Italy): Inferences about the origin and evolution of its hydrothermal fluids', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 76, no. 1-2, pp. 63-82.
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The Campi Flegrei (Naples, Campanian Plain, southern Italy) geothermal system is hosted by Quaternary volcanic rocks erupted before, during and after the formation of the caldera that represents one of the major structural features in the Neapolitan area. The volcanic products rest on a Mesozoic carbonate basement, cropping out north, east and south of the area. Chemical (major, minor and trace elements) and stable isotope (C, H, O) analyses were conducted on drill-core samples recovered from geothermal wells MF-1, MF-5, SV-1 and SV-3, at depths of similar to 1100 to 2900 m. The study was complemented by petrographic and SEM examination of thin sections. The water which feeds the system is both marine and meteoric in origin. Mineral zonation typical of a high-temperature geothermal system exists in all the geothermal wells; measured temperatures in wells are as high as similar to 400 degrees C, The chemical composition of the waters suggests the existence of two reservoirs: a shallow reservoir(depth < 2000 m) fed by seawater that boiled at 320 degrees C and became progressively diluted by steam-heated local meteoric water during its ascent; and a deeper reservoir (depth > 2000 m) of hypersaline water. The drill-cores are mainly hydrothermally altered volcanics of trachy-latitic affinity, but some altered pelites and limestones are also present. Published Na, Mg and K concentrations of selected geothermal waters indicate that the hydrothermal fluids are in equilibrium with their host rocks, with respect to K-feldspar, albite, sericite and chlorite. The measured delta(18)O((SMOW)) values of rocks range from +4.3 to +16.5%.
Caprarelli, G., Togashi, S. & De Vivo, B. 1993, 'Preliminary Sr and Nd isotopic data for recent lavas from Vesuvius volcano', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 58, no. 1-4, pp. 377-381.
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