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Professor Graham Nicholson

Biography

Graham Nicholson is currently Professor of Neurotoxicology in the Department of Medical and Molecular Bioscience at UTS. He has a BSc(Hons) degree in Pharmacology and a PhD degree, which focused on structure-activity relationships in convulant barbiturates and glutarimides, awarded in 1987. He is now a leading Australian toxinology researcher responsible for isolating and pharmacologically characterising a wide range of ant, spider, snake, scorpion, sea anemone, platypus and dinoflagellate venoms/toxins.

He has over 25 years post-doctoral experience in ion channel and neuromuscular electrophysiology including experience with intracellular, patch clamp, ion flux and radioligand binding techniques and has published over 80 international peer-reviewed publications in the areas of toxins and toxicology.

His laboratory has also presented over 200 papers on toxicology and toxinology research at national and international conferences. His current research is into the isolation and characterisation of neurotoxins acting on neurotransmitter release, receptors or ion channels.

He is particularly interested in charactersing toxins that can be developed as potential therapeutics and biopesticides, and molecular tools in the area of neuroscience. His main interest lies in the isolation and characterisation of various insecticidal neurotoxins from spider and scorpion venoms. Work in this area has led to the identification of five families of insect-selective neurotoxins with novel modes of action on insect ion channels that are currently being investigated as lead compounds for the development of novel environmentally-friendly insecticides. These agents should be useful in controlling vectors and pest insects in animal health, public health and agricultural markets.

This work has been the subject of several ARC Discovery, DEST-ISL and Australian Academy of Science Grants and an International Patent. Graham is currently the Associate Dean (International & External Engagement). He is also a core member of the Centre for Health Technologies and Director of the Neurotoxin Research Group.

Professional

Member of the Editorial Board for:

  • Toxicon
  • Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Image of Graham Nicholson
Associate Dean (International and External Engagement), Faculty of Science
Core Member, Centre for Health Technologies
BSc (Hons) (Syd), GradCertHEd (UTS), PhD (Syd)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 2230
Room
CB07.07.25

Research Interests

The potency and specificity of many animal, plant or microbial toxins make them attractive drug leads and a number of toxins have proved to be invaluable tools in the study of the structure and function of the nervous system and how nerve cells communicate. We are particularly interested in this area of toxinology since Australia contains a large number of highly toxic animals. This provides us with an, as yet, untapped vast source of highly specific toxins to use as molecular probes, and lead compounds for therapeutic and environmentally-friendly insecticidal agents.

Our laboratory focusses on the biochemical characterisation, target identification and mode-of-action of a number of potential therapeutic or insecticidal neurotoxins using a range of liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, acute toxicity assays, patch-clamp electrophysiological and organ bath assays.

Can supervise: Yes
  • Samira Aili (PhD student)
  • Slawomir Dziemborowicz (PhD student)
  • Dr Jennifer Koh (Honorary Research Fellow)
  • Dr Francesca Marcon (recent Alumni)
  • Dr Monique Windley (recent Alumni)
  • Dr Youmie Chong (recent Alumni)
  • Dr Benjamin Blacklow (recent Alumni)

Graham coordinates and teaches pharmacology and toxicology to students who are planning to major in biomedical science, biotechnology, or medical science.

In addition, he provides pharmacology lectures in nursing, midwifery and nursing practitioner courses at UTS, and also coordinates first and second year pharmacology teaching for the Postgraduate Medicine degree that UTS's provide service teaching expertise to another university. In 2009 he was awarded the Notre Dame School of Medicine Teaching award for Excellence in Teaching, and was Lecturer of the Year in 2010.

Some areas he has taught at senior levels to pharmacology students include, pharmacokinetics, neuropharmacology, neurotoxicology, and toxinology. He also founded the Medical Science degree at UTS.

Currently he lectures in the following subjects:
UTS, Faculty of Science
Pharmacology 1

Chapters

Nicholson, G.M. 2013, 'Spider peptides' in Kastin, A. (ed), The Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, Elsevier, San Diego, USA, pp. 461-472.
Spider peptide and protein toxins are recognized as highly potent and specific molecular tools that modulate signaling in excitable cells via interaction with a variety of ion channels, receptors, and transporters in vertebrates and invertebrates. By a process of natu- ral selection, spider venoms have evolved as complex preoptimized combinatorial peptide libraries, displaying extremely diverse pharmacology with a wide range of molecular targets, designed to subdue or kill their prey or predators. The discovery that these disulfide-rich proteins and peptides bind to their cognate receptors with high affinity, and in many cases with outstanding selectivity, means that spider venoms are now being investigated as sources of molecular tools for probing ion channel and synaptic neuro- transmission, for validating novel insecticide targets, and as lead compounds in therapeutic and biopesticide discovery pipelines.
Simpson, A.M., Swan, M.A., Liu, G.J., Tao, C.Z., O'Brien, B., Ch'ng, E., Castro, L.M., Ting, H.J., Elgundi, Z., An, T., Lutherborrow, M., Torpy, F.R., Martin, D.K., Tuch, B.E. & Nicholson, G.M. 2013, 'Insulin trafficking in a glucose responsive engineered human liver cell line is regulated by the interaction of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and voltage- gated calcium channels' in Molina, F.M. (ed), Gene Therapy - Tools and Potential Applications, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp. 703-726.
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Type I diabetes is caused by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta () cells [1]. Current treatment requires multiple daily injections of insulin to control blood glucose levels. Tight glucose control lowers, but does not eliminate, the onset of diabetic complications, which greatly reduce the quality and longevity of life for patients. Transplantation of pancreatic tissue as a treatment is restricted by the scarcity of donors and the requirement for lifelong immunosuppression to preserve the graft, which carries adverse side-effects. This is of particular concern as Type 1 diabetes predominantly affects children. Lack of glucose control could be overcome by genetically engineering "an artificial -cell" that is capable of synthesising, storing and secreting insulin in response to metabolic signals. The donor cell type must be readily accessible and capable of being engineered to synthesise, process, store and secrete insulin under physiological conditions.
Bosmans, F., Escoubas, P. & Nicholson, G.M. 2009, 'Spider venom peptides as leads for drug and insecticide design' in de Lima, M.E., Pimenta, A.M.C., Martin-Eauclaire, M.F., Zingali, R.B. & Rochat, H. (eds), Animal Toxins: State of the Art. Perspectives In Health and Biotechnology, Editora UFMG, Belo Horizonte, pp. 269-290.
Spider venoms represent highly complex cocktails of proteins, peptides, neurotransmitters, acylpolyamines and other small molecules employed to subdue and kill their prey or predators. By a process of natural selection, spider venoms have evolved as complex pre-optimized combinatorial peptide libraries, displaying Wide-ranging pharmacological activities.The therapeutic potential of these peptides stems from their highly potent and specific actions to modulate an extensive range of ion channels, receptors, and transporters in vertebrates and invertebrates,as well as their antimicrobial activity. Nevertheless, it is only since the advent of modern analytical technologies that the full potential of this resource is beginning to be exploited for validating novel insecticide targets, and for aiding in the design of novel drugs and bioinsecticides. These techniques have identified that the currently known spider venom pool represents a resource of several million peptides that selectivelytarget specific subtypes ofion channels or receptors. Indeed, some spider toxins are becoming the defining pharmacology for specificsubtypes of ion channels. Furthermore, structure-function studies ofthese molecules are leading not only to the discovery of new molecular tools, but are also providing insight into novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neuromuscular diseases, pain and to a variety ... of other pathological conditions. Against this background, this review will evaluate peptidic spider toxins as possible lead compounds for new therapeutics and for controlling insect pests. Special attention will be given to their role in the discovery of novel approaches in analgesia and cardiovascular research.
Nicholson, G.M. 2006, 'Spider Venom Peptides' in Kastin, A. (ed), The Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, Elsevier, San Diego, USA, pp. 369-379.
Spider peptide and protein toxins are recognised as highly potent and spefici molecular tools that modulate neurotransmission via interaction with a variety of ion channels, receptors and transporters in vertebrates and invertebrates. The recent discovery of the diversity of thesepeptides means that spider venoms are only now being considered as combinatorial peptide libraries useful for probing synaptic neurotransmission, for validating novel insecticide targets and for aiding in the design of therapeutics and biopesticides. These studies are being greatly assistaed bu the determination of the pharmacophore of these toxins. This review details the discovery, structure and function of these spider venom peptide toxins.
Gordon, D., Gilles, N., Bertrand, D., Milgo, J., Nicholson, G.M., Sauviat, M., Benoit, E., Shichor, I., Lotan, I., Gurevitz, M., Kallen, R.G. & Heinemann, S.H. 2002, 'Scorpion toxins differentiate among neuronal sodium channel subtypes: Nature's guide for design of selective drugs' in Menez, A. (ed), Prespectives in Molecular Toxicology, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, pp. 215-238.
Robinson, K., Wilson, M., Brown, D.M., Miller, P.F., Nicholson, G.M., Garman, C. & Van Vorst, S.M. 2000, 'Educational Board Games Promote Social Interaction and Effective Learning in Undergraduate Nursing Students' in Bialon, L. (ed), Social Aspects of Higher Education - Polish and Australian Reflections, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland, pp. 157-168.

Conferences

Pineda, S.S., Jones, A., Nicholson, G.M., Escoubas, P., Mattick, J.S. & King, G.F. 2012, 'Understanding the Chemical Diversity of Spider Venoms Using a Combined Genomic, Transcriptomic and Proteomic Approach', TOXICON, pp. 124-124.
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Windley, M.J., King, G.F. & Nicholson, G.M. 2012, 'An Insecticidal Spider Toxin that Acts as a Positive Allosteric Modulator of Insect Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors', TOXICON, pp. 169-170.
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Marcon, F., Leblanc, M., Escoubas, P. & Nicholson, G.M. 2012, 'Isolation and Pharmacological Characterisation of Neurotoxins from the Venom of Three Species of Australian Copperheads (Austrelaps spp.) and the Efficacy of Tiger Snake Antivenom to Prevent or Reverse Neurotoxicity', TOXICON, pp. 170-170.
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de Araujo, A.D.D., Herzig, V., Mobil, M., Windley, M.J., Nicholson, G.M., Alewood, P.F. & King, G.F. 2010, 'Understanding the role of the unusual constrained eight-membered disulfide ring of spider toxins', JOURNAL OF PEPTIDE SCIENCE, pp. 60-61.
Gunning, S.J., Maggio, F., Windley, M.J., Valenzuela, S.M., King, G.F. & Nicholson, G.M. 2009, 'The Janus-faced atracotoxins are specific blockers of invertebrate K-Ca channels', FEBS JOURNAL, pp. 3-3.
Dauly, C., Escoubas, P., Nicholson, G.M., King, G.F. & Hornshaw, M. 2009, 'Nanoscale characterization of spider venom peptides by high resolution LC-MS/MS analysis'.
Nicholson, G.M., Gunning, S.J., Windley, M.J., Maggio, F.J., Valenzuela, S. & King, G.F. 2009, 'Defining the lethal ion channel targets of insecticidal spider toxins'.
Nicholson, G.M., Escoubas, P., Dauly, C. & King, G.F. 2009, 'Spider venoms for novel therapeutics: from Venomics to drug candidates'.
Yamaji, N., Little, M.J., Nishio, H., Billen, B., Villegas, E., Nishiuchi, Y., Tytgat, J., Nicholson, G.M. & Corzo, G. 2009, 'Synthesis, Solution Structure, and Phylum Selectivity of a Spider delta-Toxin That Slows Inactivation of Specific Voltage-gated Sodium Channel Subtypes', JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, pp. 24568-24582.
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Sollod, B., Gunning, S.J., Wen, S., Gentz, M.C., Nicholson, G.M. & King, G.K. 2009, 'A dual-target, self-synergizing ion channel toxin from spider venom'.
Marcon, F., Purtell, L.A., Escoubas, P., Graudins, A. & Nicholson, G.M. 2008, 'Isolation and pharmacological characterisation of a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of the Australian copperhead (Austrelaps superbus)'.
Blacklow, B.J., Escoubas, P. & Nicholson, G.M. 2008, 'Characterisation of the presynaptic phospholipase A2 neurotoxin complex, -acanthoxin, from the venom of the common death adder (Acanthophis antarcticus)'.
Little, M.J., Ferreira, W.A., Madio, B., Belato, Y., Orts, D.J., Zaharenko, A.J. & Nicholson, G.M. 2008, 'Phyla-selective actions of sea anemone toxins from Bunodosoma caissarum on insect sodium channel gating and kinetics'.
Nicholson, G.M., Yamaji, N., Little, M.J., Nishio, H., Billen, B., Villegas, E., Nishiuichi, Y., Tytgat, J. & Corzo, G. 2008, 'Synthesis, solution structure and pharmacological profile of Magi 4, a spider -toxin that slows inactivation of specific voltage-gated sodium channel subtypes in insects and mammals'.
Windley, M.J., Escoubas, P., Valenzuela, S. & Nicholson, G.M. 2008, 'Characterisation of a family of insect-selective neurotoxins isolated from the African tarantula, Eucratoscelus longiceps'.
Yamaji, N., Little, M.J., Nishio, H., Billen, B., Villegas, E., Nishiuichi, Y., Tytgat, J., Nicholson, G.M. & Corzo, G. 2008, 'Structural and pharmacological profile of Magi 4, a peptide toxin from the venom of the hexathelid spider Macrothele gigas'.
Nicholson, G.M., Gunning, S.J., Maggio, F.J., Windley, M.J., Valenzuela, S. & King, G.F. 2008, 'Identifying novel insecticide targets using insect-specific spider toxins'.
Kubista, H., Mafra, R.A., Chong, Y., Nicholson, G.M., Beirao, P.S.L., Cruz, J.S., Boehm, S., NentWig, W. & Kuhn-Nentwig, L. 2007, 'CSTX-1, a toxin from the venom of the hunting spider Cupiennius salei, is a selective blocker of L-type calcium channels in mammalian neurons', NEUROPHARMACOLOGY, pp. 1650-1662.
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Lossy, B., Graudins, A., Escoubas, P., Hains, P.G. & Nicholson, G.M. 2007, 'Isolation of novel neurotoxins from the venom of the Australian rough-scaled snake (Tropidechis carinatus)'.
Purtell, L.A., Graudins, A., Escoubas, P., Hains, P.G. & Nicholson, G.M. 2007, 'Isolation and characterization of novel neurotoxins from the venom of the Australian copperhead snake (Austrelaps superbus)'.
Escoubas, P., Sollod, B., Nicholson, G.M., Wilson, D. & King, G.K. 2006, 'Venom landscapes: Towards the discovery of novel pharmacological tools via the combined use of MALDI-TOF MS and cDNA'.
Escoubas, P., Lee, M.J., Ross, G., Lazdunski, M. & Nicholson, G.M. 2006, 'Novel insect-selective neurotoxins from the venom of the tarantula Eucratoscelus longiceps target insect Kv channels'.
Escoubas, P., Sollod, B., Nicholson, G.M., Wilson, D., Vinh, J. & King, G.F. 2006, 'Venom landscapes: Towards the discovery of novel pharmacological tools via the combined use of LC-MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF with cDNA analysis'.
Escoubas, P., Quinton, L., Hui, R., Wen, S., Chamot-Rooke, J. & Nicholson, G.M. 2006, 'Spider venom proteome mining and de novo toxin sequencing by LC-MALDI-TOF and FT-ICR mass spectrometry'.
Nicholson, G.M., Chong, Y., Wen, S., Hayes, J.L., Hodgson, W.C., Hains, P.G., Broady, K.W. & King, G.K. 2006, 'Omega-ACTX-Ar1a: a novel insect-selective voltage-gated calcium channel blocker from the venom of the Sydney funnel-web spider'.
Little, M.J., Yamaji, N., Villegas, E., Corzo, G. & Nicholson, G.M. 2006, 'Structure-function relationships of Magi 4, a spider neurotoxin targeting insect and mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels'.
Gunning, S.J., Maggio, F.J., Valenzuela, S., Broady, K.W., King, G.K. & Nicholson, G.M. 2006, 'Pharmacophore mapping of the -atracotoxins: selective insect potassium channel blockers that reveal a novel insecticide target'.
Sollod, B., Gunning, S.J., Wen, S., Nicholson, G.M. & King, G.K. 2006, 'A dual-target, self-synergizing toxin from spider venom'.
Gunning, S.J., Maggio, F.J., Valenzuela, S., Broady, K.W., King, G.K. & Nicholson, G.M. 2005, '-Atracotoxins: Insect potassium channels blockers that reveal a novel insecticide target'.
Sollod, B., Gunning, S.J., Wen, S., Nicholson, G.M. & King, G.K. 2005, 'Evolution of a dual target, self-synergizing toxin: implications for insecticide and pharmaceutical discovery'.
Wen, S., Wilson, D., Kuruppu, S., Korsinczky, M., Hedrick, J., Pang, L., Szeto, T., Hodgson, W.C., Alewood, P.F. & Nicholson, G.M. 2005, 'Discovery of an MIT-like atracotoxin family: spider venom peptides that share sequence homology but not pharmacological properties with AVIT family peptides'.
Gunning, S.J., Maggio, F.J., Valenzuela, S., Broady, K.W., King, G.K. & Nicholson, G.M. 2005, 'Selective actions of -atracotoxins on insect KCa channels: electrophysiological validation of the insect target and pharmacophore'.
Chong, Y., Wen, S., Hayes, J.L., Hains, P.G., King, G.K., Kuhn-Nentwig, L. & Nicholson, G.M. 2005, 'Probing phylogenetically distinct spider venoms for potential biopesticides that target insect voltage-gated calcium channels'.
Nicholson, G.M. 2004, 'Australian spiders: venomous villains or toxic treasures?'.
Gunning, S.J., Maggio, F.J., King, G.K. & Nicholson, G.M. 2004, '-Atracotoxins: Insect potassium channels blockers that reveal a novel insecticide target.'.
Gunning, S.J., Maggio, F.J., King, G.K. & Nicholson, G.M. 2003, 'Do insecticidal J-atracotoxins target insect potassium channels?'.
Chong, Y., Khalife, A., Hains, P.G., Broady, K.W. & Nicholson, G.M. 2003, 'Isolation and characterisation of a novel insect selective neurotoxin from the venom of the female Australian eastern mouse spider (Missulena bradleyi)'.
Gunning, S.J., Chong, Y., Khalife, A., Hains, P.G., Broady, K.W. & Nicholson, G.M. 2003, 'Discovery of a novel sodium channel neurotoxin delta-missulenatoxin Mb1a from the venom of the Eastern mouse spider Missulena bradleyi'.
Hayes, J.L., Wen, S., Yang, Q., Hains, P.G., Broady, K.W. & Nicholson, G.M. 2003, 'Isolation and characterisation of an insect selective neurotoxin omega-atracotoxin-Ar1a from the venom of the female Sydney funnel web spider, Atrax robustus.'.
Wilson, H.I., Hains, P.G. & Nicholson, G.M. 2003, 'The venom of Australian Urodacus scorpions (Arachnidae: Scorpiones: Urodacidae) contains a novel class of insect selective sodium channel blocking toxins'.
Wilson, H.I. & Nicholson, G.M. 2003, 'Characteristics of the venom of Australian urodacid and buthid scorpions: venom production, composition and toxicity'.
Graudins, A., Sung, K., Hains, P.G., Padula, M., Broady, K.W. & Nicholson, G.M. 2002, 'Partial protein and DNA sequences of Latrodectus hasselti, L. hesperus and L. mactans latrotoxins: are they homologous?'.
Gunning, S.J., Khalife, A., Padula, M., Smith, R., Broady, K.W. & Nicholson, G.M. 2002, 'Modulation of sodium channel gating and kinetics by missulenatoxin Mb1a from the Australian eastern mouse spider Missulena bradleyi.'.
Sollod, B., Wilson, D., Wang, X., Reenan, R.A., Nicholson, G.M., Alewood, P.F. & King, G.K. 2002, 'Structure function studies of the insect specific calcium channel blocker omega ACTX Hv2a'.
Wang, X.H., Connor, M., Wilson, D., Wilson, H.I., Nicholson, G.M., Smith, R., Shaw, D., Mackay, J.P., Alewood, P.F., Christie, M.J. & King, G.F. 2001, 'Discovery and structure of a potent and highly specific blocker of insect calcium channels', JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, pp. 40306-40312.
Graudins, A., Padula, M., Broady, K.W. & Nicholson, G.M. 2000, 'Evidence for red back spider antivenom efficacy in the prevention of envenomation by other widow spiders (genus Latrodectus)', Journal of Toxicology-Clinical Toxicology, Taylor & Francis, London, pp. 205-206.
Nicholson, G.M., Birinyi-Strachan, L.C., Rash, L., Szeto, T., Khalife, A., Hodgson, W.C. & King, G.F. 2000, 'Novel d atracotoxins: spider toxins that target the voltage gated sodium channel'.

Journal articles

Touchard, A., Dauvois, M., Arguel, M.-.J., Petitclerc, F., Leblanc, M., Dejean, A., Orivel, J., Nicholson, G.M. & Escoubas, P. 2014, 'Elucidation of the unexplored biodiversity of ant venom peptidomes via MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and its application for chemotaxonomy', JOURNAL OF PROTEOMICS, vol. 105, pp. 217-231.
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Atakuziev, B.U., Wright, C.E., Graudins, A., Nicholson, G.M. & Winkel, K.D. 2014, 'Efficacy of Australian red-back spider (Latrodectus hasselti) antivenom in the treatment of clinical envenomation by the cupboard spider Steatoda capensis (Theridiidae)', TOXICON, vol. 86, pp. 68-78.
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Touchard, A., Labriere, N., Roux, O., Petitclerc, F., Orivel, J., Escoubas, P., Koh, J.M.S., Nicholson, G.M. & Dejean, A. 2014, 'Venom toxicity and composition in three Pseudomyrmex ant species having different nesting modes', TOXICON, vol. 88, pp. 67-76.
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Bende, N.S., Dziemborowicz, S., Mobli, M., Herzig, V., Gilchrist, J., Wagner, J., Nicholson, G.M., King, G.F. & Bosmans, F. 2014, 'A distinct sodium channel voltage-sensor locus determines insect selectivity of the spider toxin Dc1a', NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 5.
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Aili, S.R., Touchard, A., Escoubas, P., Padula, M.P., Orivel, J., Dejean, A. & Nicholson, G.M. 2014, 'Diversity of peptide toxins from stinging ant venoms', Toxicon, vol. 92, pp. 166-178.
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Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) represent a taxonomically diverse group of arthropods comprising nearly 13,000 extant species. Sixteen ant subfamilies have individuals that possess a stinger and use their venom for purposes such as a defence against predators, competitors and microbial pathogens, for predation, as well as for social communication. They exhibit a range of activities including antimicrobial, haemolytic, cytolytic, paralytic, insecticidal and pain-producing pharmacologies. While ant venoms are known to be rich in alkaloids and hydrocarbons, ant venoms rich in peptides are becoming more common, yet remain understudied. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have begun to reveal the true complexity of ant venom peptide composition. In the few venoms explored thus far, most peptide toxins appear to occur as small polycationic linear toxins, with antibacterial properties and insecticidal activity. Unlike other venomous animals, a number of ant venoms also contain a range of homodimeric and heterodimeric peptides with one or two interchain disulfide bonds possessing pore-forming, allergenic and paralytic actions. However, ant venoms seem to have only a small number of monomeric disulfide-linked peptides. The present review details the structure and pharmacology of known ant venom peptide toxins and their potential as a source of novel bioinsecticides and therapeutic agents.
Marcon, F., Purtell, L., Santos, J., Hains, P.G., Escoubas, P., Graudins, A. & Nicholson, G.M. 2013, 'Characterization of monomeric and multimeric snake neurotoxins and other bioactive proteins from the venom of the lethal Australian common copperhead (Austrelaps superbus)', BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 1555-1573.
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Bende, N.S., Kang, E., Herzig, V., Bosmans, F., Nicholson, G.M., Mobil, M. & King, G.F. 2013, 'The insecticidal neurotoxin Aps III is an atypical knottin peptide that potently blocks insect voltage-gated sodium channels', BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 1542-1554.
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de Araujo, A.D., Herzig, V., Windley, M.J., Dziemborowicz, S., Mobli, M., Nicholson, G.M., Alewood, P.F. & King, G.F. 2013, 'Do Vicinal Disulfide Bridges Mediate Functionally Important Redox Transformations in Proteins?', ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING, vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 1976-1980.
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Palagi, A., Koh, J.M.S., Leblanc, M., Wilson, D., Dutertre, S., King, G.F., Nicholson, G.M. & Escoubas, P. 2013, 'Unravelling the complex venom landscapes of lethal Australian funnel-web spiders (Hexathelidae: Atracinae) using LC-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry', JOURNAL OF PROTEOMICS, vol. 80, pp. 292-310.
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Graudins, A., Little, M.J., Pineda, S.S., Hains, P.G., King, G.F., Broady, K.W. & Nicholson, G.M. 2012, 'Cloning and activity of a novel alpha-latrotoxin from red-back spider venom', BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 170-183.
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Klint, J.K., Senff, S., Rupasinghe, D.B., Er, S.Y., Herzig, V., Nicholson, G.M. & King, G.F. 2012, 'Spider-venom peptides that target voltage-gated sodium channels: Pharmacological tools and potential therapeutic leads', TOXICON, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 478-491.
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Windley, M.J., Herzig, V., Dziemborowicz, S.A., Hardy, M.C., King, G.F. & Nicholson, G.M. 2012, 'Spider-Venom Peptides as Bioinsecticides', TOXINS, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 191-227.
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Marcon, F., Leblanc, M., Vetter, I., Lewis, R.J., Escoubas, P. & Nicholson, G.M. 2012, 'Pharmacological characterization of alpha-elapitoxin-Al2a from the venom of the Australian pygmy copperhead (Austrelaps labialis): An atypical long-chain alpha-neurotoxin with only weak affinity for alpha 7 nicotinic receptors', BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 851-863.
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Blacklow, B., Kornhauser, R., Hains, P.G., Loiacono, R., Escoubas, P., Graudins, A. & Nicholson, G.M. 2011, 'alpha-Elapitoxin-Aa2a, a long-chain snake alpha-neurotoxin with potent actions on muscle (alpha 1)(2)beta gamma delta nicotinic receptors, lacks the classical high affinity for neuronal alpha 7 nicotinic receptors', BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 314-325.
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Windley, M.J., Escoubas, P., Valenzuela, S.M. & Nicholson, G.M. 2011, 'A Novel Family of Insect-Selective Peptide Neurotoxins Targeting Insect Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated K+ Channels Isolated from the Venom of the Theraphosid Spider Eucratoscelus constrictus', MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 1-13.
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Marcon, F. & Nicholson, G.M. 2011, 'Identification of presynaptic neurotoxin complexes in the venoms of three Australian copperheads (Austrelaps spp.) and the efficacy of tiger snake antivenom to prevent or reverse neurotoxicity', TOXICON, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 439-452.
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Smith, J.J., Hill, J.M., Little, M.J., Nicholson, G.M., King, G.F. & Alewood, P.F. 2011, 'Unique scorpion toxin with a putative ancestral fold provides insight into evolution of the inhibitor cystine knot motif', PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, vol. 108, no. 26, pp. 10478-10483.
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Herzig, V., Wood, D.L.A., Newell, F., Chaumeil, P.-.A., Kaas, Q., Binford, G.J., Nicholson, G.M., Gorse, D. & King, G.F. 2011, 'ArachnoServer 2.0, an updated online resource for spider toxin sequences and structures', NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH, vol. 39, pp. D653-D657.
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Blacklow, B., Konstantakopoulos, N., Hodgson, W.C. & Nicholson, G.M. 2010, 'Presence of presynaptic neurotoxin complexes in the venoms of Australo-Papuan death adders (Acanthophis spp.)', TOXICON, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1171-1180.
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Blacklow, B., Escoubas, P. & Nicholson, G.M. 2010, 'Characterisation of the heterotrimeric presynaptic phospholipase A(2) neurotoxin complex from the venom of the common death adder (Acanthophis antarcticus)', BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 277-287.
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Mobli, M., de Araujo, A.D., Lambert, L.K., Pierens, G.K., Windley, M.J., Nicholson, G.M., Alewood, P.F. & King, G.F. 2009, 'Direct Visualization of Disulfide Bonds through Diselenide Proxies Using Se-77 NMR Spectroscopy', ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, vol. 48, no. 49, pp. 9312-9314.
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Yamaji, N., Little, M.J., Nishio, H., Billen, B., Villegas, E., Nishiuchi, Y., Tytgat, J., Nicholson, G.M. & Corzo, G. 2009, 'Synthesis, Solution Structure, And Phylum Selectivity Of A Spider Delta-Toxin That Slows Inactivation Of Specific Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Subtypes', Journal Of Biological Chemistry, vol. 284, no. 36, pp. 24568-24582.
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Magi 4, now renamed ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a, is a 43-residue neurotoxic peptide from the venom of the hexathelid Japanese funnel-web spider (Macrothele gigas) with homology to ?-hexatoxins from Australian funnel-web spiders. It binds with high affinity to receptor site 3 on insect voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels but, unlike ?-hexatoxins, does not compete for the related site 3 in rat brain despite being previously shown to be lethal by intracranial injection. To elucidate differences in NaV channel selectivity, we have undertaken the first characterization of a peptide toxin on a broad range of mammalian and insect NaV channel subtypes showing that ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a selectively slows channel inactivation of mammalian NaV1.1, NaV1.3, and NaV1.6 but more importantly shows higher affinity for insect NaV1 (para) channels. Consequently, ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a induces tonic repetitive firing of nerve impulses in insect neurons accompanied by plateau potentials. In addition, we have chemically synthesized and folded ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a, ascertained the bonding pattern of the four disulfides, and determined its three-dimensional solution structure using NMR spectroscopy. Despite modest sequence homology, we show that key residues important for the activity of scorpion ?-toxins and ?-hexatoxins are distributed in a topologically similar manner in ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a. However, subtle differences in the toxin surfaces are important for the novel selectivity of ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a for certain mammalian and insect NaV channel subtypes. As such, ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a provides us with a specific tool with which to study channel structure and function and determinants for phylum- and tissue-specific activity.
Gunning, S.J., Maggio, F., Windley, M.J., Valenzuela, S.M., King, G.F. & Nicholson, G.M. 2008, 'The Janus-faced atracotoxins are specific blockers of invertebrate K(Ca) channels', FEBS JOURNAL, vol. 275, no. 16, pp. 4045-4059.
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Herzig, V., Khalife, A.A., Chong, Y., Isbister, G.K., Currie, B.J., Churchill, T.B., Horner, S., Escoubas, P., Nicholson, G.M. & Hodgson, W.C. 2008, 'Intersexual variations in Northern (Missulena pruinosa) and Eastern (M-bradleyi) mouse spider venom', TOXICON, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 1167-1177.
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Escoubas, P., Quinton, L. & Nicholson, G.M. 2008, 'Venomics: unravelling the complexity of animal venoms with mass spectrometry', JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 279-295.
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King, G.F., Gentz, M.C., Escoubas, P. & Nicholson, G.M. 2008, 'A rational nomenclature for naming peptide toxins from spiders and other venomous animals', TOXICON, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 264-276.
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King, G.F., Escoubas, P. & Nicholson, G.M. 2008, 'Peptide toxins that selectively target insect Na-V and Ca-V channels', CHANNELS, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 100-116.
Nicholson, G.M. 2007, 'Fighting the global pest problem: Preface to the special Toxicon issue on insecticidal toxins and their potential for insect pest control', TOXICON, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 413-422.
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Nicholson, G.M. 2007, 'Insect-selective spider toxins targeting voltage-gated sodium-channels', TOXICON, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 490-512.
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Chong, Y., Hayes, J.L., Sollod, B., Wen, S., Wilson, D.T., Hains, P.G., Hodgson, W.C., Broady, K.W., King, G.F. & Nicholson, G.M. 2007, 'The omega-atracotoxins: Selective blockers of insect M-LVA and HVA calcium channels', BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 623-638.
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Kubista, H., Mafra, R.A., Chong, Y., Nicholson, G.M., Beirao, P.S., Cruz, J.S., Boehm, S., Nentwig, W. & Kuhn-Nentwig, L. 2007, 'CSTX-1, A Toxin From The Venom Of The Hunting Spider Cupiennius Salei, Is A Selective Blocker Of L-type Calcium Channels In Mammalian Neurons', Neuropharmacology, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 1650-1662.
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The inhibitor cystine-knot motif identified in the structure of CSTX-1 from Cupiennius salei venom suggests that this toxin may act as a blocker of ion channels. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments performed on cockroach neurons revealed that CSTX-1 produ
Nicholson, G.M., Graudins, A., Wilson, H.I., Little, M. & Broady, K.W. 2006, 'Arachnid toxinology in Australia: From clinical toxicology to potential applications', TOXICON, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 872-898.
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Nicholson, G.M. & Lewis, R.J. 2006, 'Ciguatoxins: Cyclic polyether modulators of voltage-gated Iion channel function', MARINE DRUGS, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 82-118.
Birinyi-Strachan, L.C., Gunning, S.J., Lewis, R.J. & Nicholson, G.M. 2005, 'Block of voltage-gated potassium channels by Pacific ciguatoxin-1 contributes to increased neuronal excitability in rat sensory neurons', TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 204, no. 2, pp. 175-186.
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Birinyi-Strachan, L.C., Davies, M.J., Lewis, R.J. & Nicholson, G.M. 2005, 'Neuroprotectant effects of iso-osmolar D-mannitol to prevent Pacific ciguatoxin-1 induced alterations in neuronal excitability: A comparison with other osmotic agents and free radical scavengers', NEUROPHARMACOLOGY, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 669-686.
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Wen, S.P., Wilson, D.T.R., Kuruppu, S., Korsinczky, M.L.J., Hedrick, J., Pang, L., Szeto, T., Hodgson, W.C., Alewood, P.F. & Nicholson, G.M. 2005, 'Discovery of an MIT-like atracotoxin family: Spider venom peptides that share sequence homology but not pharmacological properties with AVIT family proteins', PEPTIDES, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 2412-2426.
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Nicholson, G.M. & Little, M.J. 2005, 'Spider neurotoxins targeting voltage-gated sodium channels', Toxin Reviews, vol. 24, no. 38810, pp. 315-345.
The voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel is a target for a number of drugs, insecticides, and neurotoxins. These bind to at least seven identified neurotoxin binding sites and either block conductance or modulate sodium channel gating and/or kinetics. A nu
Nicholson, G.M. & Little, M.J. 2005, 'Spider neurotoxins targeting voltage-gated sodium channels', TOXIN REVIEWS, vol. 24, no. 3-4, pp. 315-345.
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Tran, Y.H., Craig, A.R., Bartrop, R. & Nicholson, G.M. 2004, 'Time course and regional distribution of cortical changes during acute alcohol ingestion', International Journal Of Neuroscience, vol. 114, pp. 863-878.
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Behavioural effects of alcohol are known to be greater when the blood alcohol is rising, nown as the mellanby effect; however, research investigating the cortical changes during this period is scarce. The objective of tis study was to investigate the efects of consumption of alcohol on cortical activity measured by the electroencephalogram (EEG) during the absorption or rising phase of alcohol. EEG signals were recorded using the entire 10/20 montage system. The experimental design consisted of a repeated measures randomised crossover design in which subjects acted as their ow control. This involved recording two EEG baseline measures, each of which was followed by a placebo or alcohol condition, delivered ovre two days for tech subjects. All subjects has a 50% chance of receiving the alcohol first. All subjects were shown to have mean peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels of around .03%. No significant differences were found between the two baselines. Significant increases inEEG magnitude occurred in thetheta (4-7.75 Hz), alpha 1 98-9.75Hz) and beta 1 (13.25-19.75 Hz) spectrum in the frontal EEG regions, and alpha 1 (8-9.75 Hz) in the central and posterior regions. No significant changes were found in the theta (4-7.75 Hz) or beta (13.5-30Hz) spectrums in the central and psoterior regions. There were also no significant results for alpha 2 (10-13 Hz) in any of the regions. These results suggest that rapid cortical changes occur within the first 35 min after alcohol consumption.
Nicholson, G.M., Little, M.J. & Birinyi-Strachan, L.C. 2004, 'Structure and function of delta-atracotoxins: lethal neurotoxins targeting the voltage-gated sodium channel', TOXICON, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 587-599.
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Alewood, D., Birinyi-Strachan, L.C., Pallaghy, P.K., Norton, R.S., Nicholson, G.M. & Alewood, P.F. 2003, 'Synthesis and characterization of delta-atracotoxin-ar1a, the lethal neurotoxin from venom of the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus)', BIOCHEMISTRY, vol. 42, no. 44, pp. 12933-12940.
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Nicholson, G.M. & Graudins, A. 2003, 'Antivenoms for the treatment of spider envenomation', JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY-TOXIN REVIEWS, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 35-59.
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Gunning, S.J., Chong, Y., Khalife, A.A., Hains, P.G., Broady, K.W. & Nicholson, G.M. 2003, 'Isolation of delta-missulenatoxin-Mb1a, the major vertebrate-active spider delta-toxin from the venom of Missulena bradleyi (Actinopodidae)', FEBS LETTERS, vol. 554, no. 1-2, pp. 211-218.
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Graudins, A., Wilson, D., Alewood, P.F., Broady, K.W. & Nicholson, G.M. 2002, 'Cross-reactivity of Sydney funnel-web spider antivenom: neutralization of the in vitro toxicity of other Australian funnel-web (Atrax and Hadronyche) spider venoms', TOXICON, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 259-266.
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Nicholson, G.M. & Graudins, A. 2002, 'Spiders of medical importance in the Asia-Pacific: Atracotoxin, latrotoxin and related spider neurotoxins', CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 785-794.
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Nicholson, G.M., Blanche, T., Mansfield, K. & Tran, Y.H. 2002, 'Differential blockade of neuronal voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels by antidepressant drugs', European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 452, no. N/A, pp. 35-48.
The effects of a range of antidepressants were investigated on neuronal voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels. With the exception of phenelzine, all antidepressants inhibited batrachotoxin-stimulated 22Na+ uptake, most likely via negative allosteric inhibition of batrachotoxin binding to neurotoxin receptor site-2 on the Na+ channel. Imipramine also produced a differential action on macroscopic Na+ and K+ channel currents in acutely dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Imipramine produced a use-dependent block of Na+ channels. In addition, there was a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of steady-state Na+ channel inactivation and slowed repriming kinetics consistent with imipramine having a higher affinity for the inactivated state of the Na+ channel. At higher concentrations, imipramine also blocked delayed-rectifier and transient outward K+ currents in the absence of alterations to the voltage-dependence of activation or the kinetics of inactivation. These actions on voltage-gated ion channels may underlie the therapeutic and toxic effects of these drugs.
Graudins, A., Gunja, N.Y., Broady, K.W. & Nicholson, G.M. 2002, 'Clinical and in vitro evidence for the efficacy of Australian red-back spider (Latrodectus hasselti) antivenom in the treatment of Brown cupboard spider (Steatoda grossa) envenomation', Toxicon, vol. 40, no. N/A, pp. 767-775.
Gilles, N., Harrison, G., Karbat, I., Gurevitz, M., Nicholson, G.M. & Gordon, D. 2002, 'Variations in receptor site-3 on rat brain and insect sodium channels highlighted by binding of a funnel-web spider delta-atracotoxin', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY, vol. 269, no. 5, pp. 1500-1510.
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Graudins, A., Gunja, N., Broady, K.W. & Nicholson, G.M. 2002, 'Clinical and in vitro evidence for the efficacy of Australian red-back spider (Latrodectus hasselti) antivenom in the treatment of envenomation by a Cupboard spider (Steatoda grossa)', TOXICON, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 767-775.
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Nicholson, G.M., Blanche, T., Mansfield, K. & Tran, Y. 2002, 'Differential blockade of neuronal voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels by antidepressant drugs', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 452, no. 1, pp. 35-48.
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Grolleau, F., Stankiewicz, M., Birinyi-Strachan, L., Wang, X.H., Nicholson, G.M., Pelhate, M. & Lapied, B. 2001, 'Electropysiological analysis of the neurotoxic action of a funnel-web spider toxin, delta-Atracotoxin-Hv1a, on insect voltage-gated Na+ channels', JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, vol. 204, no. 4, pp. 711-721.
Graudins, A., Padula, M., Broady, K. & Nicholson, G.M. 2001, 'Red-back spider (Latrodectus hasselti) antivenom prevents the toxicity of widow spider venoms', ANNALS OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 154-160.
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Wang, X., Connor, M., Wilson, D., Wilson, H.I., Nicholson, G.M., Smith, R., Shaw, D., Mackay, J., Alewood, P.F., Christie, M. & King, G.F. 2001, 'Discovery and Structure of a Potent and highly Specific Blocker of Insect Calcium Channels', Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 276, no. 43, pp. 40306-40312.
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Gilles, N., Chen, H., Wilson, H.I., Le Gall, F., Montoya, G., Molgo, J., Schoenherr, R. & Nicholson, G.M. 2000, 'Scorpion alpha and alpha-like Toxins Differentially Interact with Sodium Channels in mammalian CNS and Periphery', European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 2823-2832.
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Scorpion alpha-toxins from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus, LqhII and LqhIII, are similarly toxic to mice when administered by a subcutaneous route, but in mouse brain LqhII is 25-fold more toxic. Examination of the two toxins effects in central nervous system (CNS), peripheral preparations and expressed sodium channels revealed the basis for their differential toxicity. In rat brain synaptosomes, LqhII binds with high affinity, whereas LqhIII competes only at high concentration for LqhII-binding sites in a voltage-dependent manner. LqhII strongly inhibits sodium current inactivation of brain rBII subtype expressed in HEK293 cells, whereas LqhIII is weakly active at 2 microM, suggesting that LqhIII affects sodium channel subtypes other than rBII in the brain. In the periphery, both toxins inhibit tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current inactivation in dorsal root ganglion neurons, and are strongly active directly on the muscle and on expressed muI channels. Only LqhII, however, induced repetitive end-plate potentials in mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm muscle preparation by direct effect on the motor nerve. Thus, rBII and sodium channel subtypes expressed in peripheral nervous system (PNS) serve as the main targets for LqhII but are mostly not sensitive to LqhIII. Toxicity of both toxins in periphery may be attributed to the direct effect on muscle. Our data elucidate, for the first time, how different toxins affect mammalian central and peripheral excitable cells, and reveal unexpected subtype specificity of toxins that interact with receptor site 3.
Rash, L.D., Birinyi-Strachan, L.C., Nicholson, G.M. & Hodgson, W.C. 2000, 'Neurotoxic activity of venom from the Australian Eastern mouse spider (Missulena bradleyi) involves modulation of sodium channel gating', BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 130, no. 8, pp. 1817-1824.
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Szeto, T.H., Wang, X.H., Smith, R., Connor, M., Christie, M.J., Nicholson, G.M. & King, G.F. 2000, 'Isolation of a funnel-web spider polypeptide with homology to mamba intestinal toxin 1 and the embryonic head inducer Dickkopf-1', TOXICON, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 429-442.
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Wang, X.H., Connor, M., Smith, R., Maciejewski, M.W., Howden, M.E.H., Nicholson, G.M., Christie, M.J. & King, G.F. 2000, 'Discovery and characterization of a family of insecticidal neurotoxins with a rare vicinal disulfide bridge', NATURE STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 505-513.
Szeto, T.H., Birinyi-Strachan, L.C., Smith, R., Connor, M., Christie, M.J., King, G.F. & Nicholson, G.M. 2000, 'Isolation and pharmacological characterisation of delta-atracotoxin-Hv1b, a vertebrate-selective sodium channel toxin', FEBS LETTERS, vol. 470, no. 3, pp. 293-299.
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Torres, A.M., de Plater, G.M., Doverskog, M., Birinyi-Strachan, L.C., Nicholson, G.M., Gallagher, C.H. & Kuchel, P.W. 2000, 'Defensin-like peptide-2 from platypus venom: member of a class of peptides with a distinct structural fold', BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, vol. 348, pp. 649-656.
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Torres, A.M., Wang, X.H., Fletcher, J.I., Alewood, D., Alewood, P.F., Smith, R., Simpson, R.J., Nicholson, G.M., Sutherland, S.K., Gallagher, C.H., King, G.F. & Kuchel, P.W. 1999, 'Solution structure of a defensin-like peptide from platypus venom', BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, vol. 341, pp. 785-794.
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Strachan, L.C., Lewis, R.J. & Nicholson, G.M. 1999, 'Differential actions of Pacific ciguatoxin-1 on sodium channel subtypes in mammalian sensory neurons', JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS, vol. 288, no. 1, pp. 379-388.
Fletcher, J.I., Wang, X.H., Connor, M., Christie, M.J., King, G.F. & Nicholson, G.M. 1999, 'Spider toxins: A new group of potassium channel modulators', PERSPECTIVES IN DRUG DISCOVERY AND DESIGN, vol. 16, pp. 61-69.
Little, M.J., Wilson, H., Zappia, C., Cestele, S., Tyler, M.I., Martin-Eauclaire, M.F., Gordon, D. & Nicholson, G.M. 1998, 'delta-atracotoxins from Australian funnel-web spiders compete with scorpion alpha-toxin binding on both rat brain and insect sodium channels', FEBS LETTERS, vol. 439, no. 3, pp. 246-252.
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Nicholson, G.M., Walsh, R., Little, M.J. & Tyler, M.I. 1998, 'Characterisation of the effects of robustoxin, the lethal neurotoxin from the Sydney funnel-web spider Atrax robustus, on sodium channel activation and inactivation', PFLUGERS ARCHIV-EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 436, no. 1, pp. 117-126.
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Little, M.J., Zappia, C., Gilles, N., Connor, M., Tyler, M.I., Martin-Eauclaire, M.F., Gordon, D. & Nicholson, G.M. 1998, 'delta-atracotoxins from Australian funnel-web spiders compete with scorpion alpha-toxin binding but differentially modulate alkaloid toxin activation of voltage-gated sodium channels', JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 273, no. 42, pp. 27076-27083.
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Wilson, H.I. & Nicholson, G.M. 1997, 'Presynaptic snake beta-neurotoxins produce tetanic fade and endplate potential run-down during neuromuscular blockade in mouse diaphragm', NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERGS ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 356, no. 5, pp. 626-634.
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Nicholson, G.M., Little, M.J., Tyler, M. & Narahashi, T. 1996, 'Selective alteration of sodium channel gating by Australian funnel-web spider toxins', TOXICON, vol. 34, no. 11-12, pp. 1443-1453.
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National and International Research Collaborators:

  • Glenn King (Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland)
  • Richard Lewis (Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland)
  • Wayne Hodgson (Department of Pharmacology, Monash University)
  • Pierre Escoubas (Venometech, Valbonne, France)
  • Lucia Kuhn-Nentwig (University of Bern, Switzerland)
  • Claire Dauly (Thermo-Fisher, Paris, France)
  • Alain Dejean (CNRS, UMR Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane, French Guiana)
  • Frank Bosmans (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA)