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Emeritus Professor Geoff Smith

Biography

Geoff Smith is Emeritus Professor in Applied Physics. He is renowned for contributions to science and technology in energy, coatings and nanotechnology and is a world leader in green nanotechnology.

Based at UTS since 1973, his solar energy work started in 1974 after a PhD at Monash University and two years at the University of Sussex, UK. Professor Smith has spent periods on renewable energy projects at Chalmers University of Technology, and University of Uppsala Sweden, The University of Houston, Texas and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, California, USA. His group has worked with large corporations from Germany, USA, Japan, UK and Australia.

He carried out the daylighting design and polymer roofing studies for Australia stadium - as seen in the 2000 Olympics.

Contributions include over 190 refereed publications plus around 15 patents, including four in 2009 on cooling technologies. His output encompasses, fundamental new optical physics of nanostructures, pigmented materials and coatings interacting with solar and atmospheric radiation, applied physics of solar absorbers, passive cooling to temperatures well below ambient, solar control windows, roof glazing and skylights, daylight collection and its delivery from luminescent concentrators with e light pipes.

Several products have flowed from his industrial collaborations. He has shown how nanostructures and microstructures inside materials and films, and on surfaces, can achieve the low cost/high performance goals in commodity scale products, which are urgently needed to combat global warming, while maintaining living standards and quality of life.

Geoff has chaired an annual international conference "Nanostructured Thin Films" in the USA from 2007-2009. His energy and materials work has been recognised with a number of local and international awards including a PhD (honoris causa) from the University of Uppsala in Sweden. He has contributed to Australia's Energy Efficient Building Codes and chairs its skylight and roof glazing standards committee.

Professional

Fellow Australian Institute of Physics Fellow Australian Institute of Energy Member SPIE (International Applied Optics) Member ANZSES (International Solar Energy) Member OSA (Optics)Affiliated with SIA (Skylight Industry Association)Member ABCB Technical Committee on glazing within energy efficiency building codes.Chair Australian Standards Committee for Skylights and Roof GlazingAssociate Editor Journal of Nanophotonics

Image of Geoff Smith
Senior Lecturer, School of Physics and Advanced Materials
Core Member, Research Strength Materials and Technology for Energy Efficiency Member
Research Director, Institute for Nanoscale Technology
Senior Lecturer, School of Physics and Advanced Materials
Research Director, Institute for Nanoscale Technology
Core Member, Research Strength Materials and Technology for Energy Efficiency Member
BSc (UNE), PhD (Monash), PhD honoris causa (UU)
Fellow, Australian Institute of Physics
Fellow, Australian Institute of Energy
Member, Australian Optical Society
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 2224
Room
CB01.12.30

Research Interests

Professor Smith’s team is a world leader in technologies for saving energy, and mitigating global warming and its impacts.

His research covers materials for use in solar energy and energy efficiency with emphasis on utilising nanostructures to optimally tune material responses to environmental energy flows (solar, thermal radiation from the atmosphere, and air flow) to achieve desired functions, which include human needs for thermal comfort, lighting and a view, and energy.

He and his group of fellows and research students have been at the forefront of aspects of photonics and optics of thin films and composites, and special polymers. Several large well-known corporations, local and international, have collaborated in this work. This has led to a number of new products and changed practices and standards. His group utilises vacuum deposition systems, optical and electrical characterization equipment and associated software, and electron microscopy for imaging nanostructures. The theoretical links between optical responses and nanostructure and its applications is a group forte.

Specific research interests
Applied
Cool roofs
Radiative cooling
Solar control windows
Solar control paints (white and coloured)
Daylighting and lighting
Modelling of Buildng energy use
Cool urban precincts and the urban heat island
Land use and global warming
Novel solar power systems
New approaches to water collection and salt water based agriculture
Efficient solar distillation
Core science
Optical properties of thin films
Nanostructured thin metal films
New plasmon resonant structures
Combining angular and spectral selectivity
Surface phonon resonant nanoparticles
Nanoparticle-polymer composites
Effective medium theory in optics
Infra-red transparent polymers

A detailed coverage and introduction to most aspects of this diverse field can be found in Geoff’s recent 460 page book (individual chapters can be bought online) :
"Green Nanotechnology: Solutions for sustainability and energy in the built environment" G.B. Smith and C. G Granqvist, CRC press (Taylor and Francis), Boca Raton, USA, September, 2010. ISBN 978-1-4200-8532-7

Can supervise: Yes

Books

Smith, G. & Granqvist, C.G. 2010, Green Nanotechnology: Solutions for sustainability and energy in the built environment, 1, CRC Press (Taylor & Francis), USA.
A focuses exploration of the role nanotechnology plays in meeting the challenges inherent in minimizing environmental impacts while maximizing energy resources, this book provides an overview of our energy supply, increasing energy production while reducing cost, and offering novel energy sources. It explores the ways in which nanotechnologies can improve structural engineering of energy sources, create novel methods of cooling, and inspire new approaches to water supply and treatment. In addressing these critical issues, the book provides an authoritative resource that provides the foundation for new research and product development.
Smith, G.B., Wilson, M., Kanangara, Simmons, M. & Raguse, B., NANOTECHNOLOGY basic science and emerging technologies, UNSW CRS Press.

Chapters

Cortie, M.B., Stokes, N.L., Heness, G.L. & Smith, G. 2014, 'Applications of Nanotechnology in the Building Industry' in David Rickerby (ed), Nanotechnology for Sustainable Manufacturing, CRC Press, USA.
Castro Aguilar, J.L., Smith, G., Gentle, A.R. & Chen, D. 2012, 'Making cool roofs compatible with low heating and cooling loads' in Mendez-Vilas, A., BrownWalker & Raton, B. (eds), Fuelling the Future: Advances in Science and Technologies for Energy Generation, Transmission and St, Brown Walker Press, United States, pp. 530-534.
Smith, G. 2007, 'Combining energy efficiency with aesthetic appeal using advanced optical materials' in Choudhury, P.K. & Singh, O.N. (eds), Frontiers in Optical Technology: Materials and Devices, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, USA, pp. 125-158.
Energy efficiency in interior spaces concerns supply of lighting needs and maximising thermal comfort, with minimum use of electrical power fom the grid and of fossil fuels. It is relevant to all classes of buildings. and also. to transport. The world is faced with two apparently conflicting demands right now. A rapid growth in demand for better living standards and lifestyles, and an urgent need to cut greenhollse gas emissions. If this "conflict" can be eliminated or softened. then the process of scaling back our negative impact on the environment will accelerate. If it cannot, all living standards are at risk in the long term. Such a changeover, in common with past technology driven shifts in human activity, will also generate wide ranging opportunities tor economic growth in all regions of the world. There is much new science needed to optimise these technologies. and optics is playing a central role. Examples of two science based systems for better use of natural lighting are in fig. I.
Smith, G. 2003, 'Nanostructured Thin Films' in Wieglhofer, W.S. & Lakhtakia, A. (eds), Introduction to Complex Mediums for Optics and Electromagnetics, International Society for Optical Engineering, Washington, USA, pp. 421-446.
Botten, L.C., McPhedran, R.C., Nicorovici, N.A., Asatryan, A.A., de Sterke, C.M., Robinson, P.A., Busch, K., Smith, G. & Langtry, T. 2003, 'Rayleigh multipole methods for photonic crystal calculations' in Priou, A. & Itoh, T. (eds), Electromagnetic applications of photonic band gap materials and structures, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, pp. 21-60.

Conferences

Franklin, J.B., Smith, G.B. & Earp, A.E. 2013, 'A critical hurdle to widespread use of polymer based luminescent solar concentrators', RELIABILITY OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS, MODULES, COMPONENTS, AND SYSTEMS VI, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING.
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Bonnie, F., Arnold, M.D., Smith, G.B. & Gentle, A.R. 2013, 'Modes of interaction between nanostructured metal and a conducting mirror as a function of separation and incident polarization', NANOSTRUCTURED THIN FILMS VI, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING.
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Castro Aguilar, J.L., Smith, G., Gentle, A.R. & Chen, D. 2013, 'Optimum Integration of Albedo sub-roof r-value and phase change material for cool roofs', Proceedings of BS2013:13th International Conference of the International Building Performance Simulation Association, International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA), France, pp. 1315-1321.
Smith, G.B. 2011, 'Green Nanotechnology', NANOSTRUCTURED THIN FILMS IV, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING.
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Gentle, A.R. & Smith, G. 2011, 'Performance comparisons of sky window spectral selective and high emittance radiant cooling systems under varying atmospheric conditions', Solar 2010 : Proceedings of the 48th AuSES Annual Conference, Australian Solar Energy Society, Australia, pp. 1-8.
The need for alternative low energy methods for cooling buildings is being realised. This work investigates radiative cooling as a viable option. The use of a novel convection suppressant cover material allows a durable system capable of sub-ambient temperatures. The system's performance using a high emittance radiative surface is evaluated under various atmospheric conditions.
Smith, G., Gentle, A.R. & Edmonds, I. 2011, 'Urban growth, albedo and global warming', Solar 2010 : Proceedings of the 48th AuSES Annual Conference, Australian Solar Energy Society, Australia, pp. 1-8.
Traditional town and city growth adds to the "urban heat island" (UHI) problem, which raises cooling demand, degrades the microclimate and adds directly to global warming. Low solar albedos and local energy use both contribute to the UHI but it is not widely appreciated that the former can have by far the dominant impact. These relative impacts, locally and globally, are quantized per square kilometre of typical Australian urban area for shifts in solar albedo and for the extra coal power demanded. This analysis shows that as a matter of urgency urban planning rules and building codes need to change. The energy savings and global cooling associated with improved rules and codes provide a higher environmental return on investment than most renewables and other energy efficiency measures.
Gentle, A.R. & Smith, G.B. 2010, 'Optimized infra-red spectral response of surfaces for sub-ambient sky cooling as a function of humidity and operating temperature', PHOTONICS FOR SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS III, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING.
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Arnold, M.D. & Smith, G.B. 2009, 'Comparisons of enhanced absorption in closely-coupled granting-mirror and random particle-mirror systems', NANOSTRUCTURED THIN FILMS II, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING.
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Dowd, A.R., Lewis, R.A., Maaroof, A.I., Gentle, A.R. & Smith, G. 2008, 'Temperature dependence of infrared optical properties of vanadium dioxide', AIP 18th National Congress, AIP, Parkville, VIC.
Tomkin, D.F., Thomas, L.E., Day, M.B., Burke, P.F., Franklin, J., Smith, G., Louviere, J.J. & Street, D. 2007, 'Solar Light for rooms without windows'.
Gentle, A.R., Maaroof, A.I., Cortie, M.B. & Smith, G.B. 2007, 'Optical and electrical switching in nanostructured coatings of VO 2', Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.
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Vanadium dioxide undergoes a reversible metal-insulator phase transition at about 68C. Coatings of this compound are reflective in the infrared above this temperature, and transmissive or absorptive below it, while resistivity changes by several orders of magnitude. We present a convenient method for depositing films with nano-size grains, which are then optically and electrically characterised. Emphasis in this study is the impact of aluminum doping and grain structure. The optical hysteresis is presented and its switching range is not altered at different doping levels but the value of transition temperature Tc does shift. In contrast hysteresis in dc resistance does change with a strong correlation between the fall in resistance in the semiconductor state with doping, the drop in Tc and the electrical properties in the metal state. For grain sizes under about 180 nm the conductivity in the metal phase is not linear in temperature but is thermally activated, with activation energies AE dependent on both grain size G and doping level. Simple mathematical relationships are found connecting ?E with G and with carrier density in the semiconductor state. ?E ranges in our samples from 0.15 eV in the smallest grain sizes to around 0.06 eV. This anomalous low frequency metal response is linked to excitations that arise in the metal phase associated with transient singlet pairing on neighbouring sites. Such pairing is weakened by doping, and in large grains appears to be present but incoherent.
Gentle, A.R., Maaroof, A.I., Smith, G. & Cortie, M.B. 2006, 'Optical properties and applications to production of plasmonic thin film nanostructures of self-ordered columnar alumina arrays on glass', Photonics: Design, Technology, And Packaging II, SPIE, Bellingham, USA, pp. 3816-3816.
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In this paper we report on new techniques for making self-ordered porous layers of alumina of varying aspect ratios on glass, without the use of lithographic or masking techniques. Use of RF etching in one of the hole forming steps and also when filling
Cortie, M.B., Xu, X., Chowdhury, H.A., Zareie, H.M. & Smith, G. 2005, 'Plasmonic heating of gold nanoparticles and its exploitation', Smart Structures, Devices, and Systems II: Proceedings Of The Society Of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Volume 5649, SPIE, Washington, USA, pp. 565-573.
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Nanoscale particles of metals such as gold can interact with light by means of a plasmon resonance, even. though they are much smaller than the wavelengths of visible light. The proportions of light that are absorbed and scattered vary with wavelength. A
Smith, G., Cortie, M.B. & Maaroof, A.I. 2005, 'The apparent optical indices of spongy nanoporous gold', Proceedings of the 16th National Congress of the Australian Institute of Physics, Australian Institute of Physics, Canberra, pp. 177-180.
Very thin spongy nanoporous gold films have a unique nanostructure and hence unusual properties. Our interest in these materials is also due to their wide range of potential application (1,2). An optical study for such nanostructured films is of fundamental interest for understanding how light interacts with such a spongy nanoporous structure. In general the gold either percolates or is very closely packed. This surface plasmons, and surface plasmon resonant effects, are expected to play a key role given the large surface area of metal and the metal backbone of the nanostructure. The ropological complexity of the nano-void network is also expected to be a major influence. The optical response has, for a metal system, quite unusual dispersion relations for the effective complex refractive index components n*, k*. Once these are better understood new optical engineering possibilities arise. We are not aware of any optical studies for spongy metal film nanostructures apart from a brief preliminary report of our own on one such film 93) whose nanstructure was different to the spongy nanoporous films presented here. We check the internal consistency and physical accpetability of the results with a Kramers-Kronig analysis of the spectrumn of n*, k* values, because of their unusual spectral character.
Earp, A.A., Franklin, J. & Smith, G. 2005, 'Extraction of trapped light from luminescent solar concentration', Proceedings of the 16th National Congress of the Australian Institute of physics, Australian Institute of Physics, Canberra, Australia, pp. 104-107.
In modern light sources such as Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSC's) and Light Emitting Diodes (LED's), light is emitted within a light-guiding structure of high refractive index. Some of this light is trapped and will not be able to escape. Similar problems are observed when collecting fluorescent radiation in waveguides (1) and scintillation detectors (2). For lighting applications, this trapped light should be ablet o escape the light-guiding structure. In LED's this is commonly achieved witha special profile in the active zone. However, inLSC's the small light-emitting zone is remote from the large light collector so a different approach must betaken. This paper will focus on the extraction of emitted light from rectangular LSc's and propose a way of extracting a large fraction of the trapped light.
Smith, G.B., Maaroof, A.I., Allan, R.S., Schelm, S., Anstis, G.R. & Cortie, M.B. 2004, 'Optical response of nanostructured metal/dielectric composites and multilayers', Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, pp. 192-205.
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The homogeneous optical response in conducting nanostructured layers, and in insulating layers containing dense arrays of self assembled conducting nanoparticles separated by organic linkers, is examined experimentally through their effective complex indices (n*, k*). Classical effective medium models, modified to account for the 3-phase nanostructure, are shown to explain (n*, k*) in dense particulate systems but not inhomogeneous layers with macroscopic conductance for which a different approach to homogenisation is discussed, (n*, k*) data on thin granular metal films, thin mesoporous gold, and on thin metal layers containing ordered arrays of voids, is linked to properties of the surface plasmon states which span the nanostructured film. Coupling between evanescent waves at either surface counterbalanced by electron scattering losses must be considered. Virtual bound states for resonant photons result, with the associated transit delay leading to a large rise in n* in many nanostructures. Overcoating n-Ag with alumina is shown to alter (n*, k*) through its impact on the SP coupling. In contrast to classical optical homogenisation, effective indices depend on film thickness. Supporting high resolution SEM images are presented.
Schelm, S. & Smith, G.B. 2004, 'Field profiles for spherical conductive nanoparticles and metallic-shell/dielectric-core nano-composites', NANOMODELING, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, pp. 160-169.
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Deller, C.A., Smith, G.B. & Franklin, J.B. 2004, 'Uniform white light distribution with low loss from coloured LEDs using polymer doped polymer mixing rods.', FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOLID STATE LIGHTING, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, pp. 231-240.
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Schelm, S., Smith, G.B., Wei, G., Vella, A., Wieczorek, L., Muller, K.H. & Raguse, K. 2003, 'Optical properties of dense self-assembled gold nanoparticle layers with organic linker molecules', PLASMONICS: METALLIC NANOSTRUCTURES AND THEIR OPTICAL PROPERTIES, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, pp. 59-65.
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Jonsson, J.C., Roos, A. & Smith, G.B. 2003, 'Light trapping in translucent samples and its effect on the hemispherical transmittance obtained by an integrating sphere', OPTICAL DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR INORGANIC MATERIALS III, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, pp. 91-100.
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Tomkin, D.F., Muir, J.G., Cortie, M.B., Masens, C. & Smith, G. 2003, 'The Nanohouse- Australian initiative to develop the home of the future', Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology, Scotland.
Conference presentation
Deller, C.A., Smith, G., Franklin, J. & Joseph, E.K. 2002, 'The integration of forward light transport and lateral illumination of polymer optical fibre', Proceedings of the Australian Institute of Physics 15th Biennial Congress 2002., Causal Productions Pty Ltd, Adelaide, pp. 307-309.
Smith, G.B. 2002, 'Nanostructured thin films - A critical review', COMPLEX MEDIUMS III: BEYOND LINEAR ISOTROPIC DIELECTRICS, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, pp. 207-221.
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Smith, G.B., Gerritsen, S., Hossain, A.K.M. & McCredie, G. 2001, 'Plasmon mediated visible and near infra red transmission through sub-30 nm holes in metal films: Potential in solar energy applications', SOLAR AND SWITCHING MATERIALS, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, pp. 29-37.
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Smith, G.B., Earp, A., Franklin, J. & McCredie, G. 2001, 'Novel high performance scattering materials for use in energy saving light fittings and skylights based on polymer pigmented with polymer', SOLAR AND SWITCHING MATERIALS, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, pp. 10-18.
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Journal articles

Gentle, A.R., Dybdal, K.L. & Smith, G.B. 2013, 'Polymeric mesh for durable infra-red transparent convection shields: Applications in cool roofs and sky cooling', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 115, pp. 79-85.
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Smith, G.B. 2012, 'Green nanophotonics', JOURNAL OF NANOPHOTONICS, vol. 6.
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Smith, G.B., Aguilar, J.L.C., Gentle, A.R. & Chen, D. 2012, 'Multi-parameter sensitivity analysis: A design methodology applied to energy efficiency in temperate climate houses', ENERGY AND BUILDINGS, vol. 55, pp. 668-673.
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Gentle, A.R., Aguilar, J.L.C. & Smith, G.B. 2011, 'Optimized cool roofs: Integrating albedo and thermal emittance with R-value', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 3207-3215.
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Earp, A.A., Franklin, J.B. & Smith, G.B. 2011, 'Absorption tails and extinction in luminescent solar concentrators', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 1157-1162.
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Earp, A.A. & Smith, G.B. 2011, 'Evolution of plasmonic response in growing silver thin films with pre-percolation non-local conduction and emittance drop', JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 44, no. 25.
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Earp, A.A., Rawling, T., Franklin, J.B. & Smith, G.B. 2010, 'Perylene dye photodegradation due to ketones and singlet oxygen', DYES AND PIGMENTS, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 59-61.
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Gentle, A.R. & Smith, G.B. 2010, 'Radiative Heat Pumping from the Earth Using Surface Phonon Resonant Nanoparticles', NANO LETTERS, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 373-379.
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Earp, A.A. & Smith, G.B. 2010, 'Metal nanoparticle plasmonics inside reflecting metal films', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 96, no. 24.
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Gentle, A.R., Smith, G.B. & Maaroof, A.I. 2009, 'Frequency and percolation dependence of the observed phase transition in nanostructured and doped VO2 thin films', JOURNAL OF NANOPHOTONICS, vol. 3.
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Smith, G.B. 2009, 'Guest Editorial: Nanostructured Thin Films', JOURNAL OF NANOPHOTONICS, vol. 3.
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Smith, G.B. 2009, 'Amplified radiative cooling via optimised combinations of aperture geometry and spectral emittance profiles of surfaces and the atmosphere', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 93, no. 9, pp. 1696-1701.
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Bai, H., Cortie, M.B., Maaroof, A.I., Dowd, A., Kealley, C. & Smith, G.B. 2009, 'The preparation of a plasmonically resonant VO2 thermochromic pigment', Nanotechnology, vol. 20, no. 8.
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Vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoes a reversible metal-insulator transition, normally at ?68 C. While the properties of continuous semi-transparent coatings of VO2 are well known, there is far less information available concerning the potential use of discrete VO2 nanoparticles as a thermochromic pigment in opaque coatings. Individual VO 2 nanoparticles undergo a localized plasmon resonance with near-infrared light at about 1100 nm and this resonance can be switched on and off by simply varying the temperature of the system. Therefore, incorporation of VO2 nanoparticles into a coating system imbues the coating with the ability to self-adaptively modulate its own absorptive efficiency in the near-infrared. Here we examine the magnitude and control of this phenomenon. Prototype coatings are described, made using VO2 powder produced by an improved process. The materials are characterized using calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and by measurement of optical properties. 2009 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Gentle, A.R. & Smith, G.B. 2008, 'Five layer narrow band position variable filters for sharp colours and ultra low emittance', APPLIED PHYSICS B-LASERS AND OPTICS, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 67-72.
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Gentle, A. & Smith, G.B. 2008, 'Dual metal-insulator and insulator-insulator switching in nanoscale and Al doped VO(2)', JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 41, no. 1.
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Swift, P.D., Lawlor, R., Smith, G.B. & Gentle, A. 2008, 'Rectangular-section mirror light pipes', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 92, no. 8, pp. 969-975.
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Gentle, A.R., Maaroof, A.I. & Smith, G. 2008, 'Temperature dependence of optical and transport properties in VO2 with high temperature anomalies', Current Applied Physics, vol. 8, no. 3-4, pp. 229-232.
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Thermochromic VO2 is of interest for energy efficient glazing, and for fast telecommunications because it optically switches in the near IR. Despite extensive study several aspects of its apparently diverse behaviour have not been explained satisfactorily. The visible-NIR permittivity and dc electrical conductivity of high quality thin films of VO2, across the metal-insulator phase transition and well into the metallic phase to temperatures up to 100 C above Tc are studied as a function of temperature and grain size. Experimental behaviour is partly explained with effective medium models, existing band structures and classical transport theory. Anomalies however include: unphysically fast relaxation rate, counter-intuitive and significant differences between optical and dc, and bulk and thin film parameters; and residual "non-metallic" features above the transition in highly oriented films. Residual, but transient high temperature d-electron singlet pairing on V dimers, which is sensitive to nanostructure, is examined as a source of some anomalies. 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, G.B., Maaroof, A.I. & Cortie, M.B. 2008, 'Percolation in nanoporous gold and the principle of universality for two-dimensional to hyperdimensional networks', Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol. 78, no. 16.
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Percolation in nanoporous gold can be achieved with as little as 8% by volume of gold. Samples of nanoporous gold of various morphologies are analyzed with a combination of electrical and optical data. Growing thin films and complex multiply connected three-dimensional networks both display nonuniversal character. Growing films have two-dimensional morphology but a three-dimensional percolation threshold and nonuniversal critical coefficients, yet similar silver films percolate as expected with universal coefficients. Growing gold however regresses to two-dimensional resistive behavior between 65% to 100% gold, and this regime lies along a single power-law curve shared by the hyperdimensional networks of gold, suggesting underlying symmetry governed by diffusion-limited aggregation. Models of data imply either hyperdimensionality or major internal property changes as density shifts. The distinctive flat spectral signature found near the percolation threshold is common to all highly porous samples and is explained quantitatively in terms of effective plasmonic response. Parameters from fits of effective medium models to optical and resistivity data are in close agreement, especially at the highest porosities. They imply an effective dimension which increases continuously as porosity grows via the increased branching needed for structural integrity. 2008 The American Physical Society.
Maaroof, A.I., Gentle, A., Smith, G.B. & Cortie, M.B. 2007, 'Bulk and surface plasmons in highly nanoporous gold films', Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 40, no. 18, pp. 5675-5682.
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The far field plasmonic behaviour of nanoporous gold films with void densities ranging from 60% to 90% has been investigated and modelled. These layers have good dc conductivity and quite different nanostructure to traditional porous layers in which the metal percolates. Our gold films with void density f above 70% have high thermal emittance for a conductor at their thicknesses and their flat spectral response at visible and near infrared wavelengths is not metal like. We derive effective optical constants which become plasmonic at wavelengths between 1.8 and 4 ?m for f from 72 to 87%. This onset is much longer than that in bulk gold. For void densities below 70% the onset of plasmonic behaviour is much closer to the dense material. A simple test is implemented to test for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) under illumination. The more porous films show no evidence of SPP, while the less porous films display weak evidence. Thus by tailoring void content in these nanostructures we can tailor the onset of effective plasmonic response across a wide range from 0.8 to 4 ?m and emittance from around 0.9 down to low values. An effective uniform metal response is thus found in the presence of surface nanostructure without the interface absorption found in dense gold layers with structured surfaces. 2007 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Maaroof, A.I., Cortie, M.B., Gentle, A. & Smith, G.B. 2007, 'Mesoporous gold sponge as a prototype 'metamaterial'', Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 394, no. 2, pp. 167-170.
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Mesoporous gold sponge has optical properties that can be intermediate between those of metals and insulators, with a flat spectral response that is unlike that of bulk gold. Films of different thicknesses were produced and an extension of the Lorentz-Drude (LD) model used to model their spectral behavior. We found that it was necessary to include an additional special oscillator centered at 1.4 eV in order to model the unusual spectral response. This is quite unlike bulk gold, which can be modeled using a standard two-oscillator LD model. 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Earp, A.A., Smith, G. & Franklin, J. 2007, 'Simplified BRDF Of A Non-lambertian Diffuse Surface', Lighting Research and Technology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 265-281.
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For real diffuse surfaces, the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is non-Lambertian, and may require a more complex model in ray tracing simulations. The BRDF of a diffuse white surface is studied at multiple angles of incidence, and
Gentle, A., Maaroof, A.I. & Smith, G.B. 2007, 'Nanograin VO2 in the metal phase: a plasmonic system with falling dc resistivity as temperature rises', NANOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 18, no. 2.
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Smith, G.B., Maaroof, A.I. & Gentle, A. 2007, 'Homogenized Lorentz-Drude optical response in highly nanoporous conducting gold layers produced by de-alloying', OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 271, no. 1, pp. 263-268.
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Swift, P.D., Smith, G.B. & Franklin, J. 2006, 'Hotspots in cylindrical mirror light pipes: description and removal', LIGHTING RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 19-31.
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Cortie, M.B., Maaroof, A., Smith, G.B. & Ngoepe, P. 2006, 'Nanoscale coatings of AuAlx and PtAlx and their mesoporous elemental derivatives', Current Applied Physics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 440-443.
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A method to produce nanoscale films of AuAlx and PtAlx, and their mesoporous elemental derivatives is described, and the morphology and optical properties of these coatings explored. The color of the AuAlx film is bright purple, in agreement with ab initio calculations and experimental observations for the compound AuAl2, but becomes black after de-alloying with NaOH. The film of PtAlx is silver-grey and changes to grey after being converted to mesoporous Pt by de-alloying. Both mesoporous coatings exhibit a very rough surface, with pores of between 2 and 20 nm in diameter, and display a significantly more absorptive optical characteristic compared to their ordinary elemental counterparts. 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Deller, C.A., Franklin, J. & Smith, G.B. 2006, 'Monte Carlo ray-tracing in particle-doped light guides', LIGHTING RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 95-108.
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Maaroof, A.I., Cortie, M.B. & Smith, G.B. 2005, 'Optical properties of mesoporous gold films', Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 303-309.
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Mesoporous gold thin films on glass substrates were fabricated by sputtering of AuAl2 precursor films followed by a de-alloying etch. The resulting sponge-like Au films have very high internal surface area due to nanoscale pores and channels. Scattering is not significant and the optical properties for such nanostructured films were examined using ellipsometry and spectrophotometry. The complex refractive indices of the optically equivalent uniform smooth layer satisfy Kramers-Kronig (KK) self-consistency but have unusual dispersion relations and magnitudes for a film containing the amount of noble metal present. The reflectance at infrared wavelengths is neither metal-nor insulator-like, and the indices have unique dispersion curves. 2005 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Maaroof, A.I. & Smith, G.B. 2005, 'Effective optical constants of nanostructured thin silver films and impact of an insulator coating', THIN SOLID FILMS, vol. 485, no. 1-2, pp. 198-206.
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Cortie, M.B., Maaroof, A.I. & Smith, G.B. 2005, 'Electrochemical capacitance of mesoporous gold', Gold Bulletin, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 14-22.
The surfaces of nanoscale gold particles and components are oxide-free under normal ambient conditions. This unusual attribute permits the exploration of microstructures and functionalities that would not be feasible for less noble metals. Here we consider the electrochemical properties of mesoporous gold sponges, prepared by de-alloying an AuAl2 precursor. The sponges have a high specific surface area, with an average pore diameter of 12 nm, but are prone to sinter. They may be prepared in bulk, or, more usefully, as coatings. Their electrochemical capacitance divided by their nominal surface area is high and, at a cell voltage of 0.6 V, reaches 100 mF/cm2 for bulk samples and 2 mF/cm2 for coatings. This is up to a thousand times greater than the 50 to 100 ?F/cm2 exhibited by a planar gold surface.
Schelm, S. & Smith, G.B. 2005, 'Evaluation of the limits of resonance tunability in metallic nanoshells with a spectral averaging method', JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1288-1292.
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Schelm, S. & Smith, G.B. 2005, 'Internal electric field densities of metal nanoshells', JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, vol. 109, no. 5, pp. 1689-1694.
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Jonsson, J.C., Smith, G.B., Deller, C. & Roos, A. 2005, 'Directional and angle-resolved optical scattering of high-performance translucent polymer sheets for energy-efficient lighting and skylights', APPLIED OPTICS, vol. 44, no. 14, pp. 2745-2753.
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Schelm, S., Smith, G.B., Wei, G., Vella, A., Wieczorek, L., Muller, K.H. & Raguse, B. 2004, 'Double effective medium model for the optical properties of self-assembled gold nanoparticle films cross-linked with alkane dithiols', NANO LETTERS, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 335-339.
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Jonsson, J.C., Smith, G.B. & Niklasson, G.A. 2004, 'Experimental and Monte Carlo analysis of isotropic multiple Mie scattering', OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 240, no. 1-3, pp. 9-17.
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Earp, A.A., Smith, G.B., Swift, P.D. & Franklin, J. 2004, 'Maximising the light output of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator', SOLAR ENERGY, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 655-667.
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Smith, G.B., Ford, M.J., Masens, C. & Muir, J. 2004, 'Energy-efficient coatings in the Nanohouse Initiative', Current Applied Physics, vol. 4, no. 2-4, pp. 381-384.
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The University of Technology Sydney (UTS), in collaboration with CSIRO has created the Nanohouse Initiative, a concept that serves as the conceptual framework for various pedagogical, scientific, architectural and engineering activities at the University. Housing is a significant item in both personal and regional budgets, and the Nanohouse therefore serves as a powerful vehicle for demonstrating nanotechnologies. One of the major energy-efficient components of the Nanohouse are nanoengineered coatings and films for transparent and translucent surfaces that modify their optical properties. These nanostructured materials can provide wavelength-selective control of reflection, absorption and transmission of light as well as angular selectivity for directional control, making it possible to design houses that have very large windows and skylights, but which nevertheless remain cool in summer and warm in winter. We have already made significant progress towards the development of these nanotechnologies. In this paper will be discuss the design and performance of these optically controllable nanocoatings and their application to the Nanohouse. 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Earp, A.A., Smith, G.B., Franklin, J. & Swift, P. 2004, 'Optimisation of a three-colour luminescent solar concentrator daylighting system', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 84, no. 1-4, pp. 411-426.
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Smith, G.B. & Maaroof, A.I. 2004, 'Optical response in nanostructured thin metal films with dielectric over-layers', OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 242, no. 4-6, pp. 383-392.
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Smith, G.B. 2004, 'Materials and systems for efficient lighting and delivery of daylight', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 84, no. 1-4, pp. 395-409.
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Deller, C.A., Smith, G. & Franklin, J. 2004, 'Colour mixing LEDs with short microsphere doped acrylic rods', Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 15, pp. 3327-3333.
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The output colour distributions from red, green and blue (RGB) LEDs mixed with cross linked PMMA micro particle doped PMMA mixing rods is compared to output from a plain PMMA mixing rod. Distinctive patterns with clear colour separation result with the undoped rod. These are homogenised by our mixers, resulting in white light. Light output has been photographed, measured and computer simulated at a distance of 10 cm from the output end of the rods.
Jonsson, J.C., Karlsson, L., Nostell, P., Niklasson, G.A. & Smith, G.B. 2004, 'Angle-dependent light scattering in materials with controlled diffuse solar optical properties', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 84, no. 1-4, pp. 427-439.
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Swift, P.D. & Smith, G.B. 2003, 'Color considerations in fluorescent solar concentrator stacks', APPLIED OPTICS, vol. 42, no. 25, pp. 5112-5117.
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Smith, G.B., Gentle, A., Swift, P.D., Earp, A. & Mronga, N. 2003, 'Coloured paints based on iron oxide and silicon oxide coated flakes of aluminium as the pigment, for energy efficient paint: optical and thermal experiments', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 179-197.
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Schelm, S. & Smith, G.B. 2003, 'Dilute LaB6 nanoparticles in polymer as optimized clear solar control glazing', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 82, no. 24, pp. 4346-4348.
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Smith, G.B., Jonsson, J.C. & Franklin, J. 2003, 'Spectral and global diffuse properties of high-performance translucent polymer sheets for energy efficient lighting and skylights', APPLIED OPTICS, vol. 42, no. 19, pp. 3981-3991.
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Smith, G.B., Gentle, A., Swift, P., Earp, A. & Mronga, N. 2003, 'Coloured paints based on coated flakes of metal as the pigment, for enhanced solar reflectance and cooler interiors: description and theory', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 163-177.
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Smith, G. 2002, 'Nanoparticle physics for energy, lighting and environmental control technologies', Materials Forum, vol. 26, pp. 20-28.
Smith, G., Deller, C.A., Swift, P.D., Gentle, A.R., Garrett, P.D. & Fisher, W.K. 2002, 'Nanoparticle-doped polymer foils for use in solar control glazing', Journal of nanoparticle Research, vol. 4, no. N/A, pp. 157-165.
Smith, G.B. & Pustovit, V.N. 2002, 'Coupled multipolar interactions in clusters of nanoparticles with metal shells', OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 211, no. 1-6, pp. 197-204.
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Smith, G., Hossain, A.K. & Gentle, A.R. 2001, 'Near Infra-Red Radiation Squeezing Through 20nm Voids in Obliquely Deposited Metal Films', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 78, no. 15, pp. 2144-2413.
Smith, G.B., Ben-David, A. & Swift, P.D. 2001, 'A new type of TiN coating combining broad band visible transparency and solar control', RENEWABLE ENERGY, vol. 22, no. 1-3, pp. 79-84.
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Smith, G.B., Green, D.C., McCredie, G., Hossain, M., Swift, P.D. & Luther, M.B. 2001, 'Optical characterisation of materials and systems for daylighting', RENEWABLE ENERGY, vol. 22, no. 1-3, pp. 85-90.
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Smith, G., Earp, A.A., Stevens, J., Swift, P.D., McCredie, G. & Franklin, J. 2000, 'Materials Properties for Advanced Daylighting in Buildings', Sayish AAM, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 201-206.
Some recent developments in materials used to illuminate interior and exterior spaces with daylight, and mathematical modelling of their interaction with light for design purposes are presented. The Sydney 2000 Olympic Stadium roof and a new solid light guide system are two examples. Emphasis is on making full use of the daylight resource, not just the diffuse component, while controlling the associated solar heat gain. Sensitivity to glare is essential if materials capabilities are to be realised.
Smith, G.B. & Reuben, A.J. 1999, 'Normal mode analysis of optical polarisation response in nanocomposite particles', NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS, vol. 12, no. 1-4, pp. 353-356.
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Smith, G.B. & Dligatch, S. 1999, 'Ellipsometric studies of nanocomposite cermets', NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS, vol. 12, no. 1-4, pp. 535-538.
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Smith, G.B., Swift, P.D. & Bendavid, A. 1999, 'TiNx films with metallic behavior at high N/Ti ratios for better solar control windows', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 630-632.
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Jahan, F. & Smith, G.B. 1998, 'Investigation of angular selective optical properties of silver titanium oxide cermet thin films', THIN SOLID FILMS, vol. 333, no. 1-2, pp. 185-190.
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Smith, G.B., Yan, W., Hossain, M. & McCredie, G. 1998, 'Science of daylighting in buildings', RENEWABLE ENERGY, vol. 15, no. 1-4, pp. 325-330.
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Reuben, A.J. & Smith, G.B. 1998, 'Normal-mode decomposition for the optical response of cylinder clusters', PHYSICAL REVIEW E, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 1101-1111.
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Radchik, A.V., Moses, P., Skryabin, I.L. & Smith, G.B. 1998, 'New effective medium approach to optical response in non-random arrays', THIN SOLID FILMS, vol. 317, no. 1-2, pp. 446-448.
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Smith, G.B., Dligatch, S., Sullivan, R. & Hutchins, M.G. 1998, 'Thin film angular selective glazing', SOLAR ENERGY, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 229-244.
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Dligatch, S., Cheary, R.W. & Smith, G.B. 1998, 'An analysis of Ag/Al2O3 angular selective films by x-ray reflectivity', THIN SOLID FILMS, vol. 312, no. 1-2, pp. 4-6.
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Smith, G.B., Dligatch, S. & Jahan, F. 1998, 'Angular selective thin film glazing', RENEWABLE ENERGY, vol. 15, no. 1-4, pp. 183-188.
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Smith, G.B., Radchik, A.V., Reuben, A.J., Moses, P., Skryabin, I. & Dligatch, S. 1998, 'Columnar cermet structures in solar energy materials: Can one model spectral response with simple effective medium theories', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 54, no. 1-4, pp. 387-396.
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Xue, Y.L., Smith, G.B. & Baker, A.T. 1998, 'Large refractive index and interparticle-interaction-induced nonlinear modulation in densely doped composite materials', IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1380-1389.
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Skryabin, I.L., Radchik, A.V., Moses, P. & Smith, G.B. 1997, 'The consistent application of Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory to anisotropic composites', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 70, no. 17, pp. 2221-2223.
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Reuben, A.J., Smith, G.B., Moses, P., Vagov, A.V., Woods, M.D., Gordon, D.B. & Munn, R.W. 1996, 'Ion trajectories in exactly determined quadrupole fields', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ION PROCESSES, vol. 154, no. 1-2, pp. 43-59.
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Kempe, J., Radchik, A.V. & Smith, G.B. 1996, 'New transform techniques applied to anomolous absorption in the dense chain of metal cylinders', PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES, vol. 452, no. 1951, pp. 1845-1856.
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Radchik, A.V., Paley, A.V. & Smith, G.B. 1996, 'Invisibility'' in certain intersecting particles and arrays of such particles in a solid host', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 2613-2621.
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Bendavid, A., Martin, P.J., Smith, G.B., Wielunski, L. & Kinder, T.J. 1996, 'The mechanical and structural properties of Ti films prepared by filtered arc deposition', VACUUM, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1179-1188.
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REUBEN, A.J., SMITH, G.B. & RADCHIK, A.V. 1995, 'THE POLARIZABILITY OF CYLINDER ARRAYS IN 2 DIMENSIONS', ANNALS OF PHYSICS, vol. 242, no. 1, pp. 52-76.
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DLIGATCH, S., NG, M.W., SMITH, G.B., REUBEN, A.J., RADCHIK, A.V. & VAGOV, A.V. 1995, 'NEW EFFECTIVE-MEDIUM MODELS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS', VACUUM, vol. 46, no. 8-10, pp. 935-938.
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SWIFT, P.D. & SMITH, G.B. 1995, 'CYLINDRICAL MIRROR LIGHT PIPES', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 159-168.
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Ng, M.W., Smith, G.B. & Dligatch, S. 1995, 'Spectral switching of the preferred transmission direction in absorbing anisotropic composites', JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2578-2584.
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SMITH, G.B., VARGAS, W.E., NIKLASSON, G.A., SOTELO, J.A. & PALEY, A.V. 1995, 'OPTICAL-PROPERTIES OF A PAIR OF SPHERES - COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT THEORIES', OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 115, no. 1-2, pp. 8-12.
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REUBEN, A.J., RADCHIK, A.V., SMITH, G.B. & VAGOV, A.V. 1994, 'EXACT FIELDS IN MULTIELECTRODE ION OPTICS', RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 939-941.
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RADCHIK, A.V., PALEY, A.V., SMITH, G.B. & VAGOV, A.V. 1994, 'POLARIZATION AND RESONANT ABSORPTION IN INTERSECTING CYLINDERS AND SPHERES', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 76, no. 8, pp. 4827-4835.
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SLOGGETT, G., MCKENZIE, D.R., COCKAYNE, D.J.H., SMITH, G.B., JENKINS, B., FOLEY, C.P., TAKANO, Y., STUDER, A.J., HAUB, J.G. & ORR, B.J. 1994, 'IN-SITU DEPOSITION OF HIGH-TC MATERIALS USING VACUUM-ARC ABLATION WITH MACROPARTICLE FILTER', PHYSICA B, vol. 194, pp. 2353-2354.
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VAGOV, A.V., RADCHIK, A. & SMITH, G.B. 1994, 'OPTICAL-RESPONSE OF ARRAYS OF SPHERES FROM THE THEORY OF HYPERCOMPLEX VARIABLES', PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. 1035-1038.
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PALEY, A.V., RADCHIK, A.V., SMITH, G.B. & VAGOV, A.V. 1994, 'POLARIZATION OF INTERSECTING PARTICLES', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 64, no. 23, pp. 3187-3189.
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PALEY, A.V., RADCHIK, A.V. & SMITH, G.B. 1993, 'QUASI-STATIC OPTICAL-RESPONSE OF PAIRS OF TOUCHING SPHERES WITH ARBITRARY DIELECTRIC PERMEABILITY', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. 3446-3453.
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REUBEN, A.J., RADCHIK, A.V. & SMITH, G.B. 1993, 'THE POLARIZABILITY OF CHAINS OF TOUCHING CYLINDER PAIRS', JOURNAL OF PHYSICS A-MATHEMATICAL AND GENERAL, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 2021-2036.
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WALL, T.F., SALUSINSZY, A.L., EBELING, D.B., DREWE, G.R., SULLIVAN, K.M., BEERAN, P. & SMITH, G.B. 1992, 'ENERGY OPTIONS FOR THE 21ST-CENTURY - AN AUSTRALIAN PERSPECTIVE', ENERGY SOURCES, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 253-263.
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STUDER, A.J., MCKENZIE, D.R., COCKAYNE, D.J.H., SMITH, G.B. & BROWN, I.G. 1992, 'CATHODIC ARC ABLATION AS A NEW METHOD OF HIGH-TC SUPERCONDUCTOR DEPOSITION', PHYSICA C, vol. 197, no. 1-2, pp. 147-150.
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SMITH, G.B., NG, M.W., DITCHBURN, R.J., MARTIN, P.J. & NETTERFIELD, R.P. 1992, 'CERMETS FOR ANGULAR SELECTIVE TRANSMITTANCE', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 25, no. 1-2, pp. 149-167.
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DITCHBURN, R.J. & SMITH, G.B. 1992, 'A MODEL FOR THE OPTICAL-RESPONSE OF OBLIQUELY DEPOSITED THIN-FILMS', JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 334-337.
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RADCHIK, A.V., SMITH, G.B. & REUBEN, A.J. 1992, 'QUASI-STATIC OPTICAL-RESPONSE OF SEPARATE, TOUCHING, AND INTERSECTING CYLINDER PAIRS', PHYSICAL REVIEW B, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 6115-6125.
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KIRKUP, L., BELL, J.M., GREEN, D.C., SMITH, G.B. & MACDONALD, K.A. 1992, 'SIMPLE COMPUTER-CONTROLLED POTENTIOSTAT FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ELECTROCHROMIC FILMS', REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 2328-2329.
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SMITH, G.B., MCKENZIE, D.R., PUCHERT, M., FILIPCZUK, S.W. & COCKAYNE, D.J.H. 1991, 'ANOMALOUS VOLTAGE-CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SPUTTERING OF YBACUO', PHYSICA C, vol. 183, no. 1-3, pp. 172-176.
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DITCHBURN, R.J. & SMITH, G.B. 1991, 'USEFUL ANGULAR SELECTIVITY IN OBLIQUE COLUMNAR ALUMINUM', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 3769-3771.
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TURNER, G.M., SIKORSKI, A., MCKENZIE, D.R., SMITH, G.B., NG, K. & COCKAYNE, D.J.H. 1990, 'SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN THE STOICHIOMETRY OF SPUTTERED YBACUO THIN-FILMS - THEORY AND EXPERIMENT', PHYSICA C, vol. 170, no. 5-6, pp. 473-480.
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SMITH, G.B., MULLER, K.H., ANDRIKIDIS, C., FILIPCZUK, S.W., BELL, J.M. & RICKETTS, B.W. 1990, 'PHASE SLIPPAGE IN A MAGNETIC-FIELD AT INTRAGRANULAR AND INTERGRANULAR JOSEPHSON-JUNCTIONS IN HIGH-TC SUPERCONDUCTORS', PHYSICA C, vol. 170, no. 3-4, pp. 222-230.
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FILIPCZUK, S.W., DRIVER, R. & SMITH, G.B. 1990, 'ASPECTS OF ANNEALING AND FREE-SURFACE CRYSTALLIZATION OF YBCO THIN-FILMS', PHYSICA C, vol. 170, no. 5-6, pp. 457-468.
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SMITH, G.B., BELL, J.M., SAVVIDES, N., FILIPCZUK, S. & ANDRIKIDIS, C. 1989, 'FIELD ENHANCED INTRINSIC FLUCTUATIONS IN HIGHLY ORIENTED HIGH-TC THIN-FILMS', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 431-438.
LAKE, M.R., SMITH, G.B., MCKENZIE, D.R. & DZURAK, A.S. 1989, 'PROPERTIES OF POWDERS DEPOSITED BY SILANE HYDROGEN AND SILANE METHANE PLASMAS', JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS, vol. 109, no. 2-3, pp. 318-326.
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SMITH, G.B., MCKENZIE, D.R. & MARTIN, P.J. 1989, 'AN XPS STUDY OF CHEMICAL ORDER IN HYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS-SILICON CARBON ALLOY-FILMS', PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC RESEARCH, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 475-480.
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SMITH, G.B., BELL, J.M., FILIPCZUK, S.W. & ANDRIKIDIS, C. 1989, 'TEMPERATURE, FIELD AND GRAIN-SIZE DEPENDENCE OF FLUX PINNING IN HIGH-TC SUPERCONDUCTORS', PHYSICA C, vol. 160, no. 3-4, pp. 333-340.
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SMITH, G.B. & MCKENZIE, D.R. 1989, 'OPTICAL-PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALLY ORDERED A-SI1-XCX - H ALLOYS', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 1694-1698.
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MCKENZIE, D.R., BRULEY, J. & SMITH, G.B. 1988, 'ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS STUDY OF BONDING IN AMORPHOUS SILICON-CARBON ALLOY-FILMS PREPARED WITH HYDROGEN DILUTION', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 53, no. 23, pp. 2284-2286.
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MCKENZIE, D.R., SMITH, G.B. & LIU, Z.Q. 1988, 'ELECTRON-DIFFRACTION STUDY OF CHEMICAL ORDERING IN GLOW-DISCHARGE A-SI1-XCX-H', PHYSICAL REVIEW B, vol. 37, no. 15, pp. 8875-8881.
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SMITH, G.B. 1987, 'PHOTORESPONSE IN AMORPHOUS-SEMICONDUCTORS AS DARK CONDUCTIVITY VARIES', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 3380-3387.
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SMITH, G.B. & MCKENZIE, D.R. 1986, 'STEADY-STATE PHOTOCONDUCTIVITY IN A-SI-H PREPARED BY DC MAGNETRON METHODS', PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE B-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STATISTICAL MECHANICS ELECTRONIC OPTICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 255-272.
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SIE, S.H., MCKENZIE, D.R., SMITH, G.B. & RYAN, C.G. 1986, 'DEPTH PROFILES OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN IN HYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS-SILICON THIN-FILMS', NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, vol. 15, no. 1-6, pp. 525-529.
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SIE, S.H., MCKENZIE, D.R., SMITH, G.B. & RYAN, C.G. 1986, 'ANALYSIS OF CARBON CONTENT AND DISTRIBUTION IN A-SI1-XCX-H FILMS BY RESONANT SCATTERING', NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, vol. 15, no. 1-6, pp. 632-635.
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SMITH, G.B., NIKLASSON, G.A., SVENSSON, J.S.E.M. & GRANQVIST, C.G. 1986, 'NOBLE-METAL-BASED TRANSPARENT INFRARED REFLECTORS - EXPERIMENTS AND THEORETICAL ANALYSES FOR VERY THIN GOLD-FILMS', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 571-581.
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SMITH, G.B., MCPHEDRAN, R.C. & DERRICK, G.H. 1985, 'SURFACE-STRUCTURE AND THE OPTICAL-PROPERTIES OF BLACK CHROME', APPLIED PHYSICS A-MATERIALS SCIENCE & PROCESSING, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 193-204.
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Smith, G., Derrick, G. & McPhedran, R.C. 1985, 'A Rigorous Diffraction Theory For The Optical-properties Of Black Chrome', Applied Surface Science, vol. 0, no. MAY, pp. 813-819.
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McKenzie, D.R. & Smith, G. 1985, 'Amorphous-silicon Solar-cells Produced By A Dc Magnetron Glow-discharge Technique', Applied Surface Science, vol. 0, no. MAY, pp. 891-898.
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Sie, S., McKenzie, D.R. & Smith, G. 1985, 'Profiling Of Hydrogen In A-si-h By The H(f-19,alpha-gamma)o-16star Reaction', Applied Surface Science, vol. 0, no. MAY, pp. 908-915.
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SMITH, G.B. & TEYTZ, K. 1984, 'AN IMMERSION COATED MOLYBDENUM BASED SELECTIVE ABSORBER', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 449-458.
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SMITH, G.B. & MCKENZIE, D.R. 1984, 'DC MAGNETRON GLOW-DISCHARGE AMORPHOUS-SILICON', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 45-56.
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SMITH, G.B., IGNATIEV, A. & BACON, D. 1983, 'AN INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF 2 STUDIES OF SUBSTRATE INFLUENCE ON SELECTIVE ABSORBER STRUCTURE AND STABILITY', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-2.
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BIRD, J., DUERDEN, P., COHEN, D.D., SMITH, G.B. & HILLERY, P. 1983, 'DEPTH PROFILES AND MICROTOPOLOGY', NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH, vol. 218, no. 1-3, pp. 53-56.
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SMITH, G.B., TEYTZ, K. & HILLERY, P. 1983, 'THE SUBSTRATE IMPACT ON THE STRUCTURE AND THERMAL-STABILITY OF SOLAR SELECTIVE BLACK CHROME', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 21-41.
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SMITH, G.B., HILLERY, P. & TEYTZ, K. 1983, 'RANKING SOLAR-ABSORBER STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS IN TERMS OF IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE AND STABILITY', THIN SOLID FILMS, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 239-245.
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