Zarafu, M.E., MacDonald, H.I. & Glazebrook, G.J. 2013, 'The environmental and urban impact of personal rapid transit system in edge cities: Macquarie Park case study', Next City: Planning for a new energy and climate future, ICMS, Sydney NSW, pp. 84-100.
This paper investigates the environmental and urban impact of alternative land use and transport strategies for Macquarie Park, with a focus on transport emissions reduction. Macquarie Park is a typical high car-dependent 'edge city' within an emerging Australian multi-centred city form. Detailed simulations compare a transport scenario that incorporates a Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) network as a feeder for the existing transit nodes to a business-as-usual projection by 2030, and one reflecting current planned transport improvements ('Planned'). The environmental and urban impacts of the three scenarios are evaluated based on estimated differences in energy use, emissions, noise, and land area required for car parks.
Zarafu, M.E., MacDonald, H.I. & Glazebrook, G.J. 2012, 'Retrofitting the edge cities - Macquarie Park Case Study', Conference Proceedings, 5th Healthy Cities: Working Together to Achieve Liveable Cities Conference, Non-peer reviewed papers, AST Management Pty Ltd, Nerang, Qld, pp. 118-126.
This paper investigates the health and urban impacts of alternative strategies to retrofit edge cities, including one that incorporates a Personal Rapid Transit network as a feeder for the existing transit nodes. Macquarie Park has been identified as a typical 'edge city' within an emerging Australian multi-centred city form. The health impact is evaluated based on the outcomes for air pollution, accidents and physical activity due to active travel. The avoided public health costs total $25 million per annum when weighed against a continuation of the existing transportation trends. A positive urban impact occurs from the smaller amount of land required for parking spaces with a potential capital cost saving of more than one billion from building car parks.
Boydell, S., Giurco, D., Rickwood, P., Glazebrook, G.J., Zeibots, M.E. & White, S. 2010, 'Using an integrated assessment model for urban development to respond to climate change in cities', Energy Efficient Cities: Assessment tools and benchmarking practices, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, Washington DC, USA, pp. 65-91.
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This chapter describes an integrated assessment model for city-scale urban development that links the energy used in passenger transport (public and private) and residential in-house energy use. The model divides the urban region into disjoint subregions, the core of the model being centered on residential location choice, which is calibrated by population, demographic characteristics, and building types, leading to preferences for each subregion based on household type. Submodels are subsequently used to calibrate different rates of energy in accordance with household and demographic factors.THis generates a picture of consumption patterns across the metropolitan area, enabling an appreciation of spatially heterogenous factors such as differing levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, alongside variations in the distribution of infrastructures that can create considerable variation in energy consumption between districts within cities. The energy impacts of policy decisions that affect, by way of example, where new housing is to be built and of what type, can then be simulated. The workings of the model are demonstrated in the chapter using data on Sydney, Australia, as a case study, with the research offering a policy scenario to city officials to monitor its progress towards a 2030 vision for a sustainable Sydney.
Boydell, S., Giurco, D., Rickwood, P., Glazebrook, G.J., Zeibots, M.E., White, S. & Thomas, L.E. 2009, 'Using integrated urban models to respond to climate change in cities', Fifth Urban Research Symposium on Cities and Climate Change Website: Responding to an Urgent Agenda, Urban Research Symposium, World Bank, France, pp. 1-33.
This paper presents a single, integrated urban model that focuses on the key areas of transport, domestic energy-use, and domestic water use and how these relate to urban planning and other policies. The model structure is spatial requiring a sub-division of the urban region into disjoint sub-regions. Such a sub-division is necessary, not only because spatial information is essential to any transport model, but also because climatic and demographic factors are common to all resource models, and are spatially heterogeneous. The model is intended for use by local, regional, and state authorities, government departments, energy, and utility service companies as a modelling and decision support tool for analysing the impact on cities of a range of energy, water, transport, and land use related policies. In particular, it seeks to understand the impact - reductions possible at household and city scales. Growing awareness of the threats from climate change has focused attention on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the need to reduce them. Using a sample analysis of Sydney, our on-going research collaboration seeks to examine the working relationships between multiple infrastructure sectors through a single analysis platform. The need to integrate policy for multiple infrastructures is critical given the multiple fronts on which the sustainability of urban systems are now jeopardised.
Glazebrook, G.J. 2007, 'Post Metro, Post Election: Key Issues for Western Sydney'.
Conference organised by Western Sydney Regional Organisation of Councils
Rickwood, P., Giurco, D., Glazebrook, G.J., Kazaglis, A., Thomas, L.E., Zeibots, M.E., Boydell, S., White, S., Caprarelli, G. & McDougall, J. 2007, 'Integrating population, land-use, transport, water and energy-use models to improve the sustainability of urban systems', State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, SOAC, Adelaide, pp. 314-324.
Glazebrook, G.J. & Rickwood, P. 2007, 'Options for Reducing Transport Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Emissions for Sydney', State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, SOAC, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 762-772.
Paper describes and analyses strategies for reducing fuel consumption, energy use and greenhouse emissions from transport in Sydney
Glazebrook, G.J. 2006, 'Policy Options for Managing Congestion', Australian Road Forum Conference, Sydney, August 21, 2006.
Glazebrook, G.J. 2006, 'Housing, Transport and Cities: Some Myths and Realities'.
Conference organised by Save our Suburbs
Point - Counterpoint Series organised by University of Sydney Planning Research Centre.
Glazebrook, G.J. 2004, 'Accessibility - The Link Between Transport and Land Use'.
Glazebrook, G.J. 2004, 'Toll Roads or Road Pricing? The Case for More Sustainable Cities'.
Newman, P., Glazebrook, G.J. & Kenworthy, J. 2012, 'All aboard: the growth of global rail and our future cities', The Conversation, vol. 4 December.
Glazebrook, G.J. 2011, 'Generating Solutions For Sustainable Urban Transport - The Sydney Experience', Road and Transport Research: a journal of Australian and New Zealand research and practice, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 58-64.
Cities in both the developed and developing world are struggling to make their urban transport more sustainable. After decades of growing car dominance, public transport, walking and cycling are making a comeback. But building a more sustainable city mea
Studies looking at the relationship between urban form and travel behaviour have generally considered spatial information at coarse metropolitan or local government area scales. We analyse ABS census data at the Collection District level for the metropolitan areas of the mainland Australian state capital cities, and at various spatial scales for an in-depth analysis of commuting in Sydney. The analyses suggest that the relationship between travel behaviour and urban form is complex, and that simple analyses of density alone are likely to overstate the effect of both metropolitan and neighbourhood scale population density on mode choice, but that these variables serve as useful proxies for more complex measures of urban structure.
Glazebrook, G.J. 2009, 'Taking the Con Out of Convenience: The True Cost of Transport Modes in Sydney', Urban Policy and Research, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 5-24.
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There has been growing interest internationally in the development of comprehensive estimates of the costs of urban transport, fuelled by concerns over global warming, peak oil, road congestion, tolls and public transport subsidies. This article examines the internal and external costs of major modes in Sydney. In terms of total costs, trains are the cheapest, followed by buses, with cars the most expensive. However, the 'out-of-pocket costs' paid by motorists at the time of making a trip are less than one-sixth of total costs. This suggests rational individual travel choices do not add up to rational travel patterns for the city, and that we are paying heavily as a society for the convenience of cars. Governments need to give higher priority for public transport (particularly rail which has the lowest overall costs of any mode) and to change pricing for urban travel, if we are to develop more sustainable cities.
The nature and form of the urban environment is a critical determinant of the sustainability of our society, as it is responsible directly for a large proportion of consumed energy, and influences indirectly the patterns and modes of energy consumed in everyday activities. We examine the current state of research into the energy and greenhouse gas emissions attributable directly or indirectly to urban form. Specifically, we look at the embodied (construction) and operational energy attributable to the construction, maintenance and use of residential dwellings, and we review the literature on the relationship between urban structure and private travel behaviour. While there is clear evidence from both intra- and inter-city comparisons that higher density, transit-oriented cities have lower per-capita transport energy use, the effect of housing density on residential (in-house) energy use is less clear. More detailed research is needed to examine the relationships between urban form and overall energy use.
This paper examines the potential implications of peak oil and global warming for urban passenger transport in Sydney. After analysing patterns of transport fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions for Sydney, the paper examines potential mitigation strategies, including options for minimizing travel demand, reducing oil and CO2 intensiveness, and shifting travel to more sustainable modes. It then proposes some plausible future scenarios for oil supplies and climate change, and examines their implications for urban transport in Sydney. The paper concludes that policy options for addressing these future scenarios exist but will need to be accelerated to avoid the risk of major disruptions to our lifestyles and economy.