Otsuji, E. & Pennycook, A.D. 2014, 'Unremarkable Hybridities and Metrolingual Practices' in Rubdy, R. & Alsagoff, L. (eds), The Global_Local Interface and Hybridity, Multilingual Matters, Bristol, pp. 83-99.
Otsuji, E. 2010, ''Where Am I From': Performative and 'Metro' Perspectives of Origin' in Nunan, D. & Choi, J. (eds), Language and Culture, Routledge, New York, pp. 186-193.
I am sitting at a desk in 'my' room in Tokyo. It is the desk which was passed on to me from my father. Next to the desk, a doll that was bought on one of the family trips to Italy when I was a primary school student is sitting on top of an old upright piano. I open the lid of the piano and I touch the scratches on the space beside the piano keys. I can hear my piano teacher's voice: 'Play ten times for each piece every day.' The scratches must have been from ten yen coins when r transferred them from one side of the piano to the other each time I practiced a piece. An old fashioned bookshelf is half opened and First Love by Ivan Turgenev, The Great Gatsby by Scott Fitzgerald, and Golden Pavilion by Yukio Mishima are peeking out. As I further open the bookshelf, the smell of old papers tingles my nose. On the wall, there is my oil painting of Queens Park in Edinburgh, the view from my window when I was living there at the age of twelve, with five sheep of identical size between the top and the bottom of the hill; I also see the picture ofShwedagon Pagoda that was given to me when I was backpacking in Burma at the age of twenty. This is the room where I stayed up all night st ruggling to write an essay on Martin Heidegger's Being and Time regretting that I started at the last minute. I used to belong to and played a big role in constructing this culturally 'schizophrenic' space twenty years ago when I was a university student. Now this room is used as a guest room and I also have been an occasional sojourner for almost twenty years. Theoretically, I do not 'own' this room anymore, but whenever I find any traces from my past, I feel as if r have found a precious shiny marble in the bottom of my drawer. 1 write in this room in 2008 back from Sydney visiting my mother to spend Christmas and New Year.
Lee, A. & Otsuji, E. 2009, 'Critical discourse analysis and the problem of methodology' in Critical Discourse Analysis: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 65-77.
The question of methodology in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is complex and emergent as the field grows and develops after coming to prominence as a major arm of the broader field of discourse analysis over the past decade or so. The boundaries of CDA within this broader field have formed in relation to a certain conception of the 'critical' - itself a particular subset of possible ways of being critical. As a consequence, CDA evinces a particular set of research questions that can be asked by means of the particular kinds of critical theory that are drawn on. This chapter discusses key questions that arise in a consideration of CDA in terms of research methodology: is CDA a methodology, a set of methods, a theory, or theoretical orientation? Is it a movement, a school? What methodological questions are and are not being addressed within the literature in CDA? We consider the methodological underpinnings of CDA in terms of their epistemological implications - what kind of knowledge is produced by CDA methods. W first present a brief overview of some of the key discussions of method and methodology within a representative array of recent texts, then take up a set of issues for further debate, in order to situate CDA within contemporary debates about social research methodology. These issues include dialectical relations, researcher positioning, reception and reflexivity. The chapter challenges CDA to become more reflexive about its epistemological and methodological underpinnings. 2009 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
Otsuji, E. 2000, 'The application of critical discourse analysis to intercultural interaction' in Mackie, V., Skoutarides, A. & Tokita, A. (eds), Japanese studies: communities, cultures, critiques, vol 4: New directions in Japanese linguistics, Monash Asia Institute, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 93-104.
Otsuji, E. 2005, 'Are we bastardising English and Japanese?- Translingual Casual Conversation between Japanese and Australians in a Workplace Situation'.
Otsuji, E. 2004, 'Performativity, translinguality and identities'.
A number of studies look at code-switching and bilingual identity. The majority of these studies are based on the understanding that there are pre-given discrete language systems. Pennycook (2004) challenged this foundational notion of language. He proposes language as a sedimented product of performative acts and identities as dynamically constructed through linguistic performance. The paper seeks to scrutinize bilingual and code-switching studies by applying Pennycook's notions. The paper does this by unpacking a study into the co-construction processes of language and identity of Japanese and Australian in work contexts. By applying Critical Discourse Analysis, the study reveals that participants' performative acts are affected by both macro (socio-cultural and geo-political) factors and their biographical histories
Otsuji, E. 2004, 'Performativity and translingual identities'.
Otsuji, E. 2003, 'Critical discourse analysis for transcultural communication: casual conversation in transcultural Australian workplaces'.
One of the consequences of globalisation is that socio-cultural, economical and geopolitical borders become less apparent and that in turn, impacts on discursive and social practices (Luke, 2002). Within globalisation, contact between people from distinct cultural and social backgrounds has become more prevalent in work contexts. As a result of this globalisation, Welsch (1999) proposes that a paradigm shift from inter-cultural to transcultural exists. Transculturality is a cultural hybrid, the interconnection and hybridization of different cultures. The aim of this paper is to investigate how such globalisation affects business discourse, especially by looking at the transcultural processes involved in casual conversation between Japanese and Australians in an Australian context. Conversation in institutional settings has been studied by various researchers. However, most studies tend to oversimplify talk as if all talk in given institutional settings is uni-modal by contrasting its characteristics with ordinary casual conversation (Drew 2002). Contrary to this trend, Holmes & Fillary (2000) and Slade (1997) looked at gossip and small talk in work contexts and were concerned with the role of small talk as a social and interpersonal skill in the workplace. However, both studies were set in largely mono-cultural settings and did not look at negotiating the dimensions of social identity, social reality, ethnicity and membership from a transcultural perspective. In this paper, by exploring what is going on during casual conversation in transcultural workplaces I aim to, 1) identify the emergence of a 'third culture' in the process of co-constructing a new type of transcultural text and, 2) identify the way in which casual conversation, social reality, identity, ethnicity and power relationships of the participants, as well as the context, are reflected in the process of the construction of the casual conversation in question.
Otsuji, E. 2003, 'Business Japanese Textbooks: Multi-Perspective Analysis'.
Otsuji, E. 2001, 'Producing the third space; practices and construction processes around a Japanese business textbook'.
Otsuji, E. 2001, 'Re-evaluation of Critical Discourse Analysis'.
Otsuji, E. 2001, 'Evaluation of Business Japanese Textbooks: Issues of Gender'.
Otsuji, E. 1999, 'Dialectics of control: How to re-negotiate one's position in the inter-cultural business interactions'.
Otsuji, E. 1998, 'Negotiating on the macro-micro level in intercultural business interaction'.
Otsuji, E. 1998, 'Where does the individual stand in Critical Discourse Analysis?",'.
Otsuji, E. 1997, 'Theoretical and methodological examination of Critical Discourse Analysis and its application to intercultural business interaction'.
Otsuji, E. 1997, 'On the Application of Critical Discourse Analysis to Intercultural Interaction'.
Otsuji, E. 1996, 'An analysis of interaction between native and non-native speakers of Japanese in work places in Sydney'.
Pennycook, A. & Otsuji, E. 2014, 'Metrolingual multitasking and spatial repertoires: 'Pizza mo two minutes coming'', Journal of Sociolinguistics, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 161-184.
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Drawing on data from two restaurants in Sydney and Tokyo, this paper describes the ways in which linguistic resources, everyday tasks and social space are intertwined in terms of metrolingual multitasking. Rather than the demolinguistic enumeration of mappable multilingualism or the language-to-language or language-to-person focus of translingualism, metrolingualism focuses on everyday language practices and their relations to urban space. In order to capture the dynamism of the urban linguistic landscape, this paper explores this relationship between metrolingual multitasking - the ways in which linguistic resources, activities and urban space are bound together - and spatial repertoires - the linguistic resources available in a particular place - arguing that a focus on resources, repertoires, space, place and activity helps us understand how multilingualism from below operates in complex urban places. 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pennycook, A.D. & Otsuji, E. 2014, 'Metrolingual multitasking and spatial repertoires: 'Pizza mo two minutes coming'', Journal of Sociolinguistics, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 161-184.
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Drawing on data from two restaurants in Sydney and Tokyo, this paper describes the ways in which linguistic resources, everyday tasks and social space are intertwined in terms of metrolingual multitasking. Rather than the demolinguistic enumeration of mappable multilingualism or the language-to-language or language-to-person focus of translingualism, metrolingualism focuses on everyday language practices and their relations to urban space. In order to capture the dynamism of the urban linguistic landscape, this paper explores this relationship between metrolingual multitasking the ways in which linguistic resources, activities and urban space are bound together and spatial repertoires the linguistic resources available in a particular place arguing that a focus on resources, repertoires, space, place and activity helps us understand how multilingualism from below operates in complex urban places.
Drawing on data recorded in two city markets, this article analyzes the language practices of workers and customers as they go about their daily business, with a particular focus on the ways in which linguistic resources, everyday tasks, and social spaces are intertwined in producing metrolingua francas. The aim of the article is to come to a better understanding of the relationships among the use of diverse linguistic resources (drawn from different languages, varieties, and registers), the repertoires of the workers, the activities in which they are engaged, and the larger space in which this occurs. Developing the idea of spatial repertoires as the linguistic resources available in particular places, we explore the ways in which metrolingua francas (metrolingual multilingua francas) emerge from the spatial resources of such markets.
Looking at two sets of conversations, among Greek adolescents, and between Japanese and Australian workers, this article shows how a poststructuralist understanding of the ways in which participants use and mix elements of their language repertoires implies a view of language as performative. Although the poststructuralist element of our approach on the one hand foregrounds a questioning of stable categories of language, identity, and assumed modes of mixing, our development of an understanding of performativity allows us to consider seriously the processes by which language and identity are constantly being remade. For the participants themselves, this is not simply a question of fluid language practices, but rather the interplay of fixed and unfixed language elements, cultural identifications, and social relationships. Reinvigorating Butler's account of performativity, our analysis and comparison of these two sets of data shows how a poststructuralist consideration of performativity sheds light on the relationship between the ongoing production of subjectivity and the deployment of fixed, stable, or stereotypical categories of identity. 2012 Oxford University Press 2012.
Otsuji, E. & Pennycook, A. 2011, 'Social inclusion and metrolingual practices', International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 413-426.
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In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all too often premised on an understanding of language use that cannot escape its origins in statist understandings of language ideologieswhere a particular language is associated with a particular cultural, ethnic or geographical configuration. Recent studies show the creative ways in which language users cross linguistic and cultural boundaries to form new linguistic and cultural possibilities. In this paper, we therefore ask how we can open up an understanding of social inclusion to include not only the recognition of bilingual capacity but also the fluidity and flux of the metrolingual workplace where creative language use beyond static linguistic boundaries are present. Such a move, however, raises important questions for what is included and excluded in any model of social inclusion since it renders the boundaries of difference more fluid than in other approaches to language diversity.We conclude by suggesting to the extent that social inclusion has become the 'new multiculturalism', it can, if broadly conceived and allied to metrolingualism, present a new way forward in understanding language and social disadvantage. 2011 Taylor & Francis.
Otsuji, E. 2011, 'Metrolingualism and Japanese language education: Linguistic competence across borders', Literacies, vol. 9, pp. 21-30.
This paper critically examines what constitutes language competency and language education within the globalised society by elucidating ways in which language, culture, ethnicities and identities are constructed in and through conversations between` Japanese and` Australians. While Japanese language education is still primarily premised on the monolingual mindset failing to situate Japanese language within multilingual environments, the paper proposes that language education should take into account the newly defined notion of metrolingualism. Metrolingualism is a productive linguistic space which emerges through the interaction between normative and fixed understandings of language and fluid (hybrid) and dynamic understandings. It is suggested that metrolingualism will allow students to develop their capacity to construct their own linguistic environment by manipulating and managing their own diverse linguistic resources and proposes the need to incorporate metrolingual perspectives in understanding linguistic competency and language education theory within globalisation
Otsuji, E. & Pennycook, A. 2010, 'Metrolingualism: Fixity, fluidity and language in flux', International Journal of Multilingualism, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 240-254.
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By extending the notion of metroethnicity, this paper proposes the notion of metrolingualism, creative linguistic practices across borders of culture, history and politics. Metrolingualism gives us a way to move beyond current terms such as 'multilingualism' and 'multiculturalism'. It is a product of modern and often urban interaction, describing the ways in which people of different and mixed backgrounds use, play with and negotiate identities through language. The focus is not so much on language systems as on languages as emergent from contexts of interaction. Looking at data from workplaces where metrolingual language use is common, we show how the use of both fixed and fluid linguistic and cultural identities is part of the process of language use. The notion of metrolingualism gives us ways of moving beyond common frameworks of language, providing insights into contemporary, urban language practices, and accommodating both fixity and fluidity in its approach to language use. 2010 Taylor & Francis.
Otsuji, E. & Kinoshita Thomson, C. 2009, 'Promoting 'Third Space' Identities: A Case Study of the Teaching of Business Japanese', Portal Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-21.
This paper argues that the teaching and learning of a foreign language involves students in the construction of their own identities between cultural and linguistic practices. The study looks at the interconnected practices of the content of the textbook, the classroom teaching and teachers ideological stance in relation to students gender identity construction. It examines how all the practices jointly contribute to a foreign language learning experience. In particular, the construction of (gender) identities of the learners explicated through a case study of a Japanese business classroom practice.
Kinoshita Thomson, C. & Otsuji, E. 2009, 'Multidimensional examination of gender in a business Japanese textbook', Japanese-Language Education around the Globe, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 49-67.
In Japanese "female language" and "male language" are "language resources" (Nakamura 2007), which people use or avoid using to construct one's gender identities. This study examined a business Japanese textbook from gender perspective. In order to understand the Japanese language teaching and learning practices in terms of gender, the study engaged in the content analysis of the textbook, email interviews of the textbook writers, classroom observations, as well as interviews of the teacher and students. The discussion of data includes how gender was understood, and expressed in the textbook and how it was taught and learned using the textbook. The study found that it is difficult for even the most experienced teacher to critically consume the textbook content; and the events surrounding the textbook are quite complex. It therefore suggests the needs for textbooks to have explicit explanations and tasks that enable learners to use the "language resources" effectively. The paper also advocates the multi-perspective textbook analysis in order to capture the complexity.
Maher, D., Seaton, L., McMullen, C., Fitzgerald, T., Otsuji, E. & Lee, A. 2008, ''Becoming and being writers': The experiences of doctoral students in writing groups', Studies in Continuing Education, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 263-275.
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The use of writing groups to support students undertaking post-graduate research within universities has begun to receive attention from academic supervisors and doctoral researchers. Very little has been written by doctoral students themselves on the benefits of working within such writing groups. In this article, the experiences of working within a doctoral writing group at an Australian University are presented, primarily from the perspective of students. The authors identify two main benefits they have experienced through participating in a writing group using a 'multi-voiced' approach. First, they discuss the kind of learning that they achieved through working in a writing group. They do this with reference to key principles of peer learning and of peer review. Second, they focus on the ways the group worked as a community of discursive social practice. An overarching message for them in participating in the group and now writing this article is the shift in their thinking and experience of writing from seeing writing as an essentially private and implicit process to writing becoming a matter of public and shared work. These two notions are bound by the concept of identity building, drawing from the literature on communities of practice.
Kinoshita Thomson, C. & Otsuji, E. 2003, 'Evaluation of Business Japanese Textbooks: Issues of Gender', Japanese Studies, vol. 23, no. 2 September, pp. 185-203.
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