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Associate Professor Elaine Jeffreys

Biography

Elaine Jeffreys is an Australian Research Council Future Fellow (FT100100238) and Associate Professor in China studies. Elaine is the author of Prostitution Scandals in China: Policing, Media and Society (2012 Routledge) and China, Sex and Prostitution (2012 [2004] Routledge). She is editor of China's Governmentalities: Governing Change, Changing Government (2011 [2009] Routledge) and Sex and Sexuality in China (2009 [2006] Routledge); and co-editor, with Louise Edwards, of Celebrity in China (2010 Hong Kong University Press).

Image of Elaine Jeffreys
Associate Professor, International Studies Program
PhD (Melb)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 7425
Room
CB10.05.421

Research Interests

  • Philanthropy, Celebrity and Governance in the People’s Republic of China
  • Being Famous in China: Celebrities, Heroes and Public Figures
  • Governing Prostitution in the People’s Republic of China
She maintains a broad interest in social change in China and social theory more generally.

Can supervise: Yes

Book Chapters

Jeffreys, E. 2012, 'Prostitution and Propaganda in the People's Republic of China' in Anne-Marie Brady (ed), China's Thought Management, Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon, pp. 146-163.
The article explores the development of Chineese propeganda in educating the prositution industry on the prevention of HIV/AIDS. It explores how the government, which has long been against prositution since the 1950's, has been able to justfy working with the industry in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the country.
Jeffreys, E. 2012, '"Over My Dead Body": Media Constructions of Forced Prostitution in the People's Republic of China' in Devleena Ghosh (ed), Shadowlines: Women and Borders in Contemporary Asia, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastel-on-Tyne, pp. 36-63.
Jeffreys, E. & Edwards, L.P. 2010, 'Celebrity/China' in Jeffreys, Elaine and Edwards, Louise (eds), Celebrity in China, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong, pp. 1-20.
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Celebrity is a pervasive aspect of everyday life and a growing field of academic inquiry. There is now a substantial body of literature Oil celebrity culture in Australia, Europe and the Americas. This literature covers a wide variety of fields, including: film, literature, popular music, political, and sports stardom; celebrity CEOs, and the relationship between the media and celebrity. I All of these texts seek to understand why the production and consumption of celebrity has become such a common feature of life in recent decades. Some commentators regard celebrity as epitomizing the trivial and deplorable aspects of popular culture (e.g. Boorstin 1972). But increasing numbers of others are concerned to understand the way cultural and economic shifts have helped create a mass-mediated celebrity industry and also to examine the social functions of celebrity, particularly its relation to new forms of individual and community identity (Hardey 2005; Marshall 1997, 2004, 2006; Redmond and Holmes 2007; Turner 2004).
Jeffreys, E. 2010, 'Accidental Celebrites: China's Chastity Heroines and Charity' in Elaine Jeffreys and Louise Edwards (eds), Celebrity in China, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong, pp. 67-84.
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Celebrity is a pervasive aspect of everyday life and a growing field of academic inquiry. There is now a substantial body of literature Oil celebrity culture in Australia, Europe and the Americas. This literature covers a wide variety of fields, including: film, literature, popular music, political, and sports stardom; celebrity CEOs, and the relationship between the media and celebrity. I All of these texts seek to understand why the production and consumption of celebrity has become such a common feature of life in recent decades. Some commentators regard celebrity as epitomizing the trivial and deplorable aspects of popular culture (e.g. Boorstin 1972).
Jeffreys, E. & Sigley, G. 2009, 'Governmentality, governance and China' in Elaine Jeffreys (ed), China's Governmentalities: governing change, changing government, Routledge, New York, USA, pp. 1-23.
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Governmentality - a term coined by Michel Foucault (1979, 1991) to describe a rethinking ofthe notion ofgovernment - has become a key concept in the humanities and social sciences since the 1990s. Defined as 'the conduct of conduct', that is, any more or less calculated means of directing how we behave and act, the concept of governmentality has generated a proliferating body of work on the 'how' of governing: how we govern; how we are governed; and the relation between the government of the state, the government of others and the government of ourselves (Dean 1999: 2). What might be called 'governmentality studies' thus signifies an interdisciplinary approach to examining how the government of human conduct is thought about and acted upon by authorities and individuals, by invoking particular forms of 'truth' and using specific means and resources (ibid.: 1-3).
Jeffreys, E. & Yingying, H. 2009, 'Governing Sexual Health in the People's Republic of China' in Elaine Jeffreys (ed), China's Governmentalities: governing change, changing government, Routledge, New York, pp. 151-173.
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China's post-1978 shift from a planned to a market economy has been accompanied by the withdrawal ofthe Party-state from much of its previous commitment to social welfare provision. This situation has not only heightened people's vulnerability to basic risks, but also generated new expectations that individuals will become more self-regulating in areas such as health management, education and job creation (Hyde 2007151-52; Saich 2004: 1-27). In China today, as in many western societies, health increasingly is viewed as a commodity - something that can be bought and sold through privatized healthcare programmes or the consumption of health products - and as an individual goal- it is an individual's moral and social responsibility to be healthy and to remain healthy. In other words, health is not just a 'base or default state'; it is something to be monitored, protected and worked toward via the maintenance of a healthy life-style, both for the sake of oneself and for the good of society as a whole (Clarke et al. 2003: 162, 171-72).
Jeffreys, E. 2009, 'Serial Prostitute Homicide in the Chinese Media' in Lisa M. Cuklanz and Sujata Moorti (eds), Local Violence, Global Media: Feminist Analyses of Gendered Representations, Peter Lang, New York, USA, pp. 27-46.
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Women in prostitution are documented victims of serial killers, both hisrorically and in the present day. I Jack the Ripper-probably the most infamous serial killer in the Anglophone world-was the alias given to a person who murdered and mutilated at least four and possibly up to eight women, many of whom were allegedly prostitutes, in the Whitechapel area of London in 1888.' While not the first serial killer, Jack the Ripper became a household name primarily because the gruesome details of the case were covered by an emerging popular press, keen to expose manifest social injustice in the context of rapid industrialization to an increasingly literate general population.:' Media coverage capitalized on local concerns by portraying London's East End as a hot-bed of vice, stressing either "the need for social reform to alleviate the poverty causing crime" or berating the metropolitan police for failing to protect lower-class women by catching the perpetrator." The "Ripper" appellative is now routinely attached to serial-murder hunts by the tabloid press.
Jeffreys, E. 2009, 'Feminist Prostitution Debates: Are There any Sex Workers in China?' in Louise Edwards and Mina Roces (eds), Women in Asia, Rutledge, Abingdon, Oxen, NY., pp. 301-325.
Jeffreys, E. 2008, 'Advanced producers or moral polluters? China's bureaucrat-entrepreneurs and sexual corruption' in David S.G. Goodman (ed), The New Rich in China: Future Rulers, Present Lives, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 243-291.
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Jeffreys, E. 2008, '(Women in Asia) Over My Dead Body! Media Constructions of Forced Prostitution in the People's Republic of China' in Gong Siyi (ed), Kuibuji Shanghai Daxue Xini Keji Daxue Xueshu Yantaohui Lunwenji, Shangda Press, Shanghai, pp. 167-186.
This paper examines some of the tensions surrounding the PRC's official policy of banning prostitution by focusing on two highly publicized cases of deceptive recruiting for sexual services - the 'Tang Shengli Incident' and the'Liu Yanhua Incident'. Both cases involve young rural women who had migrated from their native homes to other more economically developed parts of China to look for work. Both were forced to sell sex and both resisted.However, whereas Tang Shengli jumped from a building rather than be forced into prostitution, Liu Yanhua escaped from conditions akin to sexual servitude by stabbing her 'employer'. An examination of these cases highlights some of the problems associated with efforts by the Chinese women's media to promote and protect women's rights in a country marked by rapid, yet unequal, economic growth and an expanding, albeit banned, sex industry.
Jeffreys, E. 2008, 'Querying Queer Theory: Debating Male-Male Prostitution in the Chinese Media' in Rachel Murphy and Vanessa L Fong (eds), Media, Identity, and Struggle in Twenty-First-Century China, Routledge, Oxon, pp. 66-82.
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Jeffreys, E. 2006, 'Introduction:Talking Sex and Sexuality in China' in Jeffreys, E. (eds), Sex and Sexuality in China, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1-20.
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Jeffreys, E. 2006, 'Debating the Legal Regulation of Sex-Related Bribery and Corruption in the People's Republic of China' in Jeffreys, E. (eds), Sex and Sexuality in China, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 159-178.
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Jeffreys, E. 2004, 'Feminist Prostitution Debates: Are There Any Sex Workers in China?' in McLaren, Anne (eds), Chinese Women: Living and Working, RoutledgeCurzon, London & New York, pp. 165-211.
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Books

Jeffreys, E. 2012, Prostitution Scandals in China: Policing, Media and Society, 1, Routledge, UK.
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Prostitution Scandals in China presents an examination of media coverage of prostitution-related scandals in contemporary China. It demonstrates that the subject of prostitution is not only widely debated, but also that these public discussions have ramifications for some of the key social, legal and political issues affecting citizens of the PRC. Further, this book shows how these public discussions impact on issues as diverse as sexual exploitation, civil rights, government corruption, child and youth protection, policing abuses, and public health
Jeffreys, E. 2012, China, Sex and Prostitution, paperback, RoutledgeCurzon, London & New York.
Jeffreys, E. 2011, China's Governmentalities, Routledge, New York.
Jeffreys, E. & Edwards, L.P. 2010, Celebrity in China, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong.
Jeffreys, E. 2009, China's Governmentalities: governing change, changing government, Routledge, New York.
Jeffreys, E. 2009, Sex and Sexuality in China, Routledge, London, New York.
Jeffreys, E. 2005, Sex and Sexuality in China, RoutledgeCurzon, London; New York.
Jeffreys, E. 2004, China, Sex and Prostitution, 1, RoutledgeCurzon, London & New York.
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Recently re-released (2012) in paperback edition by Routledge. http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415646567/

Conference Papers

Jeffreys, E. 2003, 'A Matter of Choice:Feminist Prostitution Debates and the Example of China', Harvard University (Asia Centre), November 2003 in Critical Policy Studies of China International Workshop, ed N/A, Harvard University, Massachusetts, USA.
Conference agenda found at : http://web.mit.edu/chinapolicy/www/conference1/finalagenda.pdf

Journal Articles

Jeffreys, E. & Su, X. 2013, 'China's growing culture of philanthropy', Asian Currents, vol. October, no. 92, pp. 22-24.
Jeffreys, E. & Wang, P. 2013, 'The rise of Chinese-foreign marriage in mainland China, 1979-2010', China Information, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 347-369.
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This research note examines the growth of Chinese-foreign marriage in mainland China since 1979. From the founding of the People+s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949 until the early 1990s, Chinese-foreign marriage was an unusual occurrence in the country. Statistics compiled by the PRC+s Ministry of Civil Affairs indicate that the number of couples registering a Chinese-foreign marriage in mainland China increased almost tenfold between 1979 and 2010, although that figure has since stabilized at a lower rate. The article explores these changes in three stages. First, it maps the architecture of the PRC+s Marriage Laws and reform-era regulations on marriage registration, showing how Chinese-foreign marriages have been categorized as different types of `cross-border+ and international marriages. Second, it provides a statistical breakdown of the number, type and gendered composition of Chinese-foreign marriages registered in mainland China between 1979 and 2010. It concludes by highlighting the gendered character and spatial dimensions of mainland Chinese-foreign marriages, and pointing to their largely `intracultural+ as opposed to international bases.
Jeffreys, E. & Wang, S. 2012, 'Migrant Beggars and Buskers - China's Have-Less Celebrities', Critical Asian Studies, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 571-596.
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This article examines issues of migrancy and socioeconomic disadvantage in present-day China with references to two cases involving the celebritization of migrant beggars and buskers. The first concerns Cheng Guorong, a 34-year-old vagrant beggar with mental health issues who became an international fashion icon known as +Brother Sharp+ in 2010 after an amateur photographer posted candid photographs of him walking down a street on an internet forum. The second case involves two migrant buskers in Beijing who performed to an audience of around 1 billion viewers worldwide on China Central Television Station's annual Spring Festival Gala in 2011, after a friend posted a mobile phone video clip of them singing on his microblog. These cases show how the mediated contexts provided by the World Wide Web, combined with the corollary growth of a young digital-technology+savvy population, are generating new entertainment-orientated communities and celeb-rity-making practices in China. It also shows how these seemingly apolitical entertainment practices are refashioning public debates about the politics of prosperity and equality.
Jeffreys, E. 2012, 'Modern China's Idols: Heroes, Role Models, Stars and Celebrities', Portal Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-32.
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This paper examines the diversity of China+s popular culture idols with reference to a commemorative website called `The Search for Modern China+, which was launched in late September 2009 to celebrate the sixtieth anniversary of the founding of the People+s Republic of China (PRC) under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party on 1 October 1949. The website+s framing narrative suggests that the history of idol production and celebrity in the PRC can be viewed crudely as marked by disjuncture: the decline of heavy-handed Party-state involvement in the propagandistic manufacturing of socialist idols of production, followed by the grafted-on rise of western-style media-manufactured celebrities as idols of capitalist consumption. However, an analysis of the website+s pantheon of idols reveals that while some idols from the Maoist and early reform period have been relegated to the realm of fiction, revolutionary kitsch or are now simply pass, others remain very much alive in the popular imagination. A state-led project of promoting patriotic education has ensured the coexistence in commercial popular culture of revolutionary idols and contemporary celebrities, via memory sites associated with broadcast television, DVDs and the Internet, and the historical locations, museums and monuments of `red tourism.+
Jeffreys, E. 2012, 'China's First National Charity Fair: Towards 2015', CSAA Newsletter, vol. 44.
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Jeffreys, E. & Su, G. 2011, 'China's 100 Per Cent Condom Use Program: Customising the Thai Experience', Asian Studies Review, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 315-333.
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This paper examines the adoption and roll-out of a 100 Per Cent Condom Use Program (100% CUP) in the People++s Republic of China (PRC). It first details the initial implementation of a 100% CUP in Thailand and explains how this created a framework for action in other developing countries. It then examines the implementation of pilot programs in China. We conclude that governmental authorities in the PRC now actively target designated high-risk populations such as female sex workers in order to combat the spread of sexually transmissible infections and HIV/AIDS. This has resulted in the introduction of new legal frameworks and the use of widespread media publicity to promote condom use and safer-sex strategies. However, the more effective implementation of a national 100% CUP in China requires attention to the problems associated with the legal and social marginalisation of female sex workers, which is reinforced by police-led crackdowns on prostitution.
Jeffreys, E. 2011, 'Zhang Ziyi and China's Celebrity - Philanthropy Scandals', Portal Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-21.
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In January 2010, the internationally acclaimed Chinese actor, Zhang Ziyi, became a focus of public criticism for allegedly defaulting on a pledge to donate one million yuan to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake disaster-relief fund. That earthquake not only killed 70,000 people and left five million homeless, but also produced a dramatic rise in individual and corporate philanthropy in China. Philanthropic donations in 2008 amounted to a total figure of 100 billion yuan, exceeding the documented total for the preceding decade. Zhang+s `failed pledge+ led fans and critics to accuse her in interactive media forums of both charity fraud and generating a nationwide crisis of faith in the philanthropic activities of the rich and famous. Dubbed `donation-gate+, the ensuing controversy obliged Zhang Ziyi to hire a team of USA-based lawyers, to give an exclusive interview to the China Daily, and to engage in renewed philanthropic endeavours, in an effort to clear her name. Hence, contrary to claims that celebrity philanthropy is an apolitical mode of philanthropy, an examination of the Zhang Ziyi scandal and its disaster-relief precursors demonstrates that celebrity philanthropy in the People+s Republic of China is a political affair.
Jeffreys, E. 2010, 'Exposing Police Corruption and Malfeasance: China's Virgin Prostitutes Cases', The China Journal, vol. 63, pp. 127-149.
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This paper examines prostitution-related police corruption and malfeasance in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) during the early 2000s, as exemplified by media coverage of the story of Ma Dandan and six other virgin prostitute cases (chun maiyin an +-). At 8 p.m. on 8 January 2001, Ma Dandan, an eighteen-year-old woman from Jingyang County in Shaanxi Province, was watching television with her brother-in-law and niece in her sisters hairdressing salon. Two plainclothes police officers, Wang Haitao and Hu Anding, entered the premises and took her to the local police station for questioning about alleged involvement in the banned practice of prostitution. At the station, Wang and Hu, in the presence of chief police officer, Peng Liang, subjected Ma to 23 hours of abuse. She was slapped and kicked, sexually harassed, deprived of food, drink and sleep, and handcuffed to an outside basketball frame in the cold winter air, with the aim of forcing her to admit to engaging in prostitution. Having signed a confession under duress, Ma was released at 7 p.m. the following evening. The Jingyang County Police Department then issued a document imposing an administrative punishment fine on Ma Dandan for involvement in prostitution and sentencing her to 15 days administrative detention. Ma eventually appealed that decision, demanding an apology from the policing authorities, restoration of her reputation and reparation of five million yuan for psychological distress, on the grounds that she was a virgin.
Jeffreys, E. 2010, 'Regulating private affairs in contemporary China: Private investigators and the policing of spousal infidelity', China Information, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 149-167.
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This article examines the recent emergence of China+s private investigation industry, focusing on investigators of spousal infidelity. It outlines the professed business rationales of private investigators that target women experiencing marital crises, including claims that they provide a necessary social service, protect women+s rights, promote anti-corruption measures, and uphold Chinese law. It also details growing criticisms of China+s +infidelity sleuths+ for violating Chinese law and citizens+ rights. Finally, the article examines some of the proposed responses to the problems associated with private investigators and the policing of infidelity. The demand for such services highlights the laissez-faire position that economic reform has increasingly forced China+s governmental authorities to assume with regard to regulating the private affairs of Chinese citizens.
Jeffreys, E. 2007, 'Querying Queer Theory - Debating Male-Male Prostitution in the Chinese Media', Critical Asian Studies, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 151-175.
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This article examines media publicity surrounding the case of Li Ning - a 34-year-old native of Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province, who made legal history in the People's Republic of China (PRC) on 17 October 2004 when he was sentenced to eight years jail and fined 60,000 yuan for organizing male-male prostitution services in a recreational business enterprise. Reportedly the first conviction of its kind, the case proved to be controversial for three reasons. First, it prompted legal debate over the nature of China's recent shift to a "rule of law" and associated conceptions of due legal process and individual and sexual rights. Second, it intimated that homosocial prostitution - male-male prostitution in which neither participant may self-identify as homosexual - is an integral but frequently neglected component of China's burgeoning, albeit banned, sex industry. Finally, it raised questions regarding the perceived appropriate parameters of same-sex sexual conduct in a country facing rapidly increasing rates of HIV/AIDS infection. An examination of media coverage of these concerns suggests that accusations of official homophobia in the PRC are overstated: they elide the specificity of debates on homosexuality in present- day China due to their overarching concern with Western understandings of sexuality as constitutive of selfhood and ( rightful) sociopolitical identity.
Jeffreys, E. 2006, 'Governing Buyers of Sex in the People's Republic of China', Economy and Society, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 571-593.
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Jeffreys, E. 2006, 'Over my dead body! Media constructions of forced prostitution in the People's Republic of China', PORTAL Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies: Women in Asia Special Issue, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1-27.
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This paper examines some of the tensions surrounding the PRC+s official policy of banning prostitution by focusing on two highly publicized cases of deceptive recruiting for sexual services+the `Tang Shengli Incident+ and the `Liu Yanhua Incident+. Both cases involve young rural women who had migrated from their native homes to other more economically developed parts of China to look for work. Both were forced to sell sex and both resisted. However, whereas Tang Shengli jumped from a building rather than be forced into prostitution, Liu Yanhua escaped from conditions akin to sexual servitude by stabbing her `employer+. An examination of these cases highlights some of the problems associated with efforts by the Chinese women+s media to promote and protect women+s rights in a country marked by rapid, yet unequal, economic growth and an expanding, albeit banned, sex industry.
Jeffreys, E. 2006, 'China and Governmentality - Special Issue', Economy and Society, vol. 35, no. 4.
Jeffreys, E. 2003, 'Transnational Prostitution - a Global Feminist Response', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 18, no. 41, pp. 211-216.
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Jeffreys, E. & Sigley, G. 1999, 'On 'Sex' and 'Sexuality' in China: A Conversation with Pan Suiming (edited and reviewed interview)', Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 50-58.
Jeffreys, E. 1999, 'Forget Feminism and Forget Foucault. Long Live 'Anthropological Sexology' in Chinese Studies! (A Response to William Jankowiak's 'Chinese Women, Gender, And Sexuality: A critical Review of Recent Studies')', Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 42-44.
Jeffreys, E. 1999, 'Interview: On "Sex" and "Sexuality" in China: A Conversation with Pan Suiming', Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 50-58.
Jeffreys, E. & Ross, K. 1998, 'Women & Sexuality In China, by Harriet Evans', China Journal, vol. 40, pp. 207-211.
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Jeffreys, E. 1998, 'Dangerous Pleasures: Prostitution And Modernity In Twentieth-century Shanghai by Gail Hershatter', China Journal, vol. 39, pp. 215-218.
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Jeffreys, E. 1997, 'Prostitution in Contemporary China', Chinese Sociology and Anthropology,, vol. 30, no. 1.
Jeffreys, E. 1997, 'Guest Editor's Introduction', Prostitution in Contemporary China, a Special issue of Chinese Socialogy and Anthropology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 3-27.
Jeffreys, E. 1997, 'Guest Editor's Introduction: Prostitution in Contemporary China', Chinese Sociology and Anthropology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 3-27.
Jeffreys, E. 1997, ''"Dangerous Amusements": Prostitution and Karaoke Halls in Contemporary China'', Asian Studies Review, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 43-54.
The term "dangerous amusements" comes from a text by Mark Connelly which details the construction of prostitution as a socio-political problem in early twentieth-century America.1 While it may seem somewhat odd to begin a discussion of prostitution in present-day China by way of reference to this particular period in American history, Connelly's work offers a useful point of departure for three reasons. First, his use of the term "dangerous amusements" evokes the dualism inherent in most common understandings of prostitution: namely, that the phenomenon of prostitution constitutes both a source of individual pleasure and material gain, and also a potential threat to the values and interests of society at large. The tensions present in this reading also help explain why the prostitute subject has been variously constructed as a sexual healer, a worker engaged in an inevitable or even necessary social practice, and as a depraved and diseased figure that threatens to rot the body politic.
Jeffreys, E. 1994, 'Woman, Nation and Narrative: Western Biographical Accounts of Jiang Qing', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 20, pp. 35-51.
Jeffreys, E. 1994, 'The Humanities, Humanism and Asian Stud', Asian Studies Review, vol. 16, pp. 2-9.
Jeffreys, E. 1991, 'What is 'Difference' in Feminist Theory and Practice?', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 14, pp. 1-15.

Media Output

Jeffreys, E. & Wang, P. 2014, 'Chinese-foreign Marriage in Mainland China', The University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.