Maclurcan, D. 2009, 'Nanotechnology and the Global South: Exploratory Views on Characteristics, Perceptions and Paradigms' in Arnaldi, S., Lorenzet, A. & Russo, F. (eds), Technologies in Progress: Managing the Uncertainty of Nanotechnology, IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 97-112.
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In the Global North, confusion, hype and disagreement plague nanotechnology debates. In the meantime, the debate about the Global South's engagement with nanotechnology has forged ahead, assuming common understandings about what nanotechnology is and what it is not, as well as the general irrelevance of definitional debates. This despite evidence that nanotechnology is being presented in a conflicting manner in the literature, through mixed terminology and imagery, and that little has been documented about Southern understandings. Given the importance of understandings in the genetically-modified foods debate, the way nanotechnology is understood holds serious repercussions for the framing of its ethical, legal and social implications. This chapter reports on the perspectives of Thai and Australian key informants, from a broad range of fields. It seeks to explore and clarify how nanotechnology might be defined, perceived and framed in terms of the South. The results suggest that nanotechnology may be conceptualized in similar ways, focussing on near-term nanotechnology that is defined by a common set of characteristics. Yet, when it comes to the way these conceptualisations translate into applications, there may be large differences in nanotechnology's perceived scope, sophistication and complexity. This holds interesting ramifications for global nanotechnology discourse, particularly in terms of the assumed costs and infrastructure required to conduct nanotechnology research and development and the more general role the South will play in the global nanotechnology picture.
Maclurcan, D. 2009, 'Southern Roles in Global Nanotechnology Innovation: Perspectives from Thailand and Australia', Journal of Nanoethics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 137-156.
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The term `nano-divide has become a catch-phrase for describing various kinds of global nanotechnology inequities. However, there has been little in-depth exploration as to what the global nano-divide really means, and limited commentary on its early nature. Furthermore, the literature often presents countries from the Global South as `passive agents in global nanotechnology innovationwithout the ability to develop endogenous nanotechnology capabilities. Yet others point to nanotechnology providing opportunities for the South to play new roles in the global research and development process. In this paper I report on the findings of a qualitative study that involved the perspectives of 31 Thai and Australian key informants, from a broad range of fields. The study was supplemented by a survey of approximately 10% of the Thai nanotechnology research community at the time. I first explore how the global nano-divide is understood and the implication of the divides constructs in terms of the roles to be played by various countries in global nanotechnology innovation. I then explore the potential nature of Southern passivity and barriers and challenges facing Southern endogenous innovation, as well as an in-depth consideration of the proposition that Southern countries could be `active agents in the nanotechnology process. I argue that it is the nano-divide relating to nanotechnology research and development capabilities that is considered fundamental to nanotechnologys Southern outcomes. The research suggests that Southern countries will encounter many of the traditional barriers to engaging with emerging technology as well as some new barriers relating to the nature of nanotechnology itself. Finally, the research suggests that nanotechnology may offer new opportunities for Southern countries to enter the global research and development picture.
Maclurcan, D. 2008, 'The Change Starts Here', Social Alternatives, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 64-64.
Invernizzi, N., Foladori, G. & Maclurcan, D. 2008, 'Nanotechnology's Controversial Role for the South', Science, Technology and Society, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 123-148.
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The possibility that nanotechnology will turn into an instrument to aid development or alleviate poverty has been discussed explicitly in academic circles, at meetings held by international bodies, and in non-governmental organisations since 1997. The different positions on the role that it can play in the process reflect particular interpretations of the relationship between science, technology and society. We divide the arguments expressed in this discussion in two broad groups. One can be identified as the instrumental position, which emphasises the technical capacity of nanotechnologies to solve poverty problems and spur development. The other group of arguments can be identified as the contextual position by emphasising the social context wherein technology is produced, used and adapted. We summarise and analyse the main arguments in the debate on nanotechnologies, development and poverty. We consider the most influent opinions from organisations, institutions and meetings, presenting their main ideas in chronological order. The outline covers the period from 1997 to late 2007, and reviews the documents that most directly address the issue. Afterwards, we highlight and analyse the main issues at stake in this controversy.
Invernizzi, N., Foladori, G. & Maclurcan, D. 2007, 'The role of nanotechnologies in development and poverty alleviation: a matter of controversy', Journal of Nanotechnology Online, vol. N/A.
Maclurcan, D. 2006, 'Molecular Manufacturing and the Developing World: Looking to Nanotechnology for Answers', Nanotechnology Perceptions, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 137-142.
Ford, M., Cortie, M.B., Maclurcan, D. & Martin, D.K. 2006, 'Real world nanotechnology', Materials Australia, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 10-12.
There is a degree of uncertainty in the public mind concerning the exact subject matter of nanotechnology. Novels such as Michael Crichtons Prey and the movie Agent Codie Banks have primed many to believe that nanotechnology is about tiny (and rather dangerous) nano-robots. Of course, most technically savvy individuals know better, but because this misconception exists there is an obligation on researchers in this field to communicate a more accurate understanding of the topic to the wider community. The Institute for Nanoscale Technology at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) has sought to bridge this gap in understanding.
Maclurcan, D. & Phelps, B. 2006, 'Not-So-Magic Nano', New Matilda, vol. 87, no. 26.
Maclurcan, D. 2006, 'Nanotechnology and Developing Countries', Science Focus, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 1-9.
In recent times, nanotechnology has been included in a number of the debates considering emerging technology anddeveloping countries. However, the literature considering nanotechnology's application to the developing world has often varied in its interpretation of what nanotechnology really is. Furthermore, despite a wide range of perspectives as to the relevance, appropriateness and potential impact of nanotechnology for developing countries, the key debates have often remained disengaged. This paper attempts to clarify understandings of nanotechnology and synthesize discussions on issues of relevance, appropriateness and distribution with respect to developing countries. In support, recent developments in nanotechnology and healthcare are provided.
Maclurcan, D. 2006, 'NanoTechnology in Developing Countries', Nanotechnology Newsletter, vol. 103, pp. 8-15.
Maclurcan, D. 2006, 'NanoTechnology in Developing Countries', Iranian Nanotechnology Initiative Newsletter, vol. 102, pp. 16-24.
Maclurcan, D. 2005, 'Experiencing the United Nations in Different Forms', World Citizens Association (Australia) Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 3-5.