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Professor Didar Zowghi

Biography

Didar Zowghi is Professor of Software Engineering (and former Associate Dean for Research, and the co-director of the research centre for Human-Centred Technology Design), in the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology. She is also an Adjunct Professor of Software Engineering at the Auckland University of Technology in New Zealand. After completing her BSc and before becoming a full time academic, she worked in software industry both in the UK and Australia as a programmer, software engineer, analyst, consultant, and project manager.

Professor Zowghi's core research focuses on improving the software development processes and the quality of their products. In particular, her research addresses important challenges in the communication rich, multidisciplinary activities of software development, often referred to as Requirements Engineering (RE) or Business Analysis. She has also conducted and supervised empirical field studies in Global Software Development, Technology Adoption, Web Technologies, Software Process Improvement and Service Oriented Computing in collaboration with software development organisations in Australia. She has supervised to completion many MSc and PhD research students across three universities in Sydney and has received competitive research grants of over $2.5 million including ARC Discovery and Linkage grants and DEST International Science Linkage grants. Professor Zowghi is a member of the program committee of many national and international conferences including IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering and was its General Chair in 2010, Program Chair in 2015 and  currently the chair of its Steering Committee. She is the regional editor of the International Requirements Engineering Journal (REJ), and on the editorial board of IET Software.  She has published over 180 research articles in prestigious conferences and journals and has co-authored papers with 80 different researchers from 25 countries.

Professional

  • Senior member of Australian Computer Society
  • Member of IEEE and IEEE Computer Society

Image of Didar Zowghi
Professor of Software Engineering, School of Software
Director, HCTD - Human Centred Technology Design
Core Member, HCTD - Human Centred Technology Design
BSc (Hons) (Essex), MSc (Macquarie), PhD (Macquarie)
Member, Institution of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
Senior Member, Australian Computer Society
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 1860

Research Interests

  • Requirements Engineering
  • Software Engineering
  • Global Software Development
  • Software Process Improvement
  • Knowledge Based Software Engineering
  • IT Services Design and Management
  • Information Systems Development
  • Software Product Line Engineering
  • Service Oriented Software Engineering
  • Technology Adoption
  • Monile Learning

Can supervise: Yes

Registered at Level 1

Supervised 10 PhD and many Master students to completion.

  • Requirements Engineering
  • Enterprise Business Requirements
  • Software Development Project
  • Software Engineering
  • Business Requirements Analysis

Books

Marshall, J., Goodman, J., Zowghi, D. & da Rimini, F. 2015, Disorder and the Disinformation Society: The Social Dynamics of Information, Networks and Software, Routledge, 2015.
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This book is the first general social analysis that seriously considers the daily experience of information disruption and software failure within contemporary Western society. Through an investigation of informationalism, defined as a contemporary form of capitalism, it describes the social processes producing informational disorder. While most social theory sees disorder as secondary, pathological or uninteresting, this book takes disordering processes as central to social life. The book engages with theories of information society which privilege information order, offering a strong counterpoint centred on "disinformation." Disorder and the Disinformation Society offers a practical agenda, arguing that difficulties in producing software are both inherent to the process of developing software and in the social dynamics of informationalism. It outlines the dynamics of software failure as they impinge on of information workers and on daily life, explores why computerized finance has become inherently self-disruptive, asks how digital enclosure and intellectual property create conflicts over cultural creativity and disrupt informational accuracy and scholarship, and reveals how social media can extend, but also distort, the development of social movements.
Zowghi, D. 2015, 2015 IEEE 23rd International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE), IEEE computer Society, NJ, USA.
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Zowghi, D. & Jin, Z. 2014, Requirements Engineering: First Asia Pacific Requirements Engineering Symposium, APRES 2014, Auckland, New Zealand, April 28-29, 2014. Proceedings.
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Chapters

Gervasi, V. & Zowghi, D. 2010, 'On the Role of Ambiguity in RE' in Wieringa, R. & Persson, A. (eds), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6182 - Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, Springer, Germany, pp. 248-254.
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[Context and motivation] Ambiguity has long been pictured as one of the worst enemies of the specifier, especially with reference to ambiguity in natural language (NL) requirements specifications. [Question/problem] In this paper, we investigate the nature of ambiguity, and [Principal ideas/result] advocate that the simplistic view of ambiguity as merely a âdefectâ that has to be avoided at all costs does not do justice to the complexity of this phenomenon. We also provide a finer classification of several types of ambiguities, distinguishing their different causes and effects in the development process. [Contribution] This better understanding can help in the analysis of practical experiences and in the design of more effective methods to detect, mark and handle ambiguity.
Coulin, C.R., Zowghi, D. & Sahraoui, A. 2010, 'MUSTER: A Situational Tool for Requirements Elicitation' in Meziane, F. & Vadera, S. (eds), Artificial Intelligence Applications for Improved Software Engineering Development: New Prospects, Information Science Reference, United States of America, pp. 146-166.
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In this chapter they present a collaborative and situational tool called MUSTER, that has been specifically designed and developed for requirements elicitation workshops, and which utilizes, extends, and demonstrates a successful application of intelligent technologies for Computer Aided Software Engineering and Computer Aided Method Engineering. The primary objective of this tool is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the requirements elicitation process for software systems development, whilst addressing some of the common issues often encountered in practice through the integration of intelligent technologies. The tool also offers an example of how a group support system, coupled with artificial intelligence, can be applied to very practical activities and situations within the software development process.
Coulin, C.R. & Zowghi, D. 2005, 'Requirements elicitation for complex systems: Theory and Practice' in Mate, J.L. & Silva, A. (eds), Requirements Engineering for Sociotechnical Systems, Information Science Publishing, Hershey, PA, USA, pp. 37-52.
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Zowghi, D. & Coulin, C.R. 2005, 'Requirements elicitation: A survey of techniques, approaches and Tools' in Aurum, A. & Wohlin, C. (eds), Engineering and managing software requirements, Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 19-46.
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Conferences

Hussain, W., Zowghi, D., Clear, T., MacDonell, S. & Blincoe, K. 2016, 'Managing requirements change the informal way: when saying 'no' is not an option', 2016 IEEE 24th International Requirements Engineering Conference, International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE), IEEE, Beijing, China, pp. 126-135.
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Software has always been considered as malleable. Changes to software requirements are inevitable during the development process. Despite many software engineering advances over several decades, requirements changes are a source of project risk, particularly when businesses and technologies are evolving rapidly. Although effectively managing requirements changes is a critical aspect of software engineering, conceptions of requirements change in the literature and approaches to their management in practice still seem rudimentary. The overall goal of this study is to better understand the process of requirements change management. We present findings from an exploratory case study of requirements change management in a globally distributed setting. In this context we noted a contrast with the traditional models of requirements change. In theory, change control policies and formal processes are considered as a natural strategy to deal with requirements changes. Yet we observed that "informal requirements changes" (InfRc) were pervasive and unavoidable. Our results reveal an equally 'natural' informal change management process that is required to handle InfRc in parallel. We present a novel model of requirements change which, we argue, better represents the phenomenon and more realistically incorporates both the informal and formal types of change.
Zowghi, D., da Rimini, F. & Bano, M. 2015, 'Problems and challenges of user involvement in software development: an empirical study', Proceedings of the International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE), International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE), ACM New York, NY, USA ©2015, Nanjing, China.
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Context: The benefits of involving users in software development projects have been studied extensively in the last four decades and have been reported to contribute to user satisfaction thus leading to system success. However, the relationship between user involvement and system success, being a multi-faceted and complex concept, has introduced many problems and challenges for the practitioners. Objective: In this paper we present our findings from a case study to give a deeper understanding of the challenges and problems of user involvement during software development. Method: The data in the case study was collected from interviews, observations and project documents. Results: We present our results in four main categories related to users, communicative aspects, managerial considerations, and project issues. It was observed that system success is achievable even when there are problems and challenges in involving users. Conclusion: Understanding the nature of the problems related to user involvement helps the project managers to develop appropriate strategies for increasing the effectiveness of user involvement.
Bano, M. & Zowghi, D. 2015, 'EVALUATOR: An Automated Tool for Service Selection', Communications in Computer and Information Science, Second Asia Pacific Symposium, APRES 2015, Springer Verlag (Germany), Wuhan, China, pp. 170-184.
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The large number of third party services creates a paradox of choice and make service selection challenging for business analysts. The enormous online reviews and feedback by the past users provide a great opportunity to gauge their sentiments towards a particular product or service. The benefits of sentiment analysis have not been fully utilized in third party service selection. In this paper we present a tool that assists the business analysts in making better decisions for service selection by providing qualitative as well as quantitative data regarding the sentiments of the past users of the service. The tool has been applied and evaluated in an observational case study for service selection. The results show that sentiment analysis helps in increasing relevant information for business analysts, assists in making more informed decisions, and allows us to overcome some of the challenges of service selection.
Bano, M., Ferrari, A., Zowghi, D., Gervasi, V. & Gnesi, S. 2015, 'Automated Service Selection Using Natural Language Processing', Communications in Computer and Information Science, Second Asia Pacific Symposium, APRES 2015, Springer Verlag (Germany), Wuhan, China, pp. 3-17.
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With the huge number of services that are available online, requirements analysts face an overload of choice when they have to select the most suitable service that satisfies a set of customer requirements. Both service descriptions and requirements are often expressed in natural language (NL), and natural language processing (NLP) tools that can match requirements and service descriptions, while filtering out irrelevant options, might alleviate the problem of choice overload faced by analysts. In this paper, we propose a NLP approach based on Knowledge Graphs that automates the process of service selection by ranking the service descriptions depending on their NL similarity with the requirements. To evaluate the approach, we have performed an experiment with 28 customer requirements and 91 service descriptions, previously ranked by a human assessor. We selected the top-15 services, which were ranked with the proposed approach, and found 53% similar results with respect to top-15 services of the manual ranking. The same task, performed with the traditional cosine similarity ranking, produces only 13% similar results. The outcomes of our experiment are promising, and new insights have also emerged for further improvement of the proposed technique.
Gervasi, V., Zowghi, D. & IEEE 2014, 'Supporting Traceability through Affinity Mining', 2014 IEEE 22ND INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE (RE), pp. 143-152.
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Mairiza, D., Zowghi, D. & Gervasi, V. 2014, 'Utilizing TOPSIS: A Multi Criteria Decision Analysis Technique for Non-Functional Requirements Conflicts', Communications in Computer and Information Science, First Asia Pacific Requirements Engineering conference (APRES 2014), Springer Verlag, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 31-44.
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Experience shows that many software systems suffer from inherent conflict among Non-Functional Requirements (NFRs). It also confirms that resolution strategies for handling NFRs conflicts often result in changing overall design guidelines, not by simply changing one module. Therefore, in software system development, software developers need to analyse the NFRs and conflicts among them in order to make decisions about alternative design solutions. This paper presents the use of Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach for NFRs conflict decision analysis. TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution), as one of the essential MCDA techniques has been adopted to resolve such conflict. We show how the systematic application of TOPSIS can assist software developers select the most preferable design solutions with respect to the conflicting NFRs. The quantitative result generated with this technique will be used as the basis for decision support. An example that shows the application of TOPSIS is also presented. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.
Bano, M., Zowghi, D. & Ikram, N. 2014, 'Systematic reviews in requirements engineering: A tertiary study', Proceeidngs of the 2014 IEEE Fourth International Workshop on Empirical Requirements Engineering (EmpiRE),, IEEE Fourth International Workshop on Empirical Requirements Engineering (EmpiRE), 2014, IEEE, Karlskrona, Sweden, pp. 9-16.
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There has been an increasing interest in conducting Systematic Literature Reviews (SLR) among Requirements Engineering (RE) researchers in recent years. However, so far there have been no tertiary studies conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of these published SLR in RE. In this paper we present a tertiary study of SLR that focus solely on RE related topics by following the guidelines of Evidence Based Software Engineering. We have conducted both automated search of major online sources and manual search of the RE and SLR related conferences and journals. Our tertiary study has identified 53 distinct systematic reviews published from 2006 to 2014 and reported in 64 publications. We have assessed the resulting SLR for their quality, and coverage of specific RE related topics thus identifying some gaps. We have observed that the quality of SLR in RE has been decreasing over the recent years. There is a strong need to replicate some of these SLR to increase the reliability of their results for future RE research.
Bano, M. & Zowghi, D. 2014, 'Users' voice and service selection: An empirical study', IEEE Fourth International Workshop on Empirical Requirements Engineering (EmpiRE), 2014, IEEE, Karlskrona, Sweden.
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Service Oriented software development saves time by reusing existing services and integrates them to create a new system. But selecting a service that satisfies the requirements of all concerned stakeholders is a challenging task. The situation has been exacerbated within the past few years with huge number of services available that offer similar functionalities where the analysts require additional information for making better decision for service selection. User feedback analysis has recently gained a lot of attention for its potential benefits in various areas of requirements engineering. The aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of feedback provided by the end users of the services, on the decision making process for the service selection. In this paper we present an empirical study that utilizes user feedback analysis for selection of a service among 92 available services with similar functionalities. The results show that in scenarios with significant number of services, it is helpful for analysts to consider additional information to select optimally best matched service to the requirements.
Mairiza, D., Zowghi, D. & Gervasi, V. 2013, 'Conflict Characterization and Analysis of Non Functional Requirements: An Experimental Approach', Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on New Trends in Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques, IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques (SoMeT), IEEE Hungary Section, Budapest, pp. 83-91.
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Prior studies reveal that conflicts among Non Functional Requirements (NFRs) are not always absolute. They can also be relative depending on the context of the system being developed.
Bano, M. & Zowghi, D. 2013, 'Users' Involvement in Requirements Engineering and System Success', Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Workshop on Empirical Requirements Engineering in conjunction with the 21st International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE International Workshop on Empirical Requirements Engineering in conjunction with the 21st International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 24-31.
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Involving users in software development in general, and in Requirements Engineering (RE) in particular, has been considered for over three decades. It is axiomatically believed to contribute significantly to a successful system. However, not much attention has been paid to ascertain in which phases of software development life cycle involvement or participation of users is most beneficial. In this paper we present an investigation into the concept of users involvement during RE activities and explore its relationship with system success. We have conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) using guidelines of Evidence Based Software Engineering. Our SLR identified 87 empirical studies from the period of 1980 to 2012. Only 13 studies focused specifically on investigating users involvement in RE and 9 of these confirmed benefits of involving users in requirements analysis and 4 remain inconclusive. Effective involvement of users in RE may reduce the need for their more active involvement in the rest of software development. This paper also offers a checklist we have created from the identified factors of all 87 empirical studies that should be utilised for effective users involvement in RE
Bano, M. & Zowghi, D. 2013, 'User involvement in software development and system success: a systematic literature review', Proceedings of the International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, ACM, Brazil, pp. 125-130.
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In the last four decades involving users in the software development process is claimed to have a positive impact on the success of that software. However, previous reviews on this topic have produced conflicting results. Objectives: Our aim is to present a review on user involvement in software development process and investigate its relationship to software system success. Methods: For our exploration, we performed a Systematic Literature Review using the guidelines provided in the Evidence Based Software Engineering literature. Results: 87 relevant empirical studies were selected and reviewed that investigate various perspectives and concepts of user involvement in software development process during the period of 1980--2012. Among 87 studies reviewed, 59 report that user involvement positively contributes to system success, 7 suggest a negative contribution and 21 are uncertain. Conclusions: Our results show an overall positive impact of user involvement on system success. It also suggests that the relationship between user involvement and system success is neither direct nor simple, and it depends on many different factors and conditions surrounding systems development processes.
Bano, M. & Zowghi, D. 2012, 'Service Oriented Requirements Engineering: Practitioner's Perspective', Service-Oriented Computing - ICSOC 2012 Workshops, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Shanghai, China.
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Over a decade ago Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) was introduced to provide better alignment between business requirements and IT solutions. During this period a great deal of research interest has emerged from academia and industry alike, to promote this new style of software development. The promise was that SOA based development will improve reusability, agility, platform independence and dynamic discovery, reconfiguration and change management. In spite of all the promises and enhancement in tools and technologies, the service oriented software development continues to face various challenges especially in Requirements Engineering. In this paper we present a qualitative study of Service Oriented Requirements Engineering. Data was collected by conducting interviews with practitioners from IT companies in Sydney, who are experienced in working on SOA based projects. The objective was to explore the issues and challenges faced during requirements analysis in service oriented software development. The results show that Service-Oriented software development has not only inherited existing issues of traditional Requirements Engineering but has also introduced new challenges. The technology has become advanced in SOA but the issues related to the organizational and business aspect of service oriented development need more attention for achieving true benefits of this technology.
Mir, S., Hawryszkiewycz, I.T. & Zowghi, D. 2012, 'Toward a Methodology for Managing Complexity in Information Systems Development Projects', Innovation Vision 2020: Sustainable growth, Entrepreneurship, and Economic Development, The 19th International Business Information Management Association Conference, International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), Barcelona, spain, pp. 1938-1943.
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This research is motivated by the need to develop systematic approach to effectively manage complexity in information systems development processes which is still an open and critical issue as environment become increasingly complex. Managing complexity is critical because there is a need to continually develop new ideas in design changes. For this reason, a conceptual method with an emphasis on supporting the decision-making process is developed. This method uses ideas from system thinking and management to study complexity issues in information systems development processes. To support decision makers, this research develops guidelines in order to deal with systems complexity using the living systems theory. Living systems theory is used as diagnostic tool to find important elements that need more attention and to investigate different kinds of uncertainty and conflicts that exist during decision making.
Mir, S., Hawryszkiewycz, I.T. & Zowghi, D. 2012, 'A Method to Explore Wicked Problems in Complex Environments: A Research Proposal', Innovation Vision 2020: Sustainable growth, Entrepreneurship, and Economic Development, International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), Barcelona, spain, pp. 1951-1955.
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This research, proposes a method to investigate wicked problems occurring in open, heterogeneous and evolving complex socio-technical ecosystems. Investigating the behaviour of these environments and predicting the consequences of proposed solutions remain challenging. The proposed method addresses complexity causes based on interdependencies of multiple types of elements in the system. The issues can be investigated through behavioural and functional change analysis by any individuals, activities, interactions and interventions involved in the system. The context of problem space is described as a network of actors involved in the system. This research extends actors to roles, activities, artefacts, groups or organizations. The new aspect of this approach is its flexibility to investigate multiplicity and diversity of perspectives in complex environments and its ideal potential to involve human elements. This method has the ability to integrate qualitative social elements with quantitative technical issues in complex socio technical environments. Agent based simulation, facilitate this approach.
Wei, B., Jin, Z., Zowghi, D. & Yin, B. 2012, 'Automated Reasoning with Goal Tree Models for Software Quality Requirements', Proceedings of REFS 2012: The 6th IEEE International Workshop on Requirements Engineering for Services in conjunction with The 36th Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC 2012), 2012 IEEE 36th International Conference on Computer Software and Applications Workshops, IEEE Computer Society, Izmir, Turkey, pp. 373-378.
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Implementation of software quality requirements is critical for producing high-quality softwares. High-level quality requirements are usually refined stepwise by different low-level quality requirements, until some potential functional design alternatives are identified. An important question is how design alternatives can be effectively selected to satisfice the quality requirements. This paper focuses on the satisficing statuses of nodes in the quality requirements goal tree models, and presents an automated reasoning technique to select design alternatives. The final satisficing status of quality requirements can be obtained provided that the satisficing statuses of design alternatives are assigned. Existing approaches propose reasoning approaches which do not support efficient identification if many design alternatives and candidate solutions may exist. Our work provides an alternative approach to identify what is the acceptable design decision in a timely manner. A case study is also presented to illustrate our proposed automated reasoning approach.
Wu, Y., Zowghi, D., Peng, X. & Zhao, W. 2012, 'Towards Understanding Requirement Evolution in a Software Product Line an Industrial Case Study', Proceedings of the First International Workshop on the âTwin Peaks of Requirements and Architectureâ in conjunction the 20th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE Computer Society, Chicago, Illinois, USA, pp. 7-14.
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In most software development practices, software requirements and architecture are addressed simultaneously. The architecture may grow based on a core specification of requirements, and the requirements may also be elicited incrementally as the architecture gets more and more concrete. In this paper, we present a case study on the development history of Wingsoft Examination System Product Line (WES-PL), an active, industrial software product line with a history of more than eight years. We focus on 10 member products, 51 major versions that have been delivered to customer or archived in the repository between December 2003 and May 2012, by tracing both requirement and architectural changes. We identify a requirement change classification from the viewpoint of architectural impact. We claim that software requirements are negotiated and may be guided by existing software architecture design, especially in the process of software product line development. Product strategy requirements play an important role in marketing requirement negotiation. We also find typical evidences showing that a product leader or architect has to make difficult decisions to keep a balance between marketing requirements from customer-side and software architectural design from his own side.
Zowghi, D. & Bargi, A. 2011, 'Software versus IT Service: A Comparative Study of Selected Requirements Engineering Practices', Proceedings of the DEXA Workshop on IT Service Management and its Support, IEEE Computer Society, Toulouse, France, pp. 31-35.
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Service are ubiquitous and are a critical element of the mordern world economies. They play an increasingly important role in most industry sectors including Information Technology (IT). The essential differences between a software product and an IT Service are unclear. IT services are seldom offered in isolation and are often packaged and provided with software products. More so than before, IT service providers need to conduct a rigorous and systematic elicitation, and analysis of the needs and requirements of the intended users so that the resulting IT services are closly aligned with the enterprise business needs. This paper presents a comparative study of software and IT services form the Requirements Engineer(RE) perspective; both from process and product viewpoint. THe overall aim of the compare and contrast is to investigate key similarities and differentces between software and IT services in order to ascertain the applicability and relevance of RE research and practice results for eliciting, analyzing, documenting and managing IT services.
Zowghi, D. 2011, 'What is Requirements Volatility and How Does It Impact on Software Development?', proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Trends in Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques, 10th International Conference on New Trends in Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques, IOS Press BV, St Petersburg, Russia, pp. 3-4.
Software development is a dynamic process where demands for change have been recognized to be inevitable. All forms of modifications to the user requirements cause software to change. The sources of changes could vary considerably and come from the users, business, techlonogy, and organizations. Changes to requirements give rise to an intrinsic volatility, which is claimed to impact on many aspects of software development. Requirements Volatility (RV) is claimed to be a major source of risk to the management of software projects. Investigating the sources of , reasons for, and impacts of requirements changes is an important prerequisite for understanding the characteristics of requirements volatility. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of requirements changes and describe the results of our longitudinal study of requirements volatility. The results of this study have improved our understanding of this complex and multifaceted phenomenon and have provided valuable empirical evidence for the impacts of RV resulting in important insights for more effective management of requirements.
Wei, B., Yin, B., Jin, Z. & Zowghi, D. 2011, 'r: Automated Reasoning Tool for Non-Functional Requirement Goal Models', Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE 11), IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE, Trento, Italy, pp. 337-338.
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Reasoning is critical for non-functional requirements (NFRs) analysis and verification. Furthermore, it can provide rationale about implementation strategies for NFRs. The existing tools can execute an interactive reasoning process which sometimes needs extra information from stakeholders. We build a tool called rΣ for reasoning on NFR models especially when extra information is unavailable or forbidden, like at the model verification stage. This tool employs the formula style model as the input, automatically promotes the reasoning process till the root node, and returns all the satisficing statuses and the complete rationale as the output. We have applied rΣ into the real practice and to evaluate its efficiency.
Wei, B., Jin, Z. & Zowghi, D. 2011, 'An Automatic Reasoning Mechanism for NFR Goal Models', Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering, International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, Xian, China, pp. 52-59.
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Software requirements, especially non-functional requirements, are considered as vital prerequisites for producing software of high quality. As widely accepted, non-functional goal modeling like the NFR Framework usually employs tree modeling style, and presents an interactive process for the analysis of nonfunctional requirements. However, there still exist some problems during the identification of satisficing status. This paper based on the popular NFR goal model reasoning manners, clearly distinguishes the closed world assumption and the open world assumption, and proposes an automatic reasoning mechanism for NFR goal models in order to identify the satisficing statuses of the goal tree roots according to leavesâ contributions. Under a specific assumption, goalsâ satisficing statuses will be transformed to affect satisficing statuses of their parents. Then parentsâ satisficing statuses will be inferred according to the reasoning rules derived from different decomposition relationships. By alternately adopting these two steps, goal tree rootâs satisficing status can be identified layer by layer. An illustrative example is used to show how our proposed formal approach works.
Mehboob, Z., Zowghi, D. & Lowe, D.B. 2011, 'A Process Model of Change Impact Analysis or Web Systems Using Design Knoweldge', Proceedings of the 8th European, Mediterranean & Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS2011), European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems, EMCIS, Athens, Greece, pp. 582-595.
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Change impact analysis (CIA) approaches have been developed to identify the consequences of making changes to system artefacts and to support decision making with regards to those changes. There is a growing body of research on CIA approaches that specifically addresses changes and their impacts on architecture design. However, there is little research focus on approaches that particularly support the identification of impacts on architecture design resulting from business process changes i.e. early identification of change impacts in Web systems. In this paper we propose a process model of CIA(PMCIA) that employs design knowledge to support early identification of change impacts. This process model is described in three steps including analysing changes, tracing potential change impacts and implementing changes on architecture design. We also illustrate the process model through an exemplar case study.
Gervasi, V. & Zowghi, D. 2012, 'Mining Requirements Links', Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Proceedings of the 17th International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality (REFSQ 2011), 17th International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, Springer Verlag, Essen, Germany, pp. 196-201.
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[Context & motivation] Obtaining traceability among requirements and between requirements and other artifacts is an extremely important activity in practice, an interesting area for theoretical study, and a major hurdle in common industrial experience. Substantial effort is spent on establishing and updating such links in any large project, even more so when requirements refer to a product family. [Question/problem]. While most research is concerned with ways to reduce the effort needed to establish and maintain traceability links, a different question can also be asked: how is it possible to harness the vast amount of implicit (and tacit) knowledge embedded in already-established links? Is there something to be learned about a specific problem or domain, or about the humans who establish traces, by studying such traces?
Mairiza, D. & Zowghi, D. 2011, 'Constructing a Catalogue of Conflicts among Non-functional Requirements', Communications in Computer and Information Science, pp. 31-44.
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Non-Functional Requirements (NFRs) are recognized as a critical factor to the success of software projects because they address the essential issue of software quality. NFRs tend to interfere, conflict, and contradict with one another and this conflict is widely acknowledged as one of the key characteristics of NFRs. Several models of NFRs conflicts have been proposed and the interacting nature of NFRs has been characterized as either positive or negative inter-relationships among NFRs. Positive relationship represents a pair of NFRs that are supporting each other while negative relationship represents those NFRs that are conflicting with one another. Furthermore, as NFRs are also relative, the interpretation of NFRs may vary depending on many factors such as the context of the system being developed and the extent of stakeholders' involvement. The multiple interpretations of NFRs may lead to positive or negative inter-relationships that are not always obvious. These relationships may change depending on the meaning of NFRs in the system being developed. Hence, the existing potential conflicts models remain in disagreement with one other. This paper presents the result of an extensive and systematic investigation of the extant literature over the notion of NFRs and the conflicts among them. Rigorous synthesis of the carefully reviewed literature has resulted in the construction of a catalogue of NFRs conflicts with respect to NFRs relative characteristic. The relativity of conflicts is characterized by three categories: absolute conflict; relative conflict; and never conflict. This comprehensive catalogue could assist software developers with identifying the NFRs conflicts, performing conflicts analysis, and suggesting potential strategies to resolve these conflicts. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.
Mairiza, D., Zowghi, D. & Nurmuliani, N. 2010, 'An investigation into the notion of non-functional requirements', Proceedings Of The 2010 - 25Th Annual Acm Symposium On Applied Computing, Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, ACM, Sierre, Switzerland, pp. 311-318.
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Although Non-Functional Requirements (NFRs) are recognized as very important contributors to the success of software projects, studies to date indicate that there is still no general consensus in the software engineering community regarding the notion of NFRs. This paper presents the result of an extensive and systematic analysis of the extant literature over three NFRs dimensions: (1) definition and terminology; (2) types; and (3) relevant NFRs in various types of systems and application domains. Two different perspectives to consider NFRs are described. A comprehensive catalogue of NFRs types as well as the top five NFRs that are frequently considered are presented. This paper also offers a novel classification of NFRs based on types of systems and application domains. This classification could assist software developers in identifying which NFRs are important in a particular application domain and for specific systems.
Wei, B., Jin, Z. & Zowghi, D. 2010, 'Knowledge Merging under Multiple Attributes', Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 6291 - Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management, Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Belfast, Northern Ireland, pp. 555-560.
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Knowledge merging is the process of synthesizing multiple knowledge models into a common model. Available methods concentrate on resolving conflicting knowledge. While, we argue that besides the inconsistency, some other attributes may also affect the resulting knowledge model. This paper proposes an approach for knowledge merging under multiple attributes, i.e. Consistency and Relevance. This approach introduces the discrepancy between two knowledge models and defines different discrepancy functions for each attribute. An integrated distance function is used for assessing the candidate knowledge models.
Marshall, J. & Zowghi, D. 2010, 'Software and the Social Production of Disorder', Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society, IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society, IEEE, Wollongong, Australia, pp. 284-291.
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Software development is inherently an ordering process. When implemented in a workplace it orders the ways that people go about their work, the work they do, and the ways they interact and communicate with each other. This new mode of ordering may conflict with existing orders, existing distributions of power and knowledge, and arrangements of groups, and between groups. Ordering is almost always the subject of dispute, so software development can easily become enmeshed in the politicking between competing groups with deleterious effects. Removing all these conflicts may not be possible, as they can be an essential part of the ways relevant groups interact. Better communication, for example, may actually increase conflict, and not produce harmony. Rather than thinking of order and disorder as mutually exclusive polarities, it is more effective and realistic to think of them as constituting an âorder/disorder complexâ and to expect disorder to appear alongside the ordering. This paper explores the problems of ordering and disordering through a study of changes in the Australian Customsâ âIntegrated Cargo Systemâ. We suggest that acceptance of some untidied mess, or openness to both dispute and unclarity, may be useful in implementing functional software.
Mairiza, D., Zowghi, D. & Nurmuliani, N. 2010, 'Towards a Catalogue of Conflicts among Non-Functional Requirements', Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering (ENASE 2010), International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, SciTePress, Athens, Greece, pp. 20-29.
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Two of the most significant characteristics of non-functional requirements (NFRs) are interacting and relative. Interacting means NFRs tend to interfere, conflict, and contradict with one other while relative means the interpretation of NFRs may vary depending on many factors, such as the context of the system being developed and the extent of stakeholder involvement. For the purpose of understanding the interacting characteristic of NFRs, several potential conflict models have been presented in the literature. These models represent the positive or negative inter-relationships among various types of NFRs. However, none of them deal with the relative characteristic of NFRs. In fact, multiple interpretations of NFRs in the system being developed may lead to positive or negative inter-relationships that are not always obvious. As a result, the existing potential conflict models remain in disagreement with one other. This paper presents the result of an extensive and systematic investigation of the extant literature over the notion of NFRs and conflicts among them. A catalogue of NFRs conflicts with respect to the NFRs relative characteristic is presented. The relativity of conflicts is characterized by three categories: absolute conflict; relative conflict; and never conflict. This catalogue could assist software developers in identifying the conflicts among NFRs, performing further conflict analysis, and identifying the potential strategies to resolve those conflicts.
Mairiza, D. & Zowghi, D. 2010, 'An Ontological Framework to Manage the Relative Conflicts between Security and Usability Requirements', The Third International Workshop on Managing Requirements Knowledge (MaRK 2010), International Workshop on Managing Requirements Knowledge, IEEE, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-6.
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Non Functional Requirements (NFRs) are relative, so are the conflicts among them. In our previously developed catalogue of NFRs conflicts it can be observed that a number of specific pairs of NFRs are claimed to be in conflicts in some cases but they are also claimed not to be in conflict in the other cases. These relative conflicts occur because the positive or negative relationships among NFRs are not always clear and obvious. These relationships might change depending on the meaning of NFRs within the system being developed. This paper focuses on the application of ontology in managing the relative conflicts among NFRs, particularly the relative conflicts between security and usability requirements. The aim is to develop a framework to identify, characterize, and define corresponding resolution strategies for the security-usability conflicts. This paper thus describes the sureCM framework to manage these conflicts; summarizes the security-usability conflicts ontology; and demonstrates how the ontology will be used as a basis to assist analysts in managing conflicts between security and usability requirements.
Babar, A.R., Zowghi, D. & Chew, E.K. 2010, 'Using Goals to Model Strategy Map for Business IT Alignment', Workshop Proceedings - The 5th International Workshop on Business/IT Alignment and Interoperability (BUSITAL 2010), International Workshop on Business/IT Alignment and Interoperability, CEUR-WS.org/WorldPress, Hammamet, Tunisia, pp. 16-30.
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Strategy Map (SM) is one of the widely used methods to create business aligned IT strategy map providing valuable insights to business executives. However, problem with strategy map method is that it is not easy to use which can lend itself to various interpretations. This is because linkages between the strategic objectives in the four strategy map perspectives are not explicit which makes SM ambiguous. Goal modelling approaches from Requirements Engineering (RE) have proven rigorous in elicitation and representation of information system requirements. In an attempt to make explicit the causal relationships of SM linkages meaningful this research proposes the use of goal modelling approach i*.
Zowghi, D. & Jin, Z. 2009, 'A Framework for the Elicitation and Analysis of Information Technology Service Requirements and Their Alignment with Enterprise Business Goals', Proceedings of The 4th 34th Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC 2010), International Computer Software and Applications Conference, IEEE, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 269-272.
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As the economies of the world have become increasingly dependant on Information Technology (IT) services, there is a need for service designers and developers to focus on co-value creation between service providers and service consumers. Developers need to conduct a more rigorous and systematic identification, elicitation, and analysis of IT service requirements than ever before so that the resulting IT services are closely aligned with the enterprise business requirements. Research in Services Science from the business and management discipline has mostly focused on the delivery and management of services experience from the business perspective. Much of the research focus in Service Oriented Computing (SOC) so far has been on the design and delivery of services (especially Web Services), but engineering of IT service requirements has received much less attention. The overall aims of the proposed research is the design and development of an integrated framework and its supporting toolset for the systematic identification, elicitation, and analysis of IT service requirements that satisfy consumers' needs and are closely aligned with their enterprise business goals.
Mehboob, Z., Zowghi, D. & Lowe, D.B. 2009, 'An Approach for Comparison of Architecture Level Change Impact Analysis Methods and their relevance in Web Systems Evolution', ASWEC 2009: 20th Australian Software Engineering Conference, Australian Software Engineering Conference, IEEE Computer Society Press, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 162-172.
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Change impact analysis (CIA) methods have been developed to identify the consequences of making changes to system artifacts and to support decision making with regards to that change. There is a growing body of research on CIA methods that specifically addresses changes and their impacts at a system architecture level. Most of the methods have been developed and validated on software system domain. However, there is little research consensus on: (i) the features that architectural CIA methods should comprehensively address; and (ii) which existing methods are comparatively suitable in a particular system domain such as Web systems. This paper presents a comparison approache that offer guidance on the selection of the most appropriate method for CIA activity and suitability of these methods in the context of Web systems.
Mehboob, Z. & Zowghi, D. 2009, 'Industrial Perspectives on Architecture Level Change Impact Analysis in Web Systems Evolution', Web Systems Evolution 2009, Web Systems Evolution, IEEE, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, pp. 17-26.
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Change impact analysis (CIA) approaches are mostly developed based on the understanding of both system development process and system architecture. It is thus reasonable to assume that if the development process or system architecture is fundamentally different, then CIA approaches must address these differences accordingly. This is particularly relevant in the context of Web systems, given that these systems often have a specific set of characteristics related to differences both in the architecture and the process through which they are developed. To investigate this issue we have interviewed web designers/architects and reported the industrial perspectives on using current architecture CIA approaches. The interview findings reveal a set of elicited needs that an architecture CIA approach should address to be suitably adopted during Web systems evolution. Additionally, systematic classification of these needs indicates the focus areas and their relevance in Web systems. Finally, the study findings provide guidance for the possible extension of architecture CIA approaches specifically for Web systems.
Jin, Z., Chen, X. & Zowghi, D. 2009, 'Performing Projection in Problem Frames Using Scenarios', Proceedings of the 2009 16th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, IEEE, Batu Ferringhi, Penang, Malaysia, pp. 249-256.
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In the Problem Frames (PF) approach there are five basic problem frames and some variants to them. When a problem is being analysed, it is initially matched against these frames. If the problem does not fit into the basic problem frames or their variants, then problem analysis is performed. It has been recognised that `projection' is an effective technique for analysing problems. That is, each sub-problem is considered as a projection of the main problem concerned only with the phenomena relevant to that sub-problem. The PF approach lacks a precise definition of problem projection and does not provide specific instructions on how to perform this projection. In this paper, we use the concept of projection from relational algebra and combine it with concepts from the PF and scenario-based approaches to present a conceptual model for conducting problem projection in requirements engineering. This model and ontology extend problem description at scenario level and support systematic derivation of sub-problems from scenarios. We also provide a detailed process description for performing projection for problem analysis and present the utility of our approach with a case study.
Mairiza, D., Zowghi, D. & Nurmuliani, N. 2009, 'Managing conflicts among non-functional requirements', 12th Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering, Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney, Sydney, Australia, pp. 11-19.
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Abstractâ Non-functional requirements (NFRs) tend to interfere, conflict, and contradict with one other. Unlike functional requirements, this inevitable conflict arises as a result of inherent contradiction among various types of NFRs. A number of techniques to deal with this conflict have been developed. Majority of them focus on categorizing, documenting, or listing the potential conflicts among NFRs. Several models that represent the positive or negative relationships among NFRs have also been published in literature. However, the interpretation of NFRs may vary depending on numerous factors, such as the context of the system being developed and stakeholder involvement. Consequently, the relationships among them are not always obvious. This paper investigates the gaps in the existing research literature about the conflicts among NFRs and proposes a framework to manage this type of conflict.
Ab Aziz, R., Zowghi, D. & McBride, T.M. 2009, 'Towards a Classification of Requirements Relationships', Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Systems Institute Graduate School, Boston, Massachusetts, pp. 26-32.
Requirements are related to and affect each other in many different ways. Developing a comprehensive knowledge of these relationships is an important part of understanding requirements. This paper proposes a classification of requirements relationships from several perspectives such as Feature Oriented, Aspect Oriented and Goal Oriented Approaches. We compare and contrast these relationship classifications and provide examples of each to increase our understanding of this complex phenomenon. This paper aims at integrating requirements relationship classifications from major bodies of work in requirements engineering and to improve awareness on the role they play in software testing practices.
Ab Aziz, R., Zowghi, D. & McBride, T.M. 2009, 'Towards a Classification of Requirements Relationships', Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE 2009), International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Systems Institute Graduate School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, pp. 26-32.
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Requirements are related to and affect each other in many different ways. Developing a comprehensive knowledge of these relationships is an important part of understanding requirements. This paper proposes a classification of requirements relationships from several perspectives such as Feature Oriented, Aspect Oriented and Goal Oriented Approaches. We compare and contrast these relationship classifications and provide examples of each to increase our understanding of this complex phenomenon. This paper aims at integrating requirements relationship classifications from major bodies of work in requirements engineering and to improve awareness on the role they play in software testing practices.
Mehboob, Z., Zowghi, D. & Lowe, D.B. 2008, 'Supporting Integrated Dependency Model for Change Impact Analysis in Web Systems', AusWeb08: The Fourteenth Australasian World Wide Web Conference, Australian World Wide Web Conference, Southern Cross University, Ballina, Australia, pp. 173-178.
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Bucknell, A.J., Lowe, D.B. & Zowghi, D. 2008, 'A Method for Analysing Web Systems Model Alignment', AusWeb08: The Fourteenth Australasian World Wide Web Conference, Australian World Wide Web Conference, Southern Cross University, Ballina, Australia, pp. 17-26.
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Davis, A., Nurmuliani, N., Park, S. & Zowghi, D. 2009, 'Requirements Change: What's the Alternative?', 32nd Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference, International Computer Software and Applications Conference, IEEE Explore, Turku, Finland, pp. 635-638.
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Numerous studies have shown that a software projectpsilas cost, schedule and defect density escalate as the rate of requirements change increases. Yet none of these studies have explored the effects of not making requirements changes in response to changes in user needs. This paper explains why a project incurs just as much, if not more, risk when requirements changes are suppressed.
Babar, A.R., Zowghi, D., Cox, K. & Tosic, V. 2008, 'Three Integration Approaches for Map and B-SCP Requirements Engineering Techniques', 23rd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, ACM, Fortaleza, Brazil, pp. 650-655.
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Babar, A.R., Zowghi, D., Cox, K., Tosic, V., Bleistein, S.J. & Verner, J. 2008, 'Problem Frames and Business Strategy Modelling', International Conference on Software Engineering, International Conference on Software Engineering, ACM, Liepzig, Germany, pp. 48-51.
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Requirements engineering describes how an IT implementation will support business functions. Most IT systems are operational in nature and typical requirements engineering techniques and methods are usually adequate in capturing and documenting the requirements for such systems. Jackson's problem frames is a technique that is suitable for straightforward IT systems descriptions. However, when an organization deploys an IT system that must deliver upon its competitive business strategy, then an appropriate technique or method needs to be used to capture that business strategy in order to connect it to business-critical IT requirements. Here we provide an overview of the use and adaptation of problem frames to connect requirements to business strategy. We found that a simplification of the problem frames notation was necessary and that to be really effective, we had to integrate problem fames with goal modelling and Map, a method that helps describe the evolution of IT over time.
Baker, E., Kan, M.M., Teo, S.T., Onyx, J., Grant, T. & Zowghi, D. 2007, 'Managing sustainable non-profit network organizations', Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, Annual Conference of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, University of Ottawa, Canada, pp. 118-128.
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We draw upon a case study conducted within a non-profit network organization to propose five dualities which are central to understanding effective management of non-profit networks. We then examine strategies that address these dualities, based on new approaches to leadership, performance measurement, governance, coaching and creative management of dualities.
Mu, K., Jin, Z. & Zowghi, D. 2008, 'A Measurement-Driven Process Model for Managing Inconsistent Software Requirements', 2008 15th Asia Pacific Software Engineering Conference, Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, IEEE Explore, Beijing, China, pp. 291-298.
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nconsistency is a pervasive issue in software engineering. Both general rules of inconsistency management and special case-based approaches to handling inconsistency have recently been considered. In this paper, we present a process model for handling requirements inconsistency within the viewpoints framework. In this process model, when an inconsistency among viewpoints is detected, a set of candidate proposals for handling inconsistency will be generated using techniques from multi-agent automated negotiations. The proposals are then prioritized using an integrated measurement of inconsistencies. The viewpoints involved in the inconsistency will then enter the negotiations by being presented with the candidate proposals and thus selecting an acceptable proposal based on the priorities associated with each candidate proposal. To facilitate usability, in our process, we assume that the natural language requirements statements are first translated into corresponding logical formulas using a translator software. Moreover, the candidate proposals for handling inconsistency are also translated back from formal logic into natural language before being presented for selection.
Kaindl, H., Constantine, L., Pastor, O., Sutcliffe, A. & Zowghi, D. 2008, 'How to combine requirements engineering and interaction design?', Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE'08, pp. 299-301.
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In this panel, we propose to figure out how requirements engineering and interaction design can be usefully combined. In particular, some people argue that scenarios / use cases should be concrete, as in story-telling. Others argue for use of "essential" use cases as a methodological approach to interaction and user-interface design. Somewhat in the middle, it is argued that use cases should help acquiring the requirements in the first place. What should the practitioner believe and, in particular, do, in order to develop useful and usable software and systems? Software development and interaction design require different skills and different methods and are typically done by different people. Still, scenario-based design is proposed for several activities relevant for both tasks, such as requirements elicitation, software design, and interaction design. Symbolic modeling in this spirit is actually common to various fields. However, scenario-based approaches vary, especially with regard to their use, e.g., employing abstract use cases or integrating scenarios with functions and goals in a systematic design process. So, the key issue to be raised at the panel is how to combine different approaches, e.g., in scenario-based development, so that the interaction design as well as the development of the user interface and of the software internally result in an overall useful and useable system. © 2008 IEEE.
Bucknell, A.J., Lowe, D.B. & Zowghi, D. 2007, 'Aligning Web Systems and Organisational Models', AWSOR'07: International Workshop on Aligning Web Systems and Organisational Requirements, Workshops of Conf on Web Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Como, Italy, pp. 132-146.
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Boyd, S.M., Zowghi, D. & Gervasi, V. 2007, 'Optimal-Constraint Lexicons for Requirements Specifications', Proceedings of the International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering, Foundation for Software Quality, International Workshop on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, Springer-Verlag, Trondheim, Norway, pp. 203-217.
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Constrained Natural Languages (CNLs) are becoming an increasingly popular way of writing technical documents such as requirements specifications. This is because CNLs aim to reduce the ambiguity inherent within natural languages, whilst maintaining their readability and expressiveness. The design of existing CNLs appears to be unfocused towards achieving specific quality outcomes, in that the majority of lexical selections have been based upon lexicographer preferences rather than an optimum trade-off between quality factors such as ambiguity, readability, expressiveness, and lexical magnitude. In this paper we introduce the concept of replaceability as a way of identifying the lexical redundancy inherent within a sample of requirements. Our novel and practical approach uses Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to enable us to make dynamic trade-offs between quality factors to optimise the resultant CNL. We also challenge the concept of a CNL being a one-dimensional static language, and demonstrate that our optimal-constraint process results in a CNL that can adapt to a changing domain while maintaining its expressiveness.
Araujo, J., Zowghi, D. & Moreira, A. 2007, 'An Evolutionary Model of Requirements Correctness with Early Aspects', Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Principles of Software Evolution (IWPSE 2007), International Workshop on Principles of Software Evolution, ACM, Dubrovnik, Croatia, pp. 67-70.
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The achievement of building evolvable systems depends on how efficiently the changeable requirements are elicited and structured by software engineers. In current requirements approaches changing requirements are not dealt with satisfactorily. Partially, this is due to the crosscutting nature of some of these requirements. Aspect-Oriented Requirements Engineering tackles the problem of crosscutting requirements, and its concepts can be used to address this problem. This work describes how early aspects, i.e. aspects identified at early stages of software development, could be integrated to an evolutionary requirements model.
Niazi, M.K., Wilson, D.N. & Zowghi, D. 2007, 'Organisational Readiness and Software Process Improvement', Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Product Focused Software Process Improvements (PROFES 2007), Product Focused Software Process Improvement, Springer-Verlag, Riga, Latvia, pp. 96-107.
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This paper reports on the implementation of the SPI readiness model in three large-scale case studies. We have found that organisations with higher CMMA leavelas are more ready for SPI initiaitves than organisations with higher CMMI levels are more ready for SPO initiatives that organisations with low CMMI levels.
Yusop, N., Mehboob, Z. & Zowghi, D. 2007, 'The Role of Conducting Stakeholder Meeting in Requirements Engineering Techniques', Second International Workshop on the Requirements Engineering Education and Training (REET) in conjuction with RE07, International Workshop on the Requirements Engineering Education and Training, IEEE Computer Society, Dehli, India, pp. 48-55.
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Araujo, J., Zowghi, D. & Moreira, A. 2007, 'An evolutionary model of requirements correctness with early aspects', International Workshop on Principles of Software Evolution (IWPSE), pp. 67-70.
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The achievement of building evolvable systems depends on how efficiently the changeable requirements are elicited and structured by software engineers. In current requirements approaches changing requirements are not dealt with satisfactorily. Partially, this is due to the crosscutting nature of some of these requirements. Aspect-Oriented Requirements Engineering tackles the problem of crosscutting requirements, and its concepts can be used to address this problem. This work describes how early aspects, i.e. aspects identified at early stages of software development, could be integrated to an evolutionary requirements model. Copyright 2007 ACM.
Niazi, M.K., Wilson, D.N. & Zowghi, D. 2006, 'Implementing software process improvement initiatives An empirical study', Product-Focused Software Process Improvement, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Product Focused Software Process Improvement, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Netherlands, pp. 222-233.
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In this paper we present findings from our empirical study of software process improvement (SPI) implementation. We aim to provide SPI practitioners with insight into designing appropriate SPI implementation initiatives in order to achieve better results
Yusop, N., Lowe, D.B. & Zowghi, D. 2006, 'A survey of issue resolution on the incremental refinement of the system scope in web system development', ICWE '06. The sixth international on web engineering, International Conference on Web Engineering, ACM Press, Palo Alto, CA, USA, pp. 313-320.
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Increasingly, IT systems and Web systems in particular, fall into the class of applications where the scope of the application to be developed cannot be clearly articulated a priori. This is for a range of reasons, but is at least in part due to the complex inter-dependencies which exist between different aspects of the problem domain. While Whereas the core system requirements might be clear, the domain inter-dependencies lead to ancillary requirements which are only identified as the emerging system and its relationship to the domain are understood. A key mechanism in supporting the development of this understanding is the exploration of application pilots or prototypes, and the subsequent identification of solution or problem domain issues. The resolution of these issues will often play a crucial role in supporting the development of domain understanding and hence project scope. In this paper we explore this phenomenon by analysing issue handling across a range of case studies. We describe a model of the issue resolution process and highlight those issues which are most likely to assist in clarification of project scope.
Yusop, N., Zowghi, D. & Lowe, D.B. 2006, 'The impacts of non-functional requirements in web systems', EMCIS2006: Proceedings, European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems, Brunel University, Alicante, Spain, pp. 1-8.
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McBride, T.M., Henderson-Sellers, B. & Zowghi, D. 2006, 'Managing outsourced software development', UKAIS 2006- Where theory meets practice, UK Academy of Information Systems Conference, University of Gloucestershire, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 1-13.
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Boyd, S.M., Zowghi, D. & Farroukh, A. 2005, 'Measuring the expressive of a constrained natural language: An empirical study', International Requirements Engineering Conference 2005, IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE, Paris, France, pp. 339-349.
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It has been suggested that constraining a natural language (NL) reduces the degree of ambiguity of requirement specifications written in that language. There is also a tendency to assume that an inescapable side effect of constraining a natural language is a subsequent reduction in its expressiveness. The primary objective of this paper is to describe a technique that we have developed for empirically measuring the expressiveness of a Constrained Natural Language (CNL) when used to specify the requirements in a particular application domain. Our simple yet practical and repeatable technique elucidates the individual contribution that each lexical entity of the CNL can make on the overall expressiveness of the CNL. This technique is particularly useful for designing new CNLs, as well as situations where tailoring or streamlining existing CNLs for particular application domains is needed.
Zowghi, D., Firesmith, D. & Henderson-Sellers, B. 2005, 'Using the OPEN process framework to produce a situation specific requirements engineering method', Situational Requirements Engineering Processes - SREP 05 The 1st International Workshop, International Workshop on Situational Requirements Engineering Processes, University of Limerick, Ireland, Paris, France, pp. 59-75.
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Since it is not possible to identify or to create a single method that is appropriate for all situations, the need for a focussed requirements engineering method (REM) necessitates the search for a mechanism that will support the flexible creation of a number of tailored REMs from a single base. Using a repository of reusable method components, it is possible to use the techniques espoused by the method engineering community to construct an appropriate REM that is well-suited to the particular system or application development endeavour under consideration. One particular example is used to illustrate this approach that of the OPEN Process Framework (or OPF).
Nurmuliani, N., Zowghi, D. & Williams, S. 2005, 'Characterising requirements volatility: An empirical case study', Proceedings 2005 International Symposium on empirical software engineering ISESE 2005, International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering, IEEE, Noosa Head, Australia, pp. 427-436.
Sarosa, S. & Zowghi, D. 2005, 'Recover from information system failure: an Indonesian case study', EMICS 2005 Proceedings, European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems, Information Institute, Cario, Egypt, pp. 1-11.
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to meet their original aims and objectives. In these circumstances, the project sponsors are forced to decide whether they should abandon the system they have paid for or improvise by finding a way around the problem. This paper presents a case study with two Indonesian SMEs who had to deal with information systems failure within their organizations. Although within the information systems literature reports of these types of failure can be found but little is known about the aftermath of failure within SMEs. This case study presents the actions taken by two Indonesian SMEs who had to face with the failure of their web catalogue systems. The notion of IS failure used in this paper is a combination of expectation failure and termination failure.
Sarosa, S. & Zowghi, D. 2005, 'Information technology adoption process within indonesian SMEs: An empirical study', Proceedings of the 16th Australiasian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS 2005), Australasian Conference on Information Systems, Australasian Chapter of the Association for Information Systems, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-9.
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IT adoption within SMEs has been covered extensively within literature, most of which have considered IT adoption from narrow perspective such as drivers and barriers of IT adoption. IT adoption is better defined as a process which involves organisation and its components, stakeholders external to the organisation, and interactions within organisation and between organisation and its stakeholders. This paper uses multi perspective in IT adoption to build model of IT adoption. A field study involving 35 Indonesian SMEs was conducted in the form of semi structured interviews. The result from this field study were analysed and used to refine the proposed model.
Coulin, C.R., Zowghi, D. & Sahraoui, A. 2005, 'A Lightweight Workshop-centric situational approach for the early stages of requirements elicition in software development', Situational Requirements Engineering Processes - SREP 05 The 1st International Workshop, Situational Requirements Engineering Processes, University of Limerick, Paris, France, pp. 136-151.
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Coulin, C.R. & Zowghi, D. 2005, 'What do experts think about elicitation? - A state of practice survey', Proceedings the 10th Australian workshop on requirements engineering, Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering, Deakin University, Melbourne, AUst, pp. 1-10.
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Coulin, C.R., Sahraoui, A. & Zowghi, D. 2005, 'Towards a Collaborative and Combinational Approach to Requirements Elicitation in a Systems Engineering Framework', Proceedings of the International Conference on Systems Engineering, (ICSEng-05), International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSEng, Las Vegas, USA, pp. 456-461.
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Despite its critical importance to the process of systems development, requirements elicitation continues to be a major problem in both research and practice. This complex activity involving many different facets and issues is often performed badly and subsequently blamed for project failure and poor quality systems. In this paper we present a collaborative and combinational approach to requirements elicitation within a systems engineering framework, proposing the application of current research from other disciplines in areas related to requirements elicitation, such as software engineering and the social sciences, to a general systems engineering context. The work provides both researchers and practitioners with an approach to requirements elicitation for systems engineering that can be applied to real world projects to improve both the process and results, thereby increasing the overall chance of successful system development in terms of on schedule and on budget delivery, and satisfied customers.
Niazi, M.K., Wilson, D.N., Zowghi, D. & Wong, B. 2004, 'A model for the implementation of software process improvement: An empirical study', Product Focused Software Process Improvement, Product Focused Software Process Improvement, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Nara, Japan, pp. 1-16.
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Advances have been made in the development of software process improvement (SPI) standards and models, i.e. Capability Maturity Model (CMM), more recently CMMI, and ISOrsquos SPICE. However, these advances have not been matched by equal advances in the adoption of these standards and models in software development which has resulted in limited success for many SPI efforts. The current problem with SPI is not a lack of a standard or model, but rather a lack of an effective strategy to successfully implement these standards or models. In the literature, much attention has been paid to ldquowhat activities to implementrdquo rather than ldquohow to implementrdquo these activities. We believe that identification of only ldquowhat activities to implementrdquo is not sufficient and that knowledge of ldquohow to implementrdquo is also required for successful implementation of SPI programmes. The aim of this research paper is to empirically explore the viewpoints and experiences of practitioners regarding SPI implementation and based on the findings to develop a model in order to guide practitioners in effectively implementing SPI programmes. This SPI implementation model has six phases and provides a very practical structure within which to implement SPI programmes in organizations.
Gervasi, V., Zowghi, D., Easterbrook, S. & Sim, S. 2004, 'Workshop Summary on Comparative Evaluation in Requirements Engineering', Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Comparative Evaluation in Requirements Engineering, International Workshop on Comparative Evaluation in Requirements Engineering, UTS, Monteray Bay, USA, pp. 5-8.
McBride, T.M., Henderson-Sellers, B. & Zowghi, D. 2004, 'Monitoring and controlling software development projects', Proceedings of the European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS 2004), European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems, EMCIS, Tunis,Tunisia, pp. 0-0.
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McBride, T.M., Henderson-Sellers, B. & Zowghi, D. 2004, 'Project Management Capability Levels: An Empirical Study', Proceedings 11th Asia Pacific Software Engineering Conference, Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, IEEE, Busan,Korea, pp. 56-63.
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Coulin, C.R. & Zowghi, D. 2004, 'GONDOLA: An Interactive Computer Game-Based Teaching and Learning Environment for Requirements Engineering', Proceedings of the 10th Anniversary International Workshop on Requirements Engineering Foundation for Software Quality (REFSQ '04), International Workshop on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, Essener Informatik Beitrage, Riga, Latvia, pp. 113-125.
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Babar, A. & Zowghi, D. 2004, 'Developing a Requirements Management Toolset: Lessons Learned', Proceedings of the 2004 Australian Software Engineering Conference, Australian Software Engineering Conference, IEEE Computer Society, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 10-19.
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Nurmuliani, N., Zowghi, D. & Williams, S. 2004, 'Analysis of Requirements Volatility during Software Development Life Cycle', Proceedings of the 2004 Australian Software Engineering Conference, Australian Software Engineering Conference, IEEE Computer Society, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 28-37.
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Nurmuliani, N., Zowghi, D. & Williams, S.B. 2004, 'Using Card Sorting Technique to Classify Requirements Change', Proceedings of 12th IEEE Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE Computer Society, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 240-248.
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Niazi, M.K., Wilson, D.N. & Zowghi, D. 2004, 'Critical Barriers for software process improvement implementation: An empirical study', IASTED Software Engineering Conference Proceedings, IASTED Software Engineering Conference, ACTA Press, Innsbruck, Austria, pp. 389-395.
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Yusop, N., Lowe, D.B. & Zowghi, D. 2004, 'A Domain Framework for Representation of Web System Impacts', Web Information Systems -WISE 2004 Proceedings, International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering, Springer, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 491-502.
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Lowe, D.B., Yusop, N. & Zowghi, D. 2003, 'Understanding Business Impacts of Web System Prototypes', AusWeb03 Changing the Way we Work, Australian World Wide Web Conference, Southern Cross University, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 105-110.
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Yusop, N., Zowghi, D. & Lowe, D.B. 2003, 'An Analysis of E-Business Systems Impacts on the Business Domain', The Third International Conference on Electronic Business (ICEB2003), International Conference on e-Business, National University of Singapore, Marriott Hotel, Singapore, pp. 79-81.
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Niazi, M.K., Wilson, D.N. & Zowghi, D. 2003, 'A Model for the Implementation of Software Process Improvement: A Pilot Study', Third International Conference on Quality Software, International Conference on Quality Software, IEEE Computer Society, Dallas, Texas, USA, pp. 196-203.
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Little attention has been paid in the literature on "how to implement" software process improvement (SPI) which has resulted in limited success for many SPI efforts. In this paper we report on our recent empirical study which explored the experiences and perceptions of practitioners about SPI implementation. We visited 11 companies and conducted 14 in-depth interviews. Using the different experiences and opinions of practitioners regarding SPI implementation, we have developed a model for the implementation of SPI programmes. This model has six phases - awareness, learning, pilot implementation, SPI implementation action plan, implementation across the organization and maintenance - and provides advice to practitioners in effectively implementing SPI programmes.
Niazi, M.K., Wilson, D.N. & Zowghi, D. 2003, 'A Framework for Guiding the Design of Effective Implementation Strategies for Software Improvement', The 15th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Systems Institute, San Francisco, California, USA, pp. 366-371.
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Niazi, M.K., Wilson, D.N. & Zowghi, D. 2003, 'Critical Success Factors and Critical Barriers for Software Process Improvement: An Analysis of Literature', 14th Australasian Conference on Information Systems, Australasian Conference on Information Systems, Edith Cowan University, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia, pp. 1-11.
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Damian, D.E. & Zowghi, D. 2003, 'An Insight into the Interplay between Culture, Conflict and Distance in Globally Distributed Requirements Negotiations', Proceedings of the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE, Hawaii, USA, pp. 1-10.
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Zowghi, D. & Paryani, S. 2003, 'Teaching Requirements Engineering through Role Playing: Lessons Learnt', Proceedings 11th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE, Monterey Bay, California, USA, pp. 233-241.
Coulin, C.R. & Zowghi, D. 2003, 'Agent-based Support for Requirements Elicitation', Proceedings of ACM ESEC/FSE International Workshop on Intelligent Technologies for Software Engineering WITSE03, European Software Engineering Conference, ACM Press, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 40-43.
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Henderson-Sellers, B., Zowghi, D., Klemola, T. & Parasuram, S. 2002, 'Sizing Use Cases: How To Create a Standard Metrical Approach', Object-Oriented Information Systems, 8th International Conference on Object-Oriented Information Systems, Springer-Verlag, Montpellier, France, pp. 82-94.
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Damian, D.E. & Zowghi, D. 2002, 'The Impact of Stakeholders Geographical Distribution on Managing Requirements in Multi-site Organisation', IEEE JOINT INTERNATIONAL Requirements Engineering Conference Proceedings, IEEE JOINT INTERNATIONAL Conference on Requirements Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, Essen, Germany, pp. 319-328.
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Zowghi, D. & Gervasi, V. 2002, 'The Three Cs of Requirements: Consistency, Completeness and Correctness', Proceedings of 8th International Workshop on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, (REFSQâ02), International Workshop on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, REFSQ, Essen, Germany.
Zowghi, D. 2002, 'Does Global Software Development Need a Different Requirements Engineering Process?', Proceeding of International Workshop on Global Software Development, (In conjunction with the Int'l Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE 2002, International Workshop on Global Software Development, ICSE, Orlando, Florida.
Zowghi, D. & Nurmuliani, N. 2002, 'A study of the impact of requirements volatility on software project performance', Proceedings - Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, APSEC, pp. 3-11.
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© 2002 IEEE. Software development is considered to be a dynamic process where demands for changes seem to be inevitable. Modifications to software are prompted by all kinds of changes including changes to the requirements. This type of changes gives rise to an intrinsic volatility, which has several impacts on the software development lifecycle. This paper describes our findings of an extensive survey based empirical study of requirement volatility (RV) and its impact on software project performance. In particular, findings reveal that requirement volatility has a significant impact on schedule overrun and cost overrun in software projects. Our investigation also examined factors that contribute to the extent of requirement volatility and found that variables such as frequent communications between users and developers and usage of a definable methodology in requirements analysis and modeling have impact on the stability of requirements.
Damian, D., Zowghi, D., Vaidyanathasamy, L. & Pal, Y. 2002, 'An industrial experience in process improvement: An early assessment at the Australian Center for Unisys Software', ISESE 2002 - Proceedings, 2002 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering, pp. 111-123.
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© 2002 IEEE. This paper describes an industrial experience in process improvement at one of the Unisys development labs in Australia. Following a Capability Maturity Model (CMM) mini-assessment, the organization is undertaking significant changes in the requirements management process, which include the introduction of group session approaches to requirements analysis and a structured method for writing requirements. An empirical evaluation of the process improvement indicates tangible benefits as well as perceived long-term benefits during design and testing. Findings suggest that a more thorough requirements analysis results in more clearly defined, better understood and specified requirements, and an enhanced ability to address the market needs and product strategy requirements. The catalyst behind these improvements includes project management leadership, managing the human dimension, collaboration among stakeholders and senior management support.
Zowghi, D. & Gervasi, V. 2001, 'Why is RE for web-based software development easier?', Proceedings of 7th International Workshop on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality (REFSQ'01), International Workshop on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, Essener Informatik Beitrage, Interlaken-Switzerland, pp. 215-220.
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Zowghi, D., Gervasi, V. & McRae, A. 2001, 'Using default reasoning to discover inconsistencies in natural language requires', Proceedings of APSEC 2001 Asia Pacific Software Engineering Conference, Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, IEEE, Macau, pp. 133-140.
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Zowghi, D., Damian, D.E. & Offen, R. 2001, 'Field studies of requirements engineering in a multi-site software development organization: research in progress', Proceedings of 6th Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering, Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering, UNSW, UNSW, Sydney, pp. 14-20.
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Zowghi, D., Offen, R. & Nurmuliani, N. 2000, 'The Impact of Requirements Volatility on the Software Development Lifecycle', 16th World Computer Congress 2000, Proceedings of Conference on Software: Theory and Practice, Publishing House of Electronics Industry, Beijing, China, pp. 19-27.
Damian, D.E., Shaw, M.L., Gaines, B.R. & Zowghi, D. 2000, 'A Multidisciplinary approach to the study of distributed requirements negotiation', Fifth Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering (AWRE2000), Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 91-100.
Zowghi, D. 2000, 'A Requirements Engineering Process Model Based on Defaults and Revisions', The 2nd International Workshop on the Requirements Engineering Process (REP2000), in Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA2000), International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, IEEE Computer Society, Greenwich, London, UK, pp. 966-970.
Zowghi, D. 1999, 'Maintaining and Comparing Requirements', Proceedings of the Fourth Australian Conference on Requirements Engineering, Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering, Australia, pp. 115-129.
Zowghi, D. & Nurmuliani, N. 1998, 'Investigating Requirements Volatility During Software Development: Research in Progress', Proceedings of the Third Australian Conference on Requirements Engineering, Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering, Victoria.
Zowghi, D. 1997, 'Computer Assisted Requirements Evolution Tool: Formal Foundations and Architecture', Proceedings of the 2nd Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering (AWRE'97), Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering, Australia, pp. 37-49.
Zowghi, D. & Offen, R. 1996, 'A Logical Framework for Modeling and Reasoning about the Evolution of Requirements', Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, pp. 247-257.
Zowghi, D. 1996, 'A Framework for Reasoning about Requirements Evolution', Proceedings of the 4th Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (PRICAI'96), Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Cairns, Australia, pp. 157-168.
Zowghi, D. 1988, 'An Experimental Expert System for DNA Restriction Mapping', Proceedings of the International Conference on Expert Systems and Applications, Avignon, France.

Journal articles

Bano, M., Zowghi, D. & Sarkissian, N. 2016, 'Empirical study of communication structures and barriers in geographically distributed teams', IET Software, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 147-153.
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Conway's law asserts that communication structures of organisations constrain the design of the products they develop. This law is more explicitly observable in geographically distributed contexts because distributed teams are required to share information across different time zones and barriers. The diverse business processes and functions adopted by individual teams in geographically distributed settings create challenges for effective communication. Since the publication of Conway's law, a significant body of research has emerged in its relation to the communication structures. When it comes to software projects, the explicit observation about Conway's law has produced mixed results. The research reported in this study explores the communication structures and corresponding challenges faced by teams within a large geographically distributed software development organisation. The data was collected from relevant documents, a questionnaire and interviews with relevant stakeholders. The findings suggest that Conway's law is observable within the communication structures of globally distributed software development teams. The authors have identified the barriers and challenges of effective communications in this setting and have investigated the benefits of utilising an integrated system to overcome these challenges.
Bano, M., Zowghi, D. & da Rimini, F. 2016, 'User Satisfaction and System Success: An Empirical Exploration of User Involvement in Software Development', Empirical Software Engineering: an international journal.
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For over four decades user involvement has been considered intuitively to lead to user satisfaction, which plays a pivotal role in successful outcome of a software project. The objective of this paper is to explore the notion of user satisfaction within the context of the user involvement and system success relationship. We have conducted a longitudinal case study of a software development project and collected qualitative data by means of interviews, observations and document analysis over a period of 3 years. The analysis of our case study data revealed that user satisfaction significantly contributes to the system success even when schedule and budget goals are not met. The case study data analysis also presented additional factors that contribute to the evolution of user satisfaction throughout the project. Users' satisfaction with their involvement and the resulting system are mutually constituted while the level of user satisfaction evolves throughout the stages of software development process. Effective management strategies and user representation are essential elements of maintaining an acceptable level of user satisfaction throughout software development process.
Zowghi, D. & Gervasi, V. 2016, 'Introduction to the special issue of best papers from RE2015 conference', Requirements Engineering, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 309-310.
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Bano, M. & Zowghi, D. 2015, 'A systematic review on the relationship between user involvement and system success', INFORMATION AND SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 58, pp. 148-169.
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Bano, M., Zowghi, D., Ikram, N. & Niazi, M. 2014, 'What makes service oriented requirements engineering challenging? A qualitative study', IET SOFTWARE, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 154-160.
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Wei, B., Jin, Z., Zowghi, D. & Yin, B. 2014, 'Implementation decision making for internetware driven by quality requirements', Science China Information Sciences, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 1-19.
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Mu, K., Jin, Z., Liu, W., Zowghi, D. & Wei, B. 2013, 'Measuring the significance of inconsistency in the Viewpoints framework', Science Of Computer Programming, vol. 78, no. 9, pp. 1572-1599.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Measuring inconsistency is crucial to effective inconsistency management in software development. A complete measurement of inconsistency should focus on not only the degree but also the significance of inconsistency. However, most of the approaches available only take the degree of inconsistency into account. The significance of inconsistency has not yet been given much needed consideration. This paper presents an approach for measuring the significance of inconsistency arising from different viewpoints in the Viewpoints framework. We call an individual set of requirements belonging to different viewpoints a combined requirements collection in this paper. We argue that the significance of inconsistency arising in a combined requirements collection is closely associated with global priority levels of requirements involved in the inconsistency. Here we assume that the global priority level of an individual requirement captures the relative importance of every viewpoint including this requirement as well as the local priority level of the requirement within the viewpoint. Then we use the synthesis of global priority levels of all the requirements in a combined collection to measure the significance of the collection. Following this, we present a scoring matrix function to measure the significance of inconsistency in an inconsistent combined requirements collection, which describes the contribution made by each subset of the requirements collection to the significance of the set of requirements involved in the inconsistency. An ordering relationship between inconsistencies of two combined requirements collections, termed more significant than, is also presented by comparing their significance scoring matrix functions. Finally, these techniques were implemented in a prototype tool called IncMeasurer, which we developed as a proof of concept
Mu, K., Jin, Z. & Zowghi, D. 2008, 'A Priority-Based Negotiations Approach for Handling Inconsistencies in Multi-Perspective Software Requirements', Journal Of Systems Science & Complexity, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 574-596.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Inconsistency of multi-perspective requirements specifications is a pervasive issue during the requirements process. However, managing inconsistency is not just a pure technical problem. It is always associated with a process of interactions and competit
Yusop, N., Zowghi, D. & Lowe, D.B. 2008, 'The Impacts of Non-functional Requirements in Web System Projects', International Journal of Value Chain Management, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 18-32.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In web system development, the Non-Functional Requirements (NFRs) are typically considered only briefly during the requirements elicitation stage and not rigorously articulated by either web developers or the client. This paper reports on an investigation into this issue involving interviews with web developers who were engaged in commercial web development projects. The results from this qualitative research highlight that web developers commonly do not pay sufficient attention to NFRs. This arises due to uncertainty, lack of time, lack of knowledge in the importance of NFRs and partly because NFRs are not readily available and documented from previous similar projects. Web developers also do not elicit NFR at the same time and at the same level of details as Functional Requirements (FRs). This study highlights that exploring the domain at an early stage of development will help developers to better understand NFR. A lack of rigour in articulating NFRs may significantly impact on the development effectiveness and the quality of the resulting web system. An evaluation of NFRs may also lead to discovering new FRs.
Aghasadeghi, K. & Zare, D. 2008, 'Efficacy of alternate day dosing of atorvastatin', Open Medicine, vol. 3, no. 2.
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Zowghi, D. 2007, 'Ten Years of Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering', Requirements Engineering, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 125-125.
McBride, T.M., Henderson-Sellers, B. & Zowghi, D. 2007, 'Software development as a design or a production project: An empirical study of project monitoring and control', Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 70-82.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Purpose</B> - The paper seeks to investigate whether project managers regard software development projects as design problems or production problems. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - Project management literature was examined to determine what evidence there should be to indicate whether a software development project was regarded as a problem to be solved or a product to be produced. Data were then collected through structured interview of project managers currently engaged in managing software development projects. The data were analysed to determine how project managers regarded their projects and whether this matched a theoretical expectation. <B>Findings</B> - The empirical data indicated that most project managers regard their projects as production problems, where it is assumed that the underlying problem is largely understood, the project encapsulated in a planned schedule of activities and there will be an emphasis on monitoring the project against the planned progress. <B>Research limitations/implications</B> - Owing to the small sample size of fewer than 30 project managers, external validity is weak. More research is needed to confirm these results over a larger sample and to probe more subtle orientation to production or design projects. <B>Practical implications</B> - The research developed a simple test to indicate the degree of novelty of the application to be developed. The test indicates whether the application is novel and should be treated as a design problem, or well known and therefore should be treated as a production problem. <B>Originality/value</B> - The paper draws attention to the need for project managers to evaluate the type of application to be developed and to adopt an appropriate project management approach. The paper also provides a simple test to achieve that objective.
Niazi, M.K., Wilson, D.N. & Zowghi, D. 2006, 'Critical success factors for software process improvement implementation: An empirical study', Software Process: Improvement & Practice, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 193-211.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
n this article, we present findings from our recent empirical study of the critical success factors (CSFs) for software process improvement (SPI) implementation with 34 SPI practitioners. The objective of this study is to provide SPI practitioners with sufficient knowledge about the nature of issues that play a positive role in the implementation of SPI programmes in order to assist them in effectively planning SPI implementation strategies. Through our empirical study we identified seven factors (higher management support, training, awareness, allocation of resources, staff involvement, experienced staff and defined SPI implementation methodology) that are generally considered critical for successfully implementing SPI. We also report on a literature survey of CSFs that impact SPI and identify six factors (senior management commitment, staff involvement, staff time and resources, training and mentoring, creating process action teams and reviews). We compared our empirical study results with the literature and confirmed the factors identified in the literature, and also identified two new CSFs (SPI awareness and defined SPI implementation methodology) that were not identified in the literature. Finally, we analyzed the CSFs identified by different groups of practitioners and found that they are aware of what is imperative for the successful implementation of SPI programmes.
Zowghi, D. & Davis, A.M. 2006, 'Good Requirements Practices are Neither Necessary nor Sufficient', Requirements Engineering, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-3.
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Coulin, C.R., Zowghi, D. & Sahraoui, A. 2006, 'A situational method engineering approach to requirements elicitation workshops in the software development process', Software process improvement and practice, vol. 11, pp. 451-464.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Yusop, N., Lowe, D.B. & Zowghi, D. 2005, 'Impacts of Web Systems on Their Domain', Journal of Web Engineering (Online), vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 313-338.
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Niazi, M.K., Wilson, D.N. & Zowghi, D. 2005, 'A framework for assisting the design of effective software process improvement implementation strategies', Journal Of Systems And Software, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 204-222.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A number of advances have been made in the development of software process improvement (SPI) standards and models, e.g. Capability Maturity Model (CMM), more recently CMMI, and ISO's SPICE. However, these advances have not been matched by equal advances
Gervasi, V. & Zowghi, D. 2005, 'Reasoning about inconsistencies in natural language requirements', ACM Transactions On Software Engineering And Methodology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 277-330.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The use of logic in identifying and analyzing inconsistency in requirements from multiple stakeholders has been found to be effective in a number of studies. Nonmonotonic logic is a theoretically well-founded formalism that is especially suited for suppo
Niazi, M.K., Wilson, D.N. & Zowghi, D. 2005, 'A maturity model for the implementation of software process improvement: an empirical study', The Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 155-172.
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Zowghi, D. & Gervasi, V. 2004, 'Erratum to "On interplay between consistency, completeness, and correctness in requirements in evolution"', Information and Software Technology, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 763-779.
Damian, D.E., Zowghi, D., Vaidyanathasamy, L. & Pal, Y. 2004, 'An Industrial case study of immediate benefits of requirements engineering process improvement at the Australian Center for Unsys Software', Empirical Software Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1-2, pp. 45-75.
View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper describes an industrial experience in process improvement at one of the Unisys development labs in Australia. Following a capability maturity model (CMM) mini-assessment, the organization is undertaking significant changes in the requirements management process, which include the introduction of group session approaches to requirements analysis and a structured method for writing requirements. An empirical evaluation which investigated other aspects of the process improvement than the CMM model indicates tangible benefits as well as perceived long-term benefits during design and testing. Findings confirm that a more thorough requirements analysis results in more clearly defined, better understood and specified requirements, and an enhanced ability to address the market needs and product strategy requirements. The catalyst behind these improvements included project management leadership, managing the human dimension, collaboration among stakeholders and senior management support.
Zowghi, D., Gervasi, V., Easterbrook, S. & Sim, S. 2004, 'Report on the first international workshop on comparative evaluation in requirements engineering', ACM SIGSOFT Software Engeering Notes, vol. May.
Zowghi, D. & Gervasi, V. 2004, 'On the interplay between consistency, completeness, and correctness in requirements evolution (vol 45, pg 993, 2003)', INFORMATION AND SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 75-75.
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Zowghi, D. & Gervasi, V. 2004, 'On the interplay between consistency, completeness, and correctness in requirements evolution (vol 45, pg 993, 2003)', INFORMATION AND SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 761-+.
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Zowghi, D. & Gervasi, V. 2003, 'On the interplay between consistency, completeness, and correctness in requirements evolution', Information And Software Technology, vol. 45, no. 14, pp. 993-1009.
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Damian, D.E. & Zowghi, D. 2003, 'RE Challenges in multi-site software development organisations', Requirements Engineering, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 149-160.
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Sarosa, S. & Zowghi, D. 2003, 'Strategy for Adopting Information technology for SMEs: Experience in Adopting Email within an Indonesian Furniture Company', Electronic Journal ofInformation Systems Evaluation (EJISE), vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 165-176.
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