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Professor Deborah Street

Professor of Statistics, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences
Associate Member, Centre for Health Economics Research & Evaluation
BSc (Hons) (UQ), PhD (Syd)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 2251

Research Interests

The general area of my research is in the construction of designed experiments.

Most of my research has been motivated by design questions that arise from practical problems. I have developed optimal designs for repeated measurements (changeover) designs, incomplete factorial designs in which all main effects can be estimated and I have designed designs for training dispute resolution councillors. My most recent work has been the construction of optimal and small (near-)optimal discrete choice experiments (DCEs).

DCEs are used extensively in marketing, transportation research, environmental economics and health economics. Dr Leonie Burgess and I have developed constructions for optimal designs for the multinomial logit (MNL) model for estimation of main effects for situations in which the attributes may have any number of levels and the choice sets may be of any size. We have derived the determinant of the information matrix for the estimation of main effects and two-factor interactions and we have tables of optimal designs for some combinations of attribute levels for various choice set sizes. We have developed a heuristic which produces small near-optimal designs when the optimal designs are unmanageably large. Our research monograph with these results was published by Wiley.

Can supervise: Yes

Books

Street, D.J. & Burgess, L. 2007, The Construction of Optimal Stated Choice Experiments: Theory and Methods.
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© 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The most comprehensive and applied discussion of stated choice experiment constructions available. The Construction of Optimal Stated Choice Experiments provides an accessible introduction to the construction methods needed to create the best possible designs for use in modeling decision-making. Many aspects of the design of a generic stated choice experiment are independent of its area of application, and until now there has been no single book describing these constructions. This book begins with a brief description of the various areas where stated choice experiments are applicable, including marketing and health economics, transportation, environmental resource economics, and public welfare analysis. The authors focus on recent research results on the construction of optimal and near-optimal choice experiments and conclude with guidelines and insight on how to properly implement these results. Features of the book include: Construction of generic stated choice experiments for the estimation of main effects only, as well as experiments for the estimation of main effects plus two-factor interactions. Constructions for choice sets of any size and for attributes with any number of levels. A discussion of designs that contain a none option or a common base option. Practical techniques for the implementation of the constructions. Class-tested material that presents theoretical discussion of optimal design. Complete and extensive references to the mathematical and statistical literature for the constructions. Exercise sets in most chapters, which reinforce the understanding of the presented material. The Construction of Optimal Stated Choice Experiments serves as an invaluable reference guide for applied statisticians and practitioners in the areas of marketing, health economics, transport, and environmental evaluation. It is also ideal as a supplemental text for courses in the design of experiments, decision su...

Chapters

Burgess, L., Street, D.J., Viney, R. & Louviere, J. 2012, 'Design of choice experiments in health economics' in The Elgar Companion to Health Economics, Second Edition, pp. 447-462.
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Street, D. & Burgess, L.B. 2012, 'Designs for choice experiments for the multinomial logit model' in Klaus Hinkelmann (ed), Design and Analysis of Experiments: Special Designs and Applications Volume 3, John Wiley & Sons, United States, pp. 331-378.
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People make choices all the time; some of these are minor, like deciding what clothes to wear to work today, but some are major and of interest to governments and businesses. Governments might be interested in modelling demand for health services in the future, for instance, or in assessing the likely impact on the electorate of a decision to allow mining or logging in national parks. Businesses want to predict the likely market for new goods and services. To get information about products or services that do not yet exist, an experimental approach is appropriate. Such experiments are called stated preference or stated choice experiments. This chapter provides an overview of the best way to design generic stated preference choice experiments, from a mathematical perspective. A more extensive discussion appears in Street and Burgess (2007).
Street, D., Burgess, L.B., Viney, R.C. & Louviere, J.J. 2008, 'Designing Discrete Choice Experiments for Health Care' in Ryan, M., Gerard, K. & Amaya-Amaya, M. (eds), Using Discrete Choice Experiments to Value Health and Health Care, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 47-72.
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As noted in Chapter 1, the application of discrete choice experiments (DCEs) in health economics has seen an increase over the last few years.While the number of studies using DCEs is growing, there has been relatively limited consideration of experimental design theory and methods. Details of the development of the designed experiment are rarely discussed. Many studies have used small fractional factorial designs (FFDs), generated with commercial design software packages, e.g. orthogonal main effects plans (OMEPs), sometimes manipulated in ad hoc ways (e.g. randomly pairing up scenarios or taking one scenario from the design and combining it with every other scenario). Such approaches can result in designs with unknown statistical design properties, in particular with unknown correlations between parameter estimates.
Burgess, L.B., Street, D., Viney, R.C. & Louviere, J.J. 2006, 'Design of choice experiments in health economics' in Jones, A.M. (ed), The Elgar Companion to Health Economics, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 415-426.
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Louviere, J.J., Street, D. & Burgess, L.B. 2004, 'A 20+ years' retrospective on choice experiments' in Wind, Y. & Green, P.E. (eds), Marketing Research and Modeling: Progress and Prospects, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp. 201-214.
Paul Green inspired many of us who work in conjoint analysis and related areas, such as stated preference discrete choice experiments, and all of us who undertake research in understanding and modelling preferences have benefited from his work. Knowing Paul Green, his impact and contributions will continue during his "returement". Our thanks to him for so many of the advances that we now often take for granted, but without which we would not be where we are today. In tribute to Paul Green, this paper provides a bried history of choice experiments, how the results of choice experiments relate to real market behaviour,. and progress that has been made int he design of choice experiments. We concludee by discussing several aspects of choice experimens, such as the interacctions of subjects with experiments, model complexity and the scientific understanding of choice behaviour compared with mere predictions of choices.
Cheng, Y.W., Street, D. & Wilson, W.H. 2003, 'Two-stage generalised simulated annealing for the construction of change-over designs' in Wallis, W.D. (ed), Designs 2002. Further Computational and Constructive Design Theory, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 69-79.
Louviere, J.J. & Street, D. 2000, 'Stated-preference Methods' in Hensher, D.A. & Button, K.J. (eds), Handbook of Transport Modelling, Pergamon Press, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 131-143.

Conferences

Hall, J., Kenny, P., Hossain, I., Street, D.J. & Knox, S.A. 2014, 'Providing informal care in terminal illness: An analysis of preferences for support using a discrete choice experiment', Medical Decision Making, pp. 731-745.
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Background: The trend for terminally ill patients to receive much of their end-of-life care at home necessitates the design of services to facilitate this. Care at home also requires that informal care be provided by family members and friends. This study investigated informal carers' preferences for support services to aid the development of end-of-life health care services. Methods: This cross-sectional study used 2 discrete choice experiments to ascertain the preferences of carers supporting patients with different levels of care need, determined by the assistance needed with personal care and labeled High Care (HC) and Low Care (LC). The sample included 168 informal carers of people receiving palliative care at home from 2 palliative care services in Sydney, Australia. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews; carers chose between 2 hypothetical plans of support services and their current services. Data were analyzed with generalized multinomial logit models that were used to calculate the impact of each attribute on the probability of a carer choosing a service plan. Results: Preferred support included nursing services; the probability of choosing a plan increased significantly if it included nurse home visits and phone advice (P<0.001). HC carers also wanted doctor home visits, home respite, and help with personal care (P < 0.05), and LC carers wanted help with household tasks, transport, and a case coordinator (P<0.001). On average, both groups of carers preferred their current services, but this varied with characteristics of the carer and the caregiving situation. Conclusions: The most valued services are those that support carers in their caregiving role; however, supportive care preferences vary with the different circumstances of patients and carers. &copy; The Author(s) 2013.
Norman, R., Viney, R.C., Street, D., Cronin, P.A. & Ratcliffe, J. 2013, 'Using choice experiments to explore preferences for health profiles with different survival durations: experience from Australia', iHEA 9th World Congress on Health Economics, Sydney.
Norman, R., Viney, R.C., Brazier, J.E., King, M.T., Cronin, P.A., Ratcliffe, J. & Street, D. 2012, 'Australian algorithms for the EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L', International Society for Quality of Life Research Congress, Budapest, Hungary.
Norman, R., Brazier, J.E., Viney, R.C., Burgess, L.B., Cronin, P.A., King, M.T., Ratcliffe, J. & Street, D. 2012, 'Revaluing the SF-6D using ordinal methods for eliciting preferences', International Society for Quality of Life Research Congress, Budapest, Hungary.
Norman, R., Viney, R.C., Brazier, J.E., Cronin, P.A., King, M.T., Ratcliffe, J. & Street, D. 2012, 'Valuing EQ-5D health states: The Australian experience', EuroQoL Group Plenary Meeting, Rotterdam.
Norman, R., Viney, R., Brazier, J., Burgess, L., Cronin, P., King, M., Ratcliffe, J. & Street, D.J. 2012, 'USING DISCRETE CHOICE EXPERIMENTS TO VALUE HEALTH STATES FOR ECONOMIC EVALUATION - THE SF-6D IN AUSTRALIA', VALUE IN HEALTH, ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, pp. A605-A606.
Norman, R., Viney, R.C., Brazier, J.E., Burgess, L.B., Cronin, P.A., King, M.T., Ratcliffe, J. & Street, D. 2012, 'A DCE-derived algorithm for the SF-6D', 34th Australian Conference of Health Economists (AHES), Darwin.
Knox, S.A., Viney, R.C., Gu, Y., Hole, A., Fiebig, D.G., Street, D. & Haas, M.R. 2011, 'The effect of information and promotion on preferences for contraceptive products', iHEA 8th World Congress, Toronto, Canada.
Fiebig, D.G., Viney, R.C., Knox, S.A., Haas, M.R., Weisberg, E., Street, D. & Bateson, D. 2011, 'Talking about contraception: how do doctors decide what to discuss and recommend?', iHEA 8th World Congress, Toronto, Canada.
Viney, R.C., Norman, R., King, M.T., Cronin, P.A., Street, D., Ratcliffe, J. & Brazier, J.E. 2011, 'Using a discrete choice experiment to value EQ-5D health states', iHEA 8th World Congress, Toronto, Canada.
Knox, S.A., Viney, R.C., Street, D., Haas, M.R., Fiebig, D.G., Weisberg, E. & Bateson, D. 2010, 'Whatâs good and bad about contraception? Application of a Best-Worst Attribute experiment', CAER Health Economics Workshop, Sydney.
Kenny, P.M., Doiron, D., Street, D. & Hall, J.P. 2010, 'What do nursing students and new graduates value in their first nursing job?', Conference of the Australian Health Economics Society, Sydney.
Cronin, P.A., Norman, R., Viney, R.C., King, M.T., Street, D., Burgess, L.B., Brazier, J.E. & Ratcliffe, J. 2009, 'Can Time Trade Off be implemented online? A case study from Australia using the EQ-5D (Poster)', iHEA 7th World Congress, Beijing, China.
Knox, S.A., Street, D., King, M.T., Boyle, F., Wilcken, N. & Butow, P. 2009, 'Preferences of women with early stage breast cancer for administration of targeted HER2 therapy: Designing a discrete choice experiment', Australian and New Zealand Breast Cancer Trials Group, 31st Annual Scientific Meeting, Darwin, NT.
Viney, R.C., Norman, R., Street, D., King, M.T., Burgess, L.B., Brazier, J.E. & Ratcliffe, J. 2009, 'Application of discrete choice experiments to value multi-attribute health states: experimental design issues', iHEA 7th World Congress, Beijing, China.
Knox, S.A., Viney, R.C., Street, D., Haas, M.R., Weisberg, E. & Bateson, D. 2009, 'Do women and GPs agree in their preferences around contraceptive methods?', 6th Health Services and Policy Conference 2009, Brisbane.
Cronin, P.A., Norman, R., King, M.T., Clarke, D., Viney, R.C. & Street, D. 2009, 'Does mode of administration matter? Comparison of online and face to face administration of a time trade-off task', Brisbane.
Knox, S.A., Fiebig, D.G., Viney, R.C., Haas, M.R., Weisberg, E., Street, D., Bateson, D. & Cheung, S.S. 2008, 'Choosing how not to get pregnant: evidence from a discrete choice experiment', 30th Australian Conference Of Health Economists, Adelaide.
Viney, R.C., Norman, R., King, M.T., Cronin, P.A., Street, D., Brazier, J.E. & Ratcliffe, J. 2008, 'Application of discrete choice experiments to value multi-attribute health states for use in economic evaluation', Australian Conference of Health Economists, Adelaide.
Viney, R.C., Norman, R., King, M.T., Cronin, P.A., Street, D., Ratcliffe, J. & Brazier, J.E. 2008, 'Application of discrete choice experiments to value multi-attribute health states for use in economic evaluation', 13th National Health Outcomes Conference, Canberra.
King, M.T., Viney, R.C., Norman, R., Cronin, P.A., Street, D., Brazier, J.E. & Ratcliffe, J. 2008, 'Valuation of EQ-5D health states using discrete choice experiments: effect of excluding implausible states', International Society for Quality of Life Research (ISOQOL) Conference, Montevideo, Uruguay.
Tomkin, D.F., Thomas, L.E., Day, M.B., Burke, P.F., Franklin, J., Smith, G., Louviere, J.J. & Street, D. 2007, 'Solar Light for rooms without windows', Sustainable Innovation 07, Farnham, Surrey, UK.
Norman, R., Cronin, P.A., Viney, R.C., King, M.T., Street, D., Brazier, J.E. & Ratcliffe, J. 2007, 'Issues in the valuation of health using multi-attribute utility measures; the EQ-5D', Australian Conference of Health Economists, Brisbane.
Louviere, J.J., Burke, P.F., Street, D., Burgess, L.B. & Marley, A.A. 2006, 'Dicrete choice surveys: Improving completion rates and getting better data', Asia-Pacific Quantitative Methods in Marketing Conference, Sydney, Australia.

Journal articles

Norman, R., Viney, R., Aaronson, N.K., Brazier, J.E., Cella, D., Costa, D.S.J., Fayers, P.M., Kemmler, G., Peacock, S., Pickard, A.S., Rowen, D., Street, D.J., Velikova, G., Young, T.A. & King, M.T. 2015, 'Using a discrete choice experiment to value the QLU-C10D: feasibility and sensitivity to presentation format', Quality of Life Research.
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&copy; 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to value health states within the QLU-C10D, a utility instrument derived from the QLQ-C30, and to assess clarity, difficulty, and respondent preference between two presentation formats.Methods: We ran a DCE valuation task in an online panel (N = 430). Respondents answered 16 choice pairs; in half of these, differences between dimensions were highlighted, and in the remainder, common dimensions were described in text and differing attributes were tabulated. To simplify the cognitive task, only four of the QLU-C10D's ten dimensions differed per choice set. We assessed difficulty and clarity of the valuation task with Likert-type scales, and respondents were asked which format they preferred. We analysed the DCE data by format with a conditional logit model and used Chi-squared tests to compare other responses by format. Semi-structured telephone interviews (N = 8) explored respondents' cognitive approaches to the valuation task.Results: Four hundred and forty-nine individuals were recruited, 430 completed at least one choice set, and 422/449 (94 %) completed all 16 choice sets. Interviews revealed that respondents found ten domains difficult but manageable, many adopting simplifying heuristics. Results for clarity and difficulty were identical between formats, but the 'highlight' format was preferred by 68 % of respondents. Conditional logit parameter estimates were monotonic within domains, suggesting respondents were able to complete the DCE sensibly, yielding valid results. Conclusion: A DCE valuation task in which only four of the QLU-C10D's ten dimensions differed in any choice set is feasible for deriving utility weights for the QLU-C10D.
Fiebig, D.G., Viney, R., Knox, S., Haas, M., Street, D.J., Hole, A.R., Weisberg, E. & Bateson, D. 2015, 'Consideration Sets and Their Role in Modelling Doctor Recommendations About Contraceptives', Health Economics (United Kingdom).
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&copy; 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Decisions about prescribed contraception are typically the result of a consultation between a woman and her doctor. In order to better understand contraceptive choice within this environment, stated preference methods are utilized to ask doctors about what contraceptive options they would discuss with different types of women. The role of doctors is to confine their discussion to a subset of products that best match their patient. This subset of options forms the consideration set from which the ultimate recommendation is made. Given the existence of consideration sets we address the issue of how to model appropriately the ultimate recommendations. The estimated models enable us to characterize doctor recommendations and how they vary with patient attributes and to highlight where recommendations are clear and when they are uncertain. The results also indicate systematic variation in recommendations across different types of doctors, and in particular we observe that some doctors are reluctant to embrace new products and instead recommend those that are more familiar. Such effects are one possible explanation for the relatively low uptake of more cost effective longer acting reversible contraceptives and indicate that further education and training of doctors may be warranted.
Norman, R., Viney, R., Aaronson, N.K., Brazier, J.E., Cella, D., Costa, D.S.J., Fayers, P.M., Kemmler, G., Peacock, S., Pickard, A.S., Rowen, D., Street, D.J., Velikova, G., Young, T.A. & King, M.T. 2015, 'Using a discrete choice experiment to value the QLU-C10D: feasibility and sensitivity to presentation format', Quality of Life Research.
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&copy; 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to value health states within the QLU-C10D, a utility instrument derived from the QLQ-C30, and to assess clarity, difficulty, and respondent preference between two presentation formats.Methods: We ran a DCE valuation task in an online panel (N = 430). Respondents answered 16 choice pairs; in half of these, differences between dimensions were highlighted, and in the remainder, common dimensions were described in text and differing attributes were tabulated. To simplify the cognitive task, only four of the QLU-C10D's ten dimensions differed per choice set. We assessed difficulty and clarity of the valuation task with Likert-type scales, and respondents were asked which format they preferred. We analysed the DCE data by format with a conditional logit model and used Chi-squared tests to compare other responses by format. Semi-structured telephone interviews (N = 8) explored respondents' cognitive approaches to the valuation task.Results: Four hundred and forty-nine individuals were recruited, 430 completed at least one choice set, and 422/449 (94 %) completed all 16 choice sets. Interviews revealed that respondents found ten domains difficult but manageable, many adopting simplifying heuristics. Results for clarity and difficulty were identical between formats, but the 'highlight' format was preferred by 68 % of respondents. Conditional logit parameter estimates were monotonic within domains, suggesting respondents were able to complete the DCE sensibly, yielding valid results. Conclusion: A DCE valuation task in which only four of the QLU-C10D's ten dimensions differed in any choice set is feasible for deriving utility weights for the QLU-C10D.
Bird, E.M. & Street, D.J. 2015, 'D-optimal asymmetric orthogonal array plus p run designs', Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference.
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&copy; 2015 Elsevier B.V. In a recent paper, Chatzopoulos et al. (2011) identified some sufficient conditions to describe a set of p runs which, when adjoined to a symmetric orthogonal array, would result in a Type 1 optimal orthogonal array plus p run design. In this paper we find conditions for sets of p runs which, when adjoined to an asymmetric orthogonal array, result in a D-optimal orthogonal array plus p run design.
Norman, R., Viney, R., Brazier, J., Burgess, L., Cronin, P., King, M., Ratcliffe, J. & Street, D. 2014, 'Valuing SF-6D health states using a discrete choice experiment', Medical Decision Making, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 773-786.
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Background. SF-6D utility weights are conventionally produced using a standard gamble (SG). SG-derived weights consistently demonstrate a floor effect not observed with other elicitation techniques. Recent advances in discrete choice methods have allowed estimation of utility weights. The objective was to produce Australian utility weights for the SF-6D and to explore the application of discrete choice experiment (DCE) methods in this context. We hypothesized that weights derived using this method would reflect the largely monotonic construction of the SF-6D. Methods. We designed an online DCE and administered it to an Australia-representative online panel (n = 1017). A range of specifications investigating nonlinear preferences with respect to additional life expectancy were estimated using a random-effects probit model. The preferred model was then used to estimate a preference index such that full health and death were valued at 1 and 0, respectively, to provide an algorithm for Australian cost-utility analyses. Results. Physical functioning, pain, mental health, and vitality were the largest drivers of utility weights. Combining levels to remove illogical orderings did not lead to a poorer model fit. Relative to international SG-derived weights, the range of utility weights was larger with 5% of health states valued below zero. Conclusions. DCEs can be used to investigate preferences for health profiles and to estimate utility weights for multi-attribute utility instruments. Australian cost-utility analyses can now use domestic SF-6D weights. The comparability of DCE results to those using other elicitation methods for estimating utility weights for quality-adjusted life-year calculations should be further investigated. &copy; The Author(s) 2013.
Viney, R., Norman, R., Brazier, J., Cronin, P., King, M.T., Ratcliffe, J. & Street, D. 2014, 'An Australian discrete choice experiment to value EQ-5D health states', Health Economics (United Kingdom), vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 729-742.
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Conventionally, generic quality-of-life health states, defined within multi-attribute utility instruments, have been valued using a Standard Gamble or a Time Trade-Off. Both are grounded in expected utility theory but impose strong assumptions about the form of the utility function. Preference elicitation tasks for both are complicated, limiting the number of health states that each respondent can value and, therefore, that can be valued overall. The usual approach has been to value a set of the possible health states and impute values for the remainder. Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) offer an attractive alternative, allowing investigation of more flexible specifications of the utility function and greater coverage of the response surface. We designed a DCE to obtain values for EQ-5D health states and implemented it in an Australia-representative online panel (n = 1,031). A range of specifications investigating non-linear preferences with respect to time and interactions between EQ-5D levels were estimated using a random-effects probit model. The results provide empirical support for a flexible utility function, including at least some two-factor interactions. We then constructed a preference index such that full health and death were valued at 1 and 0, respectively, to provide a DCE-based algorithm for Australian cost-utility analyses. Copyright &copy; 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hall, J.P., Kenny, P.M., Hossain, I., Street, D. & Knox, S.A. 2014, 'Providing informal care in terminal illness: an analysis of preferences for support using a discrete choice experiment', Medical Decision Making, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 731-745.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background: The trend for terminally ill patients to receive much of their end-of-life care at home necessitates the design of services to facilitate this. Care at home also requires that informal care be provided by family members and friends. This study investigated informal carers' preferences for support services to aid the development of end-of-life health care services. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used 2 discrete choice experiments to ascertain the preferences of carers supporting patients with different levels of care need, determined by the assistance needed with personal care and labeled High Care (HC) and Low Care (LC). The sample included 168 informal carers of people receiving palliative care at home from 2 palliative care services in Sydney, Australia. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews; carers chose between 2 hypothetical plans of support services and their current services. Data were analyzed with generalized multinomial logit models that were used to calculate the impact of each attribute on the probability of a carer choosing a service plan. RESULTS: Preferred support included nursing services; the probability of choosing a plan increased significantly if it included nurse home visits and phone advice (P < 0.001). HC carers also wanted doctor home visits, home respite, and help with personal care (P < 0.05), and LC carers wanted help with household tasks, transport, and a case coordinator (P < 0.001). On average, both groups of carers preferred their current services, but this varied with characteristics of the carer and the caregiving situation. CONCLUSIONS: The most valued services are those that support carers in their caregiving role; however, supportive care preferences vary with the different circumstances of patients and carers.
Doiron, D., Hall, J., Kenny, P. & Street, D.J. 2014, 'Job preferences of students and new graduates in nursing', APPLIED ECONOMICS, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 924-939.
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Burgess, L., Knox, S.A., Street, D.J. & Norman, R. 2014, 'Comparing Designs Constructed With and Without Priors for Choice Experiments: A Case Study', Journal of Statistical Theory and Practice.
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This article describes the second stage of an empirical comparison of the performance of designs for a discrete choice experiment. Six designs were chosen to represent the range of construction techniques that are currently popular for choice experiments, with some of the designs incorporating into the design generation process prior knowledge of the parameters gained from the previous stage of this experiment. Each design had 320 respondents, each of whom completed 16 choice sets. The results indicate that efficient designs constructed using several different strategies all identify various types of heterogeneity with similar levels of precision. Specifying the right model to best describe the underlying preferences of respondents in each sample may then become the limiting factor in the estimation of more complex generalized multinomial models, rather than the design per se. Copyright &copy; Grace Scientific Publishing, LLC.
Norman, R., Hall, J., Street, D. & Viney, R. 2013, 'Efficiency and equity: A stated preference approach', Health Economics (United Kingdom), vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 568-581.
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Outcome measurement in the economic evaluation of health care considers outcomes independent of to whom they accrue. This article reports on a discrete choice experiment designed to elicit population preferences regarding the allocation of health gain between hypothetical groups of potential patients. A random-effects probit model is estimated, and a technique for converting these results into equity weights for use in economic evaluation is adopted. On average, the modelling predicts a relatively high social value on health gains accruing to nonsmokers, carers, those with a low income and those with an expected age of death less than 45 years. Respondents tend to favour individuals with similar characteristics to themselves. These results challenge the conventional practice of assuming constant equity weighting. For decision makers, whether a formal equity weighting system represents an improvement on more informal approaches to weighing up equity and efficiency concerns remains uncertain. Copyright &copy; 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright &copy; 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Demirkale, F., Donovan, D. & Street, D.J. 2013, 'Constructing D-optimal symmetric stated preference discrete choice experiments', Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, vol. 143, no. 8, pp. 1380-1391.
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Knox, S.A., Viney, R.C., Gu, Y., Hole, A.R., Fiebig, D.G., Street, D.J., Haas, M.R., Weisberg, E. & Bateson, D. 2013, 'The effect of adverse information and positive promotion on women's preferences for prescribed contraceptive products', SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE, vol. 83, pp. 70-80.
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Street, D.J. & Knox, S.A. 2012, 'Designing for Attribute-Level Best–Worst Choice Experiments', Journal of Statistical Theory and Practice, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 363-375.
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Bush, S., Street, D.J. & Burgess, L. 2012, 'Optimal designs for stated choice experiments that incorporate position effects', Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1771-1795.
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Davidson and Beaver (1977) extended the Bradley-Terry model to incorporate the possible effect of position within a choice set on the choices made in paired comparisons experiments. We further extend the Davidson-Beaver result to choice sets of any size and show, under a mild restriction, that designs optimal for the multinomial logit model are still optimal. Designs balanced for carry-over effects of all orders can be used to construct designs with a diagonal information matrix for attribute effects. The theoretical results are derived assuming equal merits and we discuss the possible consequences of assuming unequal merits in an example. Copyright &copy; Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Knox, S.A., Viney, R.C., Street, D.J., Haas, M.R., Fiebig, D.G., Weisberg, E. & Bateson, D. 2012, 'What's Good and Bad About Contraceptive Products? A Best-Worst Attribute Experiment Comparing the Values of Women Consumers and GPs', PHARMACOECONOMICS, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1187-1202.
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King, M.T., Viney, R., Smith, D.P., Hossain, I., Street, D., Savage, E., Fowler, S., Berry, M.P., Stockler, M., Cozzi, P., Stricker, P., Ward, J. & Armstrong, B.K. 2012, 'Survival gains needed to offset persistent adverse treatment effects in localised prostate cancer', British Journal of Cancer, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 638-645.
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BACKGROUND: Men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer (LPC) face difficult choices between treatment options that can cause persistent problems with sexual, urinary and bowel function. Controlled trial evidence about the survival benefits of the full range of treatment alternatives is limited, and patients' views on the survival gains that might justify these problems have not been quantified. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered in a random subsample (n=357, stratified by treatment) of a population-based sample (n=1381) of men, recurrence-free 3 years after diagnosis of LPC, and 65 age-matched controls (without prostate cancer). Survival gains needed to justify persistent problems were estimated by substituting side effect and survival parameters from the DCE into an equation for compensating variation (adapted from welfare economics). RESULTS: Median (2.5, 97.5 centiles) survival benefits needed to justify severe erectile dysfunction and severe loss of libido were 4.0 (3.4, 4.6) and 5.0 (4.9, 5.2) months. These problems were common, particularly after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT): 40 and 41% overall (n=1381) and 88 and 78% in the ADT group (n=33). Urinary leakage (most prevalent after radical prostatectomy (n=839, mild 41%, severe 18%)) needed 4.2 (4.1, 4.3) and 27.7 (26.9, 28.5) months survival benefit, respectively. Mild bowel problems (most prevalent (30%) after external beam radiotherapy (n=106)) needed 6.2 (6.1, 6.4) months survival benefit. CONCLUSION: Emerging evidence about survival benefits can be assessed against these patient-based benchmarks. Considerable variation in trade-offs among individuals underlines the need to inform patients of long-term consequences and incorporate patient preferences into treatment decisions. &copy; 2012 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.
Fiebig, D.G., Knox, S., Viney, R., Haas, M. & Street, D.J. 2011, 'Preferences for new and existing contraceptive products', Health Economics, vol. 20, no. SUPPL. 1, pp. 35-52.
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New contraceptive methods provide greater choice in terms of effectiveness, management of side-effects, convenience and frequency of administration and flexibility, but make the decisions about contraception more complex. There are limited data on the factors that determine women's choices among these alternatives, to inform providers about the factors which are most important to women, or to predict uptake of new products. This paper reports on a choice experiment designed to elicit women's preferences in relation to prescribed contraception and to forecast the impact of the introduction of two new products into the Australian market. A generalised multinomial logit model is estimated and used in the simulation exercise. The model forecasts that the hormonal patch would be well received among women, achieving a greater market share than current non-pill products, but the vaginal ring would have limited appeal. Copyright &copy; 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Viney, R., Norman, R., King, M.T., Cronin, P., Street, D.J., Knox, S. & Ratcliffe, J. 2011, 'Time trade-off derived EQ-5D weights for Australia', Value in Health, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 928-936.
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Background: Cost-utility analyses (CUAs) are increasingly common in Australia. The EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D) questionnaire is one of the most widely used generic preference-based instruments for measuring health-related quality of life for the estimation of quality-adjusted life years within a CUA. There is evidence that valuations of health states vary across countries, but Australian weights have not previously been developed. Methods: Conventionally, weights are derived by applying the time trade-off elicitation method to a subset of the EQ-5D health states. Using a larger set of directly valued health states than in previous studies, time trade-off valuations were collected from a representative sample of the Australian general population (n = 417). A range of models were estimated and compared as a basis for generating an Australian algorithm. Results: The Australia-specific EQ-5D values generated were similar to those previously produced for a range of other countries, but the number of directly valued states allowed inclusion of more interaction effects, which increased the divergence between Australia's algorithm and other algorithms in the literature. Conclusion: This new algorithm will enable the Australian community values to be reflected in future economic evaluations. &copy; 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).
Burgess, L., Street, D.J. & Wasi, N. 2011, 'Comparing Designs for Choice Experiments: A Case Study', Journal of Statistical Theory and Practice, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 25-46.
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Bush, S., Burgess, L. & Street, D. 2010, 'Optimal designs for stated choice experiments that incorporate ties', Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, vol. 140, no. 7, pp. 1712-1718.
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In 1970 Davidson generalised the Bradley-Terry model to allow respondents to say that the two options presented in a choice task were equally attractive. In this paper we extend this idea to the MNL model with m options in each choice set and we show that the optimal designs for the MNL model are also optimal in this setting. &copy; 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Norman, R., King, M.T., Clarke, D., Viney, R., Cronin, P. & Street, D. 2010, 'Does mode of administration matter? Comparison of online and face-to-face administration of a time trade-off task', Quality of Life Research, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 499-508.
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Purpose Developments in electronic data collection methods have allowed researchers to generate larger datasets at lower costs, but relatively little is known about the comparative performance of the new methods. This paper considers the comparability of two modes of administration (face-to-face and remote electronic) for the time trade-off. Method Data were collected from a convenience sample of adults (n = 135) randomised to either a face-to-face time trade-off or a remote electronic tool. Patterns of responses were considered. For each sample, standard regression analysis was undertaken to generate a valuation set, which were then contrasted. Results The pattern of responses differed by mode of administration, with the electronic tool yielding larger standard deviations and higher proportions of responses at -1, 0 and 1. The impact of this on the regression was difficult to disentangle from the high variability around individual scores of states, which is a common feature of responses to time trade-off tasks. Under the scoring algorithms generated by mode of administration, the difference between scores exceeded 0.1 for 100 of the 243 EQ-5D health states. Conclusions This comparison demonstrates that variability arising from mode of administration needs to be considered in developing health state valuations. While electronic administration has considerable cost advantages, particular attention to the design of the task is required. This has wider implications, as all modes of administration may have mode-specific impacts on the distribution of valuation responses. &copy; Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.
Fiebig, D.G., Haas, M.R., Hossain, I., Street, D. & Viney, R.C. 2009, 'Decisions about Pap tests: What influences women and providers?', Social Science & Medicine, vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 1766-1774.
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Despite the success internationally of cervical screening programs debate continues about optimal program design. This includes increasing participation rates among under-screened women, reducing unnecessary early re-screening, improving accuracy of and confidence in screening tests, and determining the cost-effectiveness of program parameters, such as type of screening test, screening interval and target group. For all these issues, information about consumer and provider preferences and insight into the potential impact of any change to program design on consumer and provider behaviour are essential inputs into evidence-based health policy decision making. This paper reports the results of discrete choice experiments to investigate women's choices and providers' recommendations in relation to cervical screening in Australia. Separate experiments were conducted with women and general practitioners, with attributes selected to allow for investigation of how women and general practitioners differ in their preferences for attributes of screening programs. Our results indicate a considerable commonality in preferences but the alignment was not complete. Women put relatively more weight on cost, chance of a false positive and if the recommended screening interval were changed to one year.
Norman, R., Cronin, P., Viney, R., King, M., Street, D. & Ratcliffe, J. 2009, 'International comparisons in valuing eq-5d health states: A review and analysis', Value in Health, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1194-1200.
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Objective: To identify the key methodological issues in the construction of population-level EuroQol 5-dimensions (EQ-5D)/time trade-off (TTO) preference elicitation studies. Method: This study involved three components. The first was to identify existing population-level EQ-5D TTO studies. The second was to illustrate and discuss the key areas of divergence between studies, including the international comparison of tariffs. The third was to portray the relative merits of each of the approaches and to compare the results of studies across countries. Results: While most articles report use of the protocol developed in the original UK study, we identified three key areas of divergence in the construction and analysis of surveys. These are the number of health states valued to determine the algorithm for estimating all health states, the approach to valuing states worse than immediate death, and the choice of algorithm. The evidence on international comparisons suggests differences between countries although it is difficult to disentangle differences in cultural attitudes with random error and differences as a result of methodological divergence. Conclusions: Differences in methods may obscure true differences in values between countries. Nevertheless, population-specific valuation sets for countries engaging in economic evaluation would better reflect cultural differences and are therefore more likely to accurately represent societal attitudes. &copy; 2009, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).
Louviere, J.J., Islam, T., Wasi, N., Street, D. & Burgess, L. 2008, 'Designing discrete choice experiments: Do optimal designs come at a price?', Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 360-375.
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In discrete choice experiments, design decisions are crucial for determining data quality and costs. While high statistical efficiency designs are desirable, they may come at a price If they increase the cognitive burden for respondents. We address this problem by designing 44 experiments that systematically vary numbers of attributes and attribute level differences. Our results for two product categories suggest that respondents systematically are less consistent In answering choice questions as statistical efficiency increases. This relationship holds regardless of the number of attributes and is statistically significant even if one accommodates preference heterogeneity. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. &copy; 2008 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc.
Street, D.J. & Burgess, L. 2008, 'Some open combinatorial problems in the design of stated choice experiments', Discrete Mathematics, vol. 308, no. 13, pp. 2781-2788.
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Gerard, K., Salisbury, C., Street, D., Pope, C. & Baxter, H. 2008, 'Is fast access to general practice all that should matter? A discrete choice experiment of patients' preferences', JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH & POLICY, vol. 13, pp. 3-10.
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Louviere, J.J., Street, D., Burgess, L., Wasi, N., Islam, T. & Marley, A.A.J. 2008, 'Modeling the choices of individual decision-makers by combining efficient choice experiment designs with extra preference information', Journal of Choice Modelling, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 128-164.
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We show how to combine statistically efficient ways to design discrete choice experiments based on random utility theory with new ways of collecting additional information that can be used to expand the amount of available choice information for modeling the choices of individual decision makers. Here we limit ourselves to problems involving generic choice options and linear and additive indirect utility functions, but the approach potentially can be extended to include choice problems with non-additive utility functions and non-generic/labeled options/attributes. The paper provides several simulated examples, a small empirical example to demonstrate proof of concept, and a larger empirical example based on many experimental conditions and large samples that demonstrates that the individual models capture virtually all the variance in aggregate first choices traditionally modeled in discrete choice experiments.
Burgess, L. & Street, D.J. 2006, 'The optimal size of choice sets in choice experiments', Statistics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 507-515.
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In this paper, we establish the optimal size of the choice sets in generic choice experiments for asymmetric attributes when estimating main effects only. We give an upper bound for the determinant of the information matrix when estimating main effects and all two-factor interactions for binary attributes. We also derive the information matrix for a choice experiment in which the choice sets are of different sizes and use this to determine the optimal sizes for the choice sets.
Burgess, L. & Street, D.J. 2005, 'Optimal designs for choice experiments with asymmetric attributes', Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 288-301.
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In this paper we establish the form of the optimal design for choice experiments in which attributes need not have the same number of levels for testing main effects only, when there are k attributes, and all choice sets are of size m. We give a construction for optimal and near-optimal designs with small numbers of choice sets. We derive the general form of the determinant of the information matrix for estimating main effects and two-factor interactions and derive the optimal designs for this situation in some special cases. &copy; 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Street, D.J., Burgess, L. & Louviere, J.J. 2005, 'Quick and easy choice sets: Constructing optimal and nearly optimal stated choice experiments', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MARKETING, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 459-470.
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Street, D. 2004, 'Optimal and near-optimal pairs for the estimation of effects in 2-level choice experiments', Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, vol. 118, no. 1-2, pp. 185-199.
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Street, D.J. & Burgess, L. 2004, 'Optimal stated preference choice experiments when all choice sets contain a specific option', Statistical Methodology, vol. 1, no. 1-2, pp. 37-45.
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Stated preference choice experiments are routinely used in many areas from marketing to medicine. While results on the optimal choice sets to present for the forced choice setting have been determined in a variety of situations, no results have appeared to date on the optimal choice sets to use when either all choice sets are to contain a common base alternative or when all choice sets contain a "none of these" option. These problems are considered in this paper. &copy; 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Burgess, L. & Street, D.J. 2003, 'Optimal Designs for 2k Choice Experiments', Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 2185-2206.
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A study was performed on optimal designs for 2k choice experiments. The choice sets were established in the D-optimal design for testing main effects and two-factor interactions. A method to construct optimal and near-optimal designs with small numbers of choice sets was given.
Smith, N.F. & Street, D.J. 2003, 'The use of balanced incomplete block designs in designing randomized response surveys', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 181-194.
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This paper investigates the block total response method proposed by Raghavarao and Federer for providing accurate estimates of the base rates of sensitive characteristics during surveys. It determines the best balanced incomplete block design to use to estimate the base rates for three, four, five and six sensitive attributes respectively, given a maximum total number of 13 questions. The estimates obtained from this method have smaller variance than estimates obtained using the similar, but more popular, unmatched count technique.
Louviere, J., Street, D., Carson, R., Ainslie, A., Deshazo, J.R., Cameron, T.A., Hensher, D., Kohn, R. & Marley, T. 2002, 'Dissecting the random component of utility', MARKETING LETTERS, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 177-193.
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Prvan, T. & Street, D.J. 2002, 'An annotated bibliography of application papers using certain classes of fractional factorial and related designs', Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, vol. 106, no. 1-2, pp. 245-269.
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Street, D.J., Bunch, D.S. & Moore, B.J. 2001, 'OPTIMAL DESIGNS FOR 2 k PAIRED COMPARISON EXPERIMENTS', Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 2149-2171.
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Street, D. & Wilson, W.H. 2001, 'Resolvable Designs for Resolving Disputes', Journal of Combinatorial Mathematics and Combinatorial Computing, vol. 38, pp. 139-148.
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Burgess, L.B., Kreher, D. & Street, D. 2000, 'Small Orthogonal Main Effect Plans With Four Factors (vol 28, Pg 2441, 1999)', Communications In Statistics-theory And Methods, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 903-903.
NA
Wang, I.Y., Fraser, I.S., Barsamian, S.P., Manconi, F., Street, D.J., Cornillie, F.J. & Russell, P. 2000, 'Endometrial lysosomal enzyme activity in ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding, IUCD users and post-partum women', Molecular Human Reproduction, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 258-263.
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Burgess, L.B., Kreher, D. & Street, D. 1999, 'Small Orthogonal Main Effect Plans With Four Factors', Communications In Statistics-theory And Methods, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 2441-2464.
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In this paper we study orthogonal main effect plans with four factors. A table of such designs, where each factor has at most 10 levels, and there are at most 40 runs, is generated. We determine the spectrum of the degrees of freedom of pure error for th
Burgess, L.B. & Street, D. 1999, 'An Interchange Algorithm For Four Factor Orthogonal Main Effect Plans', Statistics And Computing, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 171-177.
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In this paper we give a construction for four factor orthogonal main effect plans (OMEPs) and an interchange algorithm to give four factor OMEPs with various different numbers of repeated runs.
Street, D. & Street, A.P. 1999, 'But Where Are Designs Used?', Ars Combinatoria, vol. 53, pp. 3-26.
NA
Cheng, Y.W. & Street, D.J. 1997, 'Constructions For Optimal Non-strongly-balanced Change-over Designs', Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1073-1082.
In this paper we use a modification of the Williams's difference sets for complete and quasi-complete Latin squares to construct universally optimal change-over designs for the estimation of both direct and residual treatment effects.
Street, D. 1994, 'Constructions For Orthogonal Main Effect Plans', Utilitas Mathematica, vol. 45, pp. 115-123.
In this paper we give a bound for the minimum number of runs in an orthogonal main effect plan (OMEP) with k factors and factor levels s(i), 1 less-than-or-equal-to i less-than-or-equal-to k, and some constructions for OMEPs and partially replicated OMEP
Street, D.J. & Street, A.P. 1994, 'An investigation of Williams designs with circular structure', Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 399-409.
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Burgess, L.B. & Street, D. 1994, 'Algorithms For Constructing Orthogonal Main Effect Plans', Utilitas Mathematica, vol. 46, pp. 33-48.
In this paper algorithms are presented for constructing orthogonal main effect plans (OMEPs) with different numbers of repeated runs. We give bounds for the number of repeated runs, an interchange algorithm for three factor OMEPs, and a backtrack algori
Street, D.J. 1992, 'A note on strongly equineighboured designs', Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 99-105.
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JOHN, J.A. 1992, 'Bounds for the efficiency factor of row-column designs', Biometrika, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 658-661.
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Street, D. 1990, 'Fisher Contributions To Agricultural Statistics', Biometrics, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 937-945.
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Fisher had an immense impact on the practice of biometrics, particularly in agriculture. In this paper an attempt is made to describe the innovations in which he played a part and which have had the most effect on the practice of biometrics.
Eccleston, J. & Street, D. 1990, 'Construction Methods For Adjusted Orthogonal Row-column Designs', Ars Combinatoria, vol. 29, pp. 117-128.
NA
Street, D.J. 1989, 'Combinatorial problems in repeated measurements designs', Discrete Mathematics, vol. 77, no. 1-3, pp. 323-343.
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Street, D. 1988, 'Some Construction Methods For Optimal Designs When The Errors Are Assumed Correlated', Ars Combinatoria, vol. 0, pp. 193-196.
NA
Street, D. 1988, 'Some Repeated Measurements Designs', Communications In Statistics-theory And Methods, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 87-104.
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NA
Street, D. 1986, 'Unbordered Two-dimensional Nearest Neighbor Designs', Ars Combinatoria, vol. 22, pp. 51-57.
NA
Mayo, O. & Street, D.J. 1986, 'Heterogeneity in Disease Associations', Human Heredity, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 89-92.
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Street, D.J. & Street, A.P. 1985, 'Designs with partial neighbour balance', Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, vol. 12, pp. 47-59.
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Street, D. & Wilson, W.H. 1985, 'Balanced Designs For 2-variety Competition Experiments', Utilitas Mathematica, vol. 28, pp. 113-120.
NA
Street, D.J. 1984, 'Some constructions for PBIBDs', Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 119-129.
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Street, D. 1982, 'A Difference Set Construction For Inversive Planes', Lecture Notes In Mathematics, vol. 952, pp. 419-422.
NA
Street, D.J. 1982, 'Amicable orthogonal designs of order eight', Journal of the Australian Mathematical Society, vol. 33, no. 01, pp. 23-23.
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Other

Kenny, P.M., Doiron, D., Hall, J.P., Street, D., Milton-Wildey, K.K. & Parmenter, G. 2012, 'The training and job decisions of nurses: the first year of a longitudinal study investigating nurse recruitment and retention. CHERE Working Paper 2012/02', CHERE Working Papers.
Doiron, D., Hall, J.P., Kenny, P.M. & Street, D. 2011, 'Job preferences of students and new graduates in nursing. CHERE Working Paper 2011/02'.
Norman, R., Cronin, P., Viney, R., King, M., Street, D., Brazier, J. & Ratcliffe, J., 'Valuing EQ-5D health states: A review and analysis, CHERE Working Paper 2007/9'.
Objective: To identify the key methodological issues in the construction of population-level EQ-5D / Time Trade-Off (TTO) preference elicitation studies. Study Design: This study involves three components. The first was to identify existing population-level EQ-5D TTO studies. The second was to illustrate and discuss the key areas of divergence between studies, including the international comparison of tariffs. The third was to portray the relative merits of each of the approaches, and to compare the results of studies across countries. Results: While most papers report use of the protocol developed in the original UK study, we identified three key areas of divergence in the construction and analysis of surveys. These are the number of health states valued in order to determine the algorithm for estimating all health states, the approach to valuing states worse than immediate death, and the choice of algorithm. Finally, the evidence on international comparisons suggests differences between countries, although it is difficult to disentangle differences in cultural attitudes with random error and differences due to methodological divergence. Conclusion: Differences in methods are likely to obscure true differences in values between countries. However, population-specific valuation sets for countries engaging in economic evaluation would better represent societal attitudes.