Dr David Waller

Biography

David Waller has worked in the banking and film industries, and has taught at a number of universities, including University of Newcastle, University of New South Wales and Charles Sturt University-Riverina. Dr Waller is currently an Adjunct Professor in the School of Graduate Studies of the University of Lethbridge.
 
He has published over 40 refereed journal articles, including Journal of Advertising; Journal of Advertising Research; European Journal of Marketing, Journal of Consumer Marketing; International Journal of Advertising; Marketing Intelligence & Planning; and Journal of Marketing Communications (A complete publication list for the past 10 years is available at this alternative listing). David has also authored/co-authored several books, including the leading Australian introductory marketing textbook: Marketing (opens external site)(co-authored with Greg Elliott & Sharyn Rundle-Thiele) which is used by 13 universities in Australia and New Zealand; as well as Designing and Managing a Research Project: A Business Students Guide (opens external site) with Michael J. Polonsky, and workbooks How To Prepare a Marketing Plan, How To Prepare a Promotional Plan, Tofu Tiger: The Marketing Plan, and Mountain Bike Mania: The Promotional Plan (links to external sites).

Professional

Dr David Waller is an Executive Member of the Australian & New Zealand Academy of Advertising (ANZAA) and a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the Journal of Advertising Research.

Image of David Waller
Senior Lecturer, Marketing Discipline Group
BA (Syd), MCom (UNSW), PhD (Ncle)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 3903
Room
CB05C.02.16

Research Interests

Marketing communications, advertising agency-client relationships; controversial advertising; international advertising; and marketing ethics. Recent research grants obtained by Dr Waller are shown on the School's research grant listing.

Supervised Students
Recent Graduates:

  • • Nigel Bairstow (PhD in Marketing)
    Now, Lecturer, University of Technology Sydney

  • • Daniela Spanjaard (PhD in Marketing)
    Now, Lecturer, University of Western Sydney

  • • Evi Lanasier (PhD in Marketing)
    Now, Lecturer, Curtin University

Can supervise: Yes
Candidates Supervised:
  • • PhD
  • • Master of Business
  • • Master of Arts

  • Integrated Marketing Communications (Undergraduate)

  • Media Planning (Undergraduate)

Book Chapters

Oppewal, H., Morrison, M.D., Wang, P.Z. & Waller, D.S. 2010, 'Preference stability: Modelling how consumer preferences shift after receiving new product information' in Hess, S; Daly, A (eds), Choice Modelling: The State-of-the-Art and the State-of-Practice, Emerald, Bingley, UK, pp. 499-516.
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An assumption made in many applications of stated preference modeling is that preferences remain stable over time and OYer multiple exposures to information about choice alternatives. However, there are many domains where this assumption can be challenged. One of these is where individuals learn about new products. This paper aims to test how attribute preferences as measured in an experimental choice task shift when respondents are exposed to new product information. The paper presents results from a study investigating consumer preferences for a new consumer electronics product conducted among 400 respondents from a large consumer panel. All respondents received several choice tasks and were then able to read additional information about the new product.

Conference Papers

Waller, D.S., Kerr, G., Mortimer, K. & Dickinson, S. 2013, 'A model of advertising regulation in the digital world', Australia and New Zealand Communication Association (ANZCA) Conference, Perth, July 2013 in Proceedings of Australia and New Zealand Communication Association (ANZCA) Conference, ed Lee, T., Trees, K., Desai, R., ANZCA, Perth, pp. 1-20.
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Advertising comes under some form of regulation, whether self or government regulated, in countries around the world, to ensure that it does not offend, mislead or deceive. However, the growth of various types of digital media has resulted in commercials formerly banned in a country now being available to be watched globally on the Internet. This paper examines the functionality of informal regulatory processes enabled by digital media. In doing this, a conceptual model is proposed that explores the influence of the public, advertisers and regulatory bodies in the contemporary media environment. The model presents some important implications for both advertisers and regulatory bodies in an international context
Waller, D.S. & Crawford, R. 2013, 'What agencies want: An analysis of ad agency recruitment advertisements', Australia and New Zealand Communication Association (ANZCA) Conference, Perth, July 2013 in Proceedings of the Australia and New Zealand Communication Association (ANZCA) Conference, ed Lee, T., Trees, K., Desai, R., ANZCA, Perth, pp. 112-112.
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Ellis, R.B. & Waller, D.S. 2013, 'A study of the marketing curriculum in Australia: The 1930s to now', Academy of Marketing Science 16th Biennial World Marketing Congress, Melbourne, Australia, July 2013 in Looking Forward, Looking Back: Drawing on the Past to Shape the Future of Marketing - Proceedings of The 16th Biennial World Marketing Congress, ed Campbell, C., Ma, J., Academy of Marketing Science, Ruston, USA, pp. 95-100.
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Waller, D.S. 2012, 'Advertising cosmetics and a backlash from regulators: An analysis of blog comments', ANZCA 2012, Adelaide, Australia, July 2012 in Proceedings of ANZCA 2012, ed Anyanwu, C; Green, K; Sykes, J, Australian and New Zealand Communication Association, http://www.anzca.net/past-conferences/anzca12-proceedings.html, pp. 1-5.
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The advertising industry is often criticised for presenting unrealistic images of beauty which can have a negative influence on women and girls. A small number of advertisements for cosmetics have come under fire with regulators in the UK and US. This paper discusses a magazine ad for CoverGirl cosmetics which was criticised by the US regulatory authority leading it to voluntarily withdraw it from future campaigns, and analyses blog comments about the decision. It has been suggested that this decision could be the beginning of changes to the advertising of cosmetics.
Waller, D.S. & Massey, G.R. 2011, 'A study of personal beliefs of advertising and attitudes towards advertisements: Pollay and Mittal (1993) revisited', Australia and New Zealand Communication Association Conference, Hamilton, New Zealand, July 2011 in Proceedings of Australia and New Zealand Communication Association Conference, ed Henderson, A, ANZCA, Hamilton, New Zealand, pp. 1-12.
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This study involves a survey of university students and focuses on the personal beliefs and uses of advertising identified in Pollay and Mittal+s (1993) seminal paper, i.e., Product Information, Social Role/Image, and Hedonic/Pleasure. Our results suggest that respondents+ attitudes towards advertisements is most strongly driven by the Hedonic/Pleasure factor of advertising, followed by its Product Information role, but is unaffected by the Social Role/Image function of advertising. Our structural equation modelling results suggest that there has been an increase in the importance of the Hedonic/Pleasure role of advertising since Pollay and Mittal+s (1993) original study. In addition, the measurement diagnostics for these three constructs from our modelling suggest that there may be a need to revisit these items, and to develop and validate new and better measures of them.
Morrison, M.D., McCulloch, R., Greig, J., Waller, D.S. & Filmer, M. 2011, 'Rational Vs Emotional Appeals with Communications to Landholders: A Review of Focus Group Responses', ANZMAC, Perth, Australia, November 2011 in Proceedings of ANZMAC 2011, ed MacCarthy, M. and Sanders, D., ANZMAC2011 Conference, Perth, Australia, pp. 1-7.
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There are many organisations that seek to communicate with landholders for the purposes of engaging them in local environmental or conservation programs and sustainable production. This study examined whether different segments of landholders are likely to respond better to communication based on different appeals (rational or emotional), using different messages and communication channels. Seven hypothetical communication campaigns were designed with specific messages and appeals, each produced in three types of media. Focus groups of three specific landholder groups + +lifestylers., traditional and absentee landowners + were held to obtain their responses to the campaigns. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of communications with landholders can be increased by using preferred messages and appeals, and selecting a combination of media appropriate to the landholder group being targeted.
Waller, D.S. 2010, 'Ten Years of "Social Investment": WPP Group 1999-2008', International Nonprofit and Social Marketing Conference, Brisbane, Australia, July 2010 in Proceedings of International Nonprofit and Social Marketing (INSM) 2010 Conference, ed Russell-Bennett, R; Rundle-Thiele, S, Queensland University of Technology, Australia, pp. 204-209.
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Over the last ten years a number of major corporate ethical and financial disasters has resulted in organisations taking steps to improve their financial reporting, corporate governance, ethical practice and social responsibility (Agrawal and Chadha 2005). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and CSR disclosure has been a growing interest in both accounting and marketing academic research (Gray, Owen and Maunders 1987; Luo and Bhattacharya 2006; Waller and Lanis 2009a). Companies can use communication tools like their website, the annual reports, CSR reports, and press releases, to voluntary disclosure non-financial information, such as ethical behaviour, to their various stakeholders, including shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, media and the government, and to develop a particular brand image for the organisation (Berkey 1990; Judd and Timms 1991; Neu, Warsame and Pedwell 1998; Stanton and Stanton 2002; Murphy etal 2005)
Waller, D.S. 2009, 'Advertising agencies see the pros of pro-bono', International Nonprofit and Social Marketing Conference, Melbourne, Australia, July 2009 in Proceedings of International Nonprofit and Social Marketing Conference (INSM), ed Bognar, M., Victoria University and Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-7.
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While most people would associate +pro bono+ work with the legal industry, a number of advertising agencies are discovering the benefits in taking on a pro bono client. Although this is not a new activity by agencies, some articles in the industry literature are suggesting that this is an area of growing interest. This paper will discuss the various types of pro bono work offered by advertising agencies and the advantages and disadvantages by observing discussion in the industry literature. From the literature it appears that even though an agency may want to be seen as a good citizen by helping charities and community groups, there are also definite business reasons for doing this work, such as motivating and refreshing staff, increasing agency profile and prestige, providing a creative opportunity, as well as attracting paying clients. Therefore, the reasons for doing pro bono work may not be as altruistic as in other industries.
Waller, D.S. & Lanis, R. 2009, 'CSR disclosure: An exploratory study of the leading media organizations', American Marketing Association Summer, Chicago, USA, August 2009 in 2009 AMA Educator's Proceedings: Enhancing Knowledge Development in Marketing, ed Kamins, M and Martin, I.M., American Marketing Association, Chicago, USA, pp. 1-8.
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an issue of growing interest in the business world, and many large, multinational companies, including media organizations, are voluntarily disclosing information regarding their CSR activities. While there is criticism of the ethical values of +the media,+ some media organizations are using CSR to promote a positive side of their business. This exploratory study observes what the leading media organizations are doing in terms of CSR activities to propose a CSR disclosure index for the media industry, and discusses some implications for other organizations.
Kerr, G., Dickinson, S., Waller, D.S. & Mortimer, K. 2009, 'Testing advertising via new media: An exploratory study of advertising practitioner attitudes', Australian New Zealand Communications Association Annual Conference, Brisbane, Australia, July 2009 in Communication, Creativity and Global Citizenship: Refereed Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Communication Association Conference, ed Flew, T, Australian and New Zealand Communication Association, ANZCA Website, pp. 91-98.
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New media, as a free and universal communication tool, has had an impact on the power of the general public to comment on a variety of issues. As the public can comment favourably or unfavourably on advertisements, such as on Youtube, the advertising industry must start using weblogs to research reaction to their advertising campaigns. This exploratory study examines the responses of some advertising industry practitioners, both advertisers and agencies, on the impact of new media, specifically weblogs, and the use of new media as a source of research on advertising campaigns.
Oppewal, H., Morrison, M.D., Wang, P.Z. & Waller, D.S. 2009, 'How preferences change after receiving new product information in an experimental choice task', Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Melbourne, Australia, November 2009 in Proceedings of ANZMAC 2009, ed Tojib, D, Australian and New Zealand Academy of Marketing, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-8.
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Discrete choice experiments typically assume that preference structures remain stable over time and over multiple exposures to information about choice alternatives. However, this assumption may not be valid when the study concerns a new product, which individuals are less familiar with. This paper tests how attribute preferences shift when respondents are exposed to new product information in an experimental choice task. The findings indicate how attribute utilities vary across the before and after exposure conditions; further analysis however shows these effects to partly disappear when the effect of information on the scale constant is accounted for.
Waller, D.S., Wang, P.Z., Morrison, M.D. & Oppewal, H. 2008, 'Media Choice for Information Search to Purchase a New Technology', Australian New Zealand Communications Association Annual Conference, Melbourne, July 2007 in Communications, Civics, Industry: Proceedings of ANZCA 2007, ed Tebbutt, J, Australia and New Zealand Communication Association and La Trobe University, Melbourne, pp. 1-8.
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Waller, D.S. & Lanis, R. 2008, 'An Analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure by Advertising Agencies', Australian New Zealand Communications Association Annual Conference, Melbourne, July 2007 in Communications, Civics, Industry: Proceedings of ANZCA 2007, ed Tebbutt, J, Australia and New Zealand Communication Association and La Trobe University, Melbourne, pp. 1-9.
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The corporate annual report has become more than a mandatory financial report for public companies, with many companies also using it as an important marketing communication tool. As corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an issue of growing interest in the business world, many publicly listed companies, including advertising agencies, are voluntarily disclosing information regarding their CSR activities in their annual report. This descriptive study analyses the annual reports of the top six holding companies in the global advertising industry, in order to observe which advertising companies disclose their CSR activities and what activities they undertake, and the development of a CSR disclosure index for advertising agencies. The results indicate that some advertising companies do engage in CSR activities and disclose them in the annual report, but the level of these CSR disclosures is different between the organisations.
Dickinson, S., Waller, D.S., Kerr, G. & Mortimer, K. 2008, 'Advertising agency engagement and regulatory empowerment in the world of new media', Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Sydney, December 2008 in Australia and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference 2008: Marketing: Shifting the Focus from Mainstream to Offbeat, ed Spanjaard, D; Denize, S; Sharma, N, ANZMAC, Sydney, pp. 1-48.
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This paper examines how new media has impacted advertiser behaviours in relation to controversial advertising. This research seeks to explore the extent of advertiser engagement and regulatory empowerment in a new media environment, where an advertiser can show offensive advertising online via new media despite a ban by the self regulatory body in relation to traditional media. Specifically, we conduct ten interviews with members of the advertising industry to develop an understanding of this engagement and empowerment. Findings suggest that advertisers are very aware that new media creates an opportunity for engagement, however, feedback is interpreted subjectively to rationalise continued dissemination of offensive advertising messages and therein advertisers are empowered.
Waller, D.S., Wang, P.Z., Oppewal, H. & Morrison, M.D. 2008, 'Brand awareness of new technology in the introduction stage: A study of Blu-Ray vs HD-DVD format', Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Sydney, Australia, December 2008 in Australia and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference 2008: Marketing: Shifting the Focus from Mainstream to Offbeat, ed Spanjaard, D; Denize, S; Sharma, N, ANZMAC, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-8.
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The introduction of a new technology into the marketplace generally is a risky endeavour for a company, however, when there are competing new technologies of which it is believed only one can survive, winning over customers is one of the major corporate battles to be fought. This paper presents results of a survey among 1495 people regarding their awareness of the two DVD competing formats (Blu-ray and HD-DVD) in the early stages of the recent DVD format war. The results reveal that in the early stages of the format war more people were aware of the HD-DVD than of the Blu-ray format. A model is presented that predicts format awareness from four consumer characteristic constructs and four demographic variables.
Fam, K.S., Waller, D.S. & Yang, Z. 2007, 'Reducing offensiveness of advertising for controversial products: an empirical study of three generations in China', International Conference on Research in Advertising, Bath, UK, June 2006 in 5th International Conference on Research in Advertising (ICORIA), ed Heath, R; Neijens, P; Smit, E, University of Bath, Bath, UK, pp. 1-5.
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Waller, D.S., Wang, P.Z., Oppewal, H. & Morrison, M.D. 2007, 'Information Acceleration Effects on New Product Purchase Intention: The Case of Blu-Ray DVD Recorders', ANZAM, Dunedin, New Zealand, December 2007 in Proceedings of 2007 Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, ed Thyne, M.; Deans, K.; Gnoth, J., Otago University, Dunedin, New Zealand, pp. 1-8.
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The availability of relevant information is an important factor when customers are evaluating the purchase of a new technology. Information can be obtained from a range of sources, with varying levels of trustworthiness. This paper presents some findings regarding how different media are perceived and the effect of media exposure on purchase intent in the DVD recorder category. In an online survey regarding consumer preferences for DVD recorders respondents were exposed to different media with information either supporting the new Blu-ray or HDDVD disc technology. The paper presents results regarding the effects of this implementation of Information Acceleration (IA) on purchase intention and media trust. It is found that consumers exposed to positive information about Blu-Ray are significantly more inclined to consider purchasing a recorder with Blu-Ray technology.
Waller, D.S., Fam, K., Christy, T.P. & Barrett, N.J. 2007, 'Perceptions of Offensive Advertising Elements: A China-US Comparison', Engineering Mathematics and Applications Conference, Reykjavik, Iceland, May 2007 in Flexible Marketing in and Unpredictable World: Proceedings of the 36th EMAC Conference, ed Engilbertsson, H, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland, pp. 1-8.
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China is a country that is arousing a large amount of interest as a new mega-market, as it opens itself to a market-orientated economy and expands at a remarkable rate. However, the influx of international investment, new business opportunities and advertising from overseas has seen Chinese consumers being exposed to potentially offensive advertising products and images. While some products and images may seem acceptable in the West, there are some that may offend Chinese cultural sensitivities. The overall purpose of this study is to better understand cross-cultural advertising offensiveness by comparing perceptions of advertising offensiveness between United States and Chinese residents, specifically college students. The results indicate that there are a number of statistical differences that have business implications for international marketers.
Waller, D.S. & Lanis, R. 2007, 'Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure: An Exploratory Study of the Top 10 Media Organisations', Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Dunedin, New Zealand, December 2007 in Proceedings of the 2007 ANZMAC Conference 3Rs: Reputation, Responsibility and Relevance, ed Thyne, M.; Deans, K.; Gnoth, J., Otago University, Dunedin, New Zealand, pp. 2847-2854.
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an issue of growing interest in the business world, and many large, multinational companies, including media organisations, are voluntarily disclosing information regarding their CSR activities. While there is criticism of the ethical values of the media , some media organisations are using CSR to promote a positive side of their business. This exploratory study observes what the leading media organisations are doing in terms of CSR activities to propose a CSR disclosure index for the media industry, and discusses some implications for other organisations.
Fam, K.S. & Waller, D.S. 2006, 'Reducing social advertising offensiveness: a study of STD prevention in China', Australasian Nonprofit and Social Marketing Conference, Newcastle, Australia, August 2006 in Controversies in social marketing - the way forward: Proceedings of the 3rd Australasian Nonprofit and Social Marketing Conference, ed Fry, M-L, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia, pp. 1-6.
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Waller, D.S. & Hingorani, A. 2006, 'Perceptions of business students towards skills and attributes for industry: how important is communication?', Australian & New Zealand Communication Association International Conference, 2006, Adelaide, Australia, July 2006 in Empowerment, Creativity and Innovation: Challenging Media and Communication in the 21st Century: Prceedings of the Australian & New Zealand Communication Association International Conference, 2006, ed Anyanwu, C, ANZCA and the University of Adelaide, Adelaide, pp. 1-9.
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Wang, P.Z., Morrison, M.D., Oppewal, H. & Waller, D.S. 2006, 'Consumer characteristics and decision states: a study of new product purchase intention', Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Brisbane, Australia, December 2006 in Advancing Theory, Maintaining Relevance - Proceedings of the 2006 ANZMAC Conference, ed Ali, Y; van Dessel, M, ANZMAC, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 1-7.
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Morrison, M.D., Wang, P.Z., Oppewal, H. & Waller, D.S. 2005, 'Comparing choice models across decision states: some preliminary results', Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Fremantle, Australia, December 2005 in Broadening the Boundaries - ANZMAC 2005 Conference Proceedings, ed Purchase, S, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia, pp. 76-82.
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Waller, D.S., Wang, P.Z., Oppewal, H., Morrison, M.D., Rungie, C., Louviere, J.J. & Devinney, T.M. 2004, 'Decision states for purchasing a DVD player: a preliminary study', Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, November 2004 in Conference Proceedings of the 2004 Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference: "Marketing Accountabilities and Responsibilities", ed Wiley, J; Thirkell, P, ANZMAC, Wellington, pp. 1-5.
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Oppewal, H., Morrison, M.D., Rungie, C., Waller, D.S., Wang, P.Z., Louviere, J.J. & Devinney, T.M. 2004, 'A conceptual model of consumer decision states using information acceleration.', Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, November 2004 in Conference Proceedings of the 2004 Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference: "Marketing Accountabilities and Responsibilities", ed Wiley, J; Thirkell, P, ANZMAC, Wellington, New Zealand, pp. 1-5.
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Rungie, C., Morrison, M.D., Waller, D.S., Wang, P.Z., Louviere, J.J., Oppewal, H., Devinney, T.M. & Coltman, T. 2004, 'Decision states and information acceleration', Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, November 2004 in Conference Proceedings of the 2004 Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference: "Marketing Accountabilities and Responsibilities", ed Wiley, J; Thirkell, P, ANZMAC, Wellington, New Zealand, pp. 1-5.
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Waller, D.S. & Shao, A.T. 2004, 'Advertising standardisation in Australia: some preliminary results.', Inaugural Academy of Word Business, Marketing and Management Development Conference, Gold Coast, Australia, July 2004 in 2004 Inaugural Academy of Word Business, Marketing and Management Development Conference: "The Challenge of Inter-Disciplinary Perspectives and Globalization in the 21st Century, ed Ogunmokum, G; Gabbay, R; McPhail, K, Academy of Word Business, Marketing and Management Development, Perth, pp. 538-546.
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Waller, D.S. 2004, 'What factors make controversial advertising offensive? a preliminary study', Australian and New Zealand Communication Association International Conference, Sydney, Australia, July 2004 in Australian and New Zealand Communication Association International Conference 2004: "Making a Difference", ed Dunn, A; Jacobs, J, ANZCA & University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-10.
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Louviere, J.J., Waller, D.S. & Smith, M. 2003, 'Modelling a hierarchy of consumer decision states: the choice of island holiday destinations and dvd players', Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Adelaide, Australia, December 2003 in A Celebration of Ehrenberg and Bass: Marketing Knowledge, Discoveries and Contribution, ed Kennedy, R, ANZMAC, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 554-559.
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Fam, K.S., Waller, D.S. & Erdogan, B.Z. 2002, 'Islamic faith and attitudes towards the advertising of controversial products', Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Melbourne, Australia, December 2002 in Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy (ANZMAC) 2002 Conference Proceedings, ed Shaw R; Adam S; McDonald H, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 491-497.
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Waller, D.S. & Fam, K.S. 2001, 'Offence to the Advertising of Gender-Related Products in China and Malaysia', Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Auckland, December 2001 in Proceedings of ANZMAC 2001: Bridging Marketing Theory and Practice, ed Chetty S, Collins B, Massey University, Auckland, pp. 0-0.
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Journal Articles

Massey, G.R., Waller, D.S., Wang, P.Z. & Lanasier, E.V. 2013, 'Marketing to Different Asian Communities: The Importance of Culture for Framing Advertising Messages, and for Purchase Intent', Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 8-33.
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Purpose + The purpose of this paper is to show that culture has differential effects on purchase intent, using respondents from four very different cultural groups within Indonesia, and two different advertisements (one ethical, another unethical). Design/methodology/approach + The study uses survey methods and a highly structured questionnaire to collect data from respondents in four cultural groups. In total, 100 responses were received from each of these groups within Indonesia (Bali, Batak, Java, and Minang). Data were analyzed using partial least squares. Findings + The results suggest that when advertising to culturally conservative groups, caution is required. Such groups have lower purchase intent when they do not like the advertisement. Moreover, other variables such as attitude towards the advertiser may become salient drivers of purchase intent for such groups if the advertisement is perceived to be unethical. Importantly, neither of these factors are salient for more permissive cultures, regardless of whether the advertisement is perceived to be ethical or unethical. In addition the authors identify a set of +universal paths+ by which advertisement-related factors, and company-related factors indirectly influence purchase intent for both permissive and conservative cultures, regardless of the perceived ethicality of the advertisement.
Fam, K., Waller, D.S., de Run, E.C. & He, J. 2013, 'Advertising dislikeability in Asia: Is there a relationship with purchase intention and frequency?', Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 144-161.
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Purpose + The purpose of this paper is to determine what can cause dislike of an advertisement's message in Asia. Television commercials were looked at specifically to provide an insight into the construct of advertising dislikeability and how it affects purchase intention and purchase frequency. Design/methodology/approach + The study utilizes the attention/salience hypothesis. A total of 931 people were questioned in five Asian cities (Hong Kong, Shanghai, Jakarta, Bangkok and Mumbai) using telephone interviews. Findings + The results revealed 931 dislike attributes that were reduced to seven: style, meaningless, character, exaggeration, irresponsive, violent and hard-sell. There also appears to be a close relationship between the disliking of advertisements and purchase intention and purchase frequency. Practical implications + Findings indicate a strong relationship of the dislikeability variables with culture and religion in the five Asian cities and this must be taken seriously by advertisers. International advertisers need to pay attention to the local values and tradition and use the advertising communication message appropriately. Social implications + Advertisers must be acutely aware of the social norms in designing their advertisements and the findings here can be a guide for public and/or industry policy towards advertising. Originality/value + The paper has produced a new construct of advertising dislikeability and details how it affects purchase intention and purchase frequency. This construct can be further tested in other nations and situations, in order to develop an understanding of dislike towards advertising.
Jiang, L., Waller, D.S. & Cai, S. 2013, 'Does ownership type matter for innovation? Evidence from China', Journal Of Business Research, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 2473-2478.
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According to the institution-based view, ownership type is a key variable affecting environment-strategy configurations. This study configures the mechanism in which ownership types (as an institutional factor) moderate the effect of innovation strategies on firms' innovation performance. An empirical analysis was conducted on Chinese hi-tech manufacturing firms, using information related to the innovation activities of 303 firms. The empirical results suggest that ownership type affects the positive relationship between three sources of innovation (internal R&D activities, partnering with alliance partners, and partnering with universities) and innovation performance, as well as the negative relationship between external contracting and innovation performance (product or process innovation). The results imply that organizations doing business in China must be aware of the business environment that they intend to enter, especially if the intention is to develop new products or innovate current business processes.
Waller, D.S., Deshpande, S. & Erdogan, B.Z. 2013, 'Offensiveness of advertising with violent image appeal: A cross-cultural study', Journal of Promotion Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 400-417.
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Violent images are often used in advertisements to gain attention and sell products, resulting in complaints to regulatory bodies and concern regarding the effects of these potentially offensive advertisements on society. This paper presents the results of a survey of 930 university students from six countries to determine which personal and attitudinal variables have a significant influence on their attitudes toward advertisements with violent images. The results indicate that gender, country, intensity of religious beliefs, economic inclination, and products (social/political groups) produced the strongest reaction. These factors should be considered when advertisers run local or global campaigns with violent images.
Waller, D.S. 2012, 'Truth in advertising: The beginning of advertising ethics in Australia', Journal of Mass Media Ethics, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 46-56.
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In Australia, as in many countries, the early advertising industry had a poor reputation for honesty. However, in 1920 "truth in advertising" and raising ethical behavior became the focus of the Second Convention of Advertising Men of Australasia, held in Sydney. This was a major event in Australia's advertising history and was seen as a way to legitimize the industry in the eyes of those who doubted advertising's honesty. This paper will look at the Sydney Advertising Convention, with particular reference to quotes from presenters and the establishment of self-regulatory bodies, to help gain an insight into the beginning of a system to observe ethical behavior in advertising.
Kerr, G., Mortimer, K., Dickinson, S. & Waller, D.S. 2012, 'Buy, Boycott Or Blog Exploring Online Consumer Power To Share, Discuss And Distribute Controversial Advertising Messages', European Journal of Marketing, vol. 46, no. 3-Apr, pp. 387-405.
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Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine the concept of consumer power, in particular the power or bloggers in the online environment and how this might be applied to the regulation of advertising. Design/methodology/approach - Utilising Denegri
Waller, D.S. 2012, 'A longitudinal study of pro bono activities reported by WPP Group', Social Marketing Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 234-246.
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As organizations formalize their corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities, many firms are voluntarily disclosing these activities in their annual report. Some advertising agencies, for example, are discovering the benefits of undertaking pro bono work and reporting them in their annual reports. This article uses a longitudinal approach to observe the pro bono activities presented in the annual reports of the largest advertising agency holding company in the world, WPP Group. The amount of +social investment+ has been disclosed in the annual reports including details of the financial cost of pro bono activities and the types of organizations that are the recipients. This study provides an insight into the disclosed pro bono activities of a major organization across a 10-year period (2000+2009).
Wells, P.A., Waller, D.S. & Lanis, R. 2012, 'TV Licenses in Australia: Barriers to competition, big bucks and the impact of new media', Australian Journal of Communication, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 59-72.
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Commercial television licences are awarded to television companies by the Federal Government and are the mechanism through which the industry is regulated in Australia. Major considerations in the design of this regulation system are that the industry should be 'financially viable' and, for reasons of maintaining 'cultural identity', encourage the production of local content. However, restricting the availability of television licences also represents a significant barrier to competition within the industry, which has resulted in high returns to the owners of the licences, although this has changed significantly with the growth of new media. This study considers the television licensing system in Australia, and how this is changing in the new media environment
Ellis, R.B. & Waller, D.S. 2011, 'Marketing education in Australia before 1965', Australasian Marketing Journal, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 115-121.
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Marketing is taught at many private colleges, technical colleges and at universities across Australia. While marketing as an academic discipline is well developed, little is known of the early days and development of marketing education. This paper will observe marketing-related subjects at correspondence schools, the first ``Marketing++ subject that was taught at the University of Melbourne, early attempts of marketing education by industry associations, technical colleges, and universities until 1965 when the first Chair in Marketing was established. Studying the development of marketing education over the years can provide a greater insight into the current status of marketing education.
Waller, D.S. & Fam, K. 2011, 'Reducing Offensiveness of STD Prevention Advertisements in China', Social Work in Public health, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 621-634.
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The issue of sexually transmitted diseases is a socially sensitive one in Asian communities, with governments being criticized for not doing enough to reduce AIDS transmission, and the advertising of such issues potentially causing offense to people. This article surveys 630 people in China to determine their level of offense toward the advertising of condoms and STD prevention and analyzes the qualitative responses to how they would reduce the offensiveness of such advertising. The results found that generally women are more offended by the advertising of these products than men, and in terms of creative execution, women prefer implicit, prevention or effects messages, whereas men suggested a scientific message, or a focus on the creative strategy or media/location of the advertisement. It is recommended that traditional Chinese Confucian values are important for public policy makers to keep in mind when wanting to advertise socially sensitive issues in China and wider Asia.
Fam, K., Grohs, R. & Waller, D.S. 2011, 'Effects of disliked executional techniques in advertising: A five-country comparison', Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, vol. 24, pp. 69-89.
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This study analyzes Asian consumers' attitudes towards disliked television commercials to provide an insight into the construct of advertising dislikeability. Dislikeability is an important concept because if certain attributes of an advertisement are disliked, this can lead to potential customers disliking the brand, being dissatisfied with the advertiser, complaining about the advertisement, and/or refusing to purchase the advertised product. A total of 1,000 people were questioned in five Asian cities (Hong Kong, Shanghai, Jakarta, Bangkok and Mumbai) using telephone interviews. The study reveals seven dislike attributes: bad style of the ad, meaningless storyline, ugly or stupid characters, exaggerating product effectiveness, irresponsible or misleading content, scary or violent characters/settings, and hard-sell approaches. Findings from this study show that there is a close relationship between disliking television advertising and purchase intention. Additionally, the importance of the seven dislikeability dimensions differs between cities and product categories. Managerial implications are offered for organizations advertising in Asia.
Waller, D.S., Shao, A.T. & Bao, Y. 2010, 'Client influence and advertising standardization: A survey of ad agencies', Service Industries Journal, vol. 30, no. 13, pp. 2151-2161.
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With increased globalization of markets, the standardization of products, services, and promotion activities has streamlined the work performed by advertising agencies. In this study, managing directors of Australian and US advertising agencies were questioned about the extent their clients influence agency functions and the degree of standardization used. It was found that copywriting was the main service offered and the clients usually have a major influence on their services. As for those that handle multi-country campaigns, older agencies tend to be more involved in international markets, and there was some degree of standardizing of campaigns and creative work.
Waller, D.S. 2010, 'Does doing good do good? How pro bono work may benefit advertising agencies', Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 440-449.
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The article presents advertising research on the creation of public service advertising by advertising agencies on a volunteer or so-called "pro bono" basis. Grounded theory is use to examine advertising agency business communication and trade publications, and identifying different types of pro bono work. Aside from the image advantages of identifying an agency as a socially responsible business, more business-related advantages to assisting nonprofit organizations were found including more opportunities for creativity, employee motivation, and attracting new clients.
Fam, K., Waller, D.S. & Yang, Z. 2009, 'Addressing the advertising of controversial products in China: An empirical approach', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 88, no. Supp 1, pp. 43-58.
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China is a country that has undertaken a great transformation since the late 1970+s, and among these changes, has seen a massive growth in the advertising industry with the influx of foreign advertisers, and the development of regional and global media, such as satellite television and the Internet. This has resulted in the Chinese people of all ages having a greater opportunity of exposure to different types of advertising, including the advertising of potentially controversial products, which could clash with traditional Chinese values. Using a stakeholder theory approach, this study analyzes the responses of 630 Chinese respondents to discover who is offended by controversial advertisements and determine ways potentially offensive advertising messages can be reduced, thereby assisting marketers in being more socially responsible in their advertising messages.
Waller, D.S. & Hingorani, A. 2009, 'Advertising students' perceptions of skills and attributes for future employment', Journal of Advertising Education, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 15-24.
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Changes in the tertiary education are making universities and ecadcmicsmore accountable to stakekeholders. This can be difficult as there are multiple objectives from different stakeholders, including academic colleagues, employers, students, the university hierarchy, alumni, the local community and governmental bodies (Moore and Ortinau 1993; Young, MeIntyre land Gilbert 1994). For academics, the objectives of tertiary education could include ensuring that students gain a solid understanding of the theory and practical skills which are applicable to various business situations, as well as maintaining appropriate "academic standards" within their subjects and discipline (Polonsky and Waller 1998).
Waller, D.S. & Lanis, R. 2009, 'Corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure of advertising agencies: An exploratory analysis of six holding companies annual reports', Journal Of Advertising, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 109-121.
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The corporate annual report has become more than a mandatory financial report for public companies, with many companies also using it as an important marketing tool. As corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an issue of growing interest in the business world, many publicly listed companies, including advertising agencies, are voluntarily disclosing information regarding their CSR activities in their annual reports. While there is criticism of the ethical values of advertising, some advertising agencies can use CSR to promote a positive side of the agency's business. This descriptive study analyzes the annual reports of the top six holding companies in the global advertising industry to promote discourse and theory development in the area. This will be done by observing which advertising companies disclose their CSR activities and what activities they undertake, as well as the development of a CSR disclosure index for advertising agencies. The results indicate that some advertising companies do engage in CSR activities and disclose them in their annual reports, but the level of these CSR disclosures is different between the organizations.
Kerr, G., Waller, D.S. & Patti, C. 2009, 'Advertising Education in Australia: Looking Back to the Future', Journal of Marketing Education, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 264-274.
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In Australia, advertising is a $13 billion industry that needs a supply of suitably skilled employees. Over the years, advertising education has developed from vocational-based courses to degree courses across the country. This study uses diffusion theory and various secondary sources and interviews to observe the development of advertising education in Australia from its early past to its current-day tertiary offerings, to discussing the issues that are arising in the near future. Six critical issues are identified, along with observations about the challenges and opportunities within Australian advertising education. By looking back to the future, it is hoped that this historical review provides lessons for other countries of similar educational structure or background, or even other marketing communication disciplines on a similar evolutionary path
Fam, K.S., Waller, D.S., Ong, F. & Yang, Z. 2008, 'Controversial Product Advertising in China: Perceptions of Three Generational Cohorts', Journal of Consumer Behaviour, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 461-469.
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China is a country that has undergone a wide range of significant changes over the last 30 years, economically, politically, and socially. Major events not only have an important effect on the developmental history of a country such as China, but also create a new generational cohort, which can adopt different views and attitudes than those characterizing previous generations. This study analyses the results of a survey of three different generational groups in China, focusing on their attitudes towards the promotion of controversial products and advertising execution techniques. Research results show significant differences between the younger and older generations, especially in regard to gender-related products and certain advertising execution techniques.
Fam, K. & Waller, D.S. 2008, 'Agency-Client Relationship Factors Across Life-Cycle Stages', Journal of Relationship Marketing, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 217-236.
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When an individual or an organization employs an advertising agency to assist in undertaking promotional activities, a number of factors are involved to ensure that the agency+client relationship runs smoothly. However, for the advertiser, as the relationship develops there can be changes in attitudes toward the advertising agency. This paper analyzes the responses of 82 advertisers regarding different elements in the advertising agency+client relationship and compares them across 4 stages in the agency+client life cycle: (a) Inception, (b) Development, (c) Maintenance, and (d) Dissolution. The results of the survey provide some implications to assist in the understanding of agency+client relationships at different times of the life cycle.
Fam, K. & Waller, D.S. 2008, 'A Study of Liked/Disliked Television Commercials in India', Indian Journal of Marketing, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 3-10.
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Waller, D.S., Christy, T.P. & Fam, K.S. 2008, 'Perceptions of Offensive Advertising Elements: A China-US Comparison', Journal of East-West Business, vol. 14, no. 3/4, pp. 325-343.
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As China continues to rapidly expand and further open itself to market forces, the People's Republic arouses significant interest as a new mega-market. Consequently, the influx of new business opportunities and advertising has resulted in Chinese consumers increasingly exposed to potentially offensive advertising. While some products and images may seem acceptable when advertised in the West, there are some that may offend Chinese cultural sensitivities. The purpose of this study is to better understand similarities and differences that exist between American and Chinese perceptions surrounding offensive advertising. The results highlight a number of statistical cultural differences that have business implications for international marketers.
Waller, D.S. 2007, 'Consumer Offense Towards the Advertising of Some Gender-Related Products', Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 72-85.
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Causing people to take offense can occur when a marketer undertakes a controversial advertising campaign. What can make this a particularly important issue is when companies make what for many individuals is a controversial product, like condoms, erectile dysfunction drugs, feminine hygiene products and certain kinds of underwear. Such companies manufacture legitimate products for their target customers, and they need to be able to communicate an effective message to their customers without causing offense that can lead to dissatisfaction, negative publicity, the rejection of the message, boycotts, other forms of complaining behavior, or other unpleasant outcomes. This article presents the results of a survey of 265 university students to examine whether they perceive particular gender-related products as offensive, what execution techniques, if any, lead them to find advertisements offensive, in general, and to calculate correlations to find out any potential association between specific gender-related products and specific offensive advertising execution techniques. The inquiry uncovered a number of execution techniques that were perceived as offensive and there were several statistical differences in comparisons between gender and age.
Fam, K., Waller, D.S. & Henry, J. 2007, 'Effects and Future of the Internet on the Malaysian Advertising Industry', International Journal of Business and Society, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 13-24.
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The Internet is having a major effect around the world on how businesses are being run, with changes in relation to marketing communications, customers, media selection, and dealing with advertising agencies. What has been the effect of this new media, and what changes are perceived for business in the future? This paper will examine Malaysian advertising executives' views on the effects of the Internet on business communications, and seeks predictions on the future of the advertising industry. A survey of 51 advertising executives indicated that the Internet will not entirely replace traditional mass media for advertising use, although it will have some effect on media planning. Keywords: Advertising; Malaysia; Internet; Advertising industry; Communication.
Waller, D.S. 2006, 'A proposed response model for controversial advertising', Journal of Promotion Management, vol. 11, no. 2/3, pp. 3-15.
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Wang, P.Z. & Waller, D.S. 2006, 'Measuring consumer vanity: A cross-cultural validation', Psychology and Marketing, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 665-687.
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Given the unmistakable trend toward a more integrated global economy and the tremendous impact of consumer vanity on demand for countless goods and services, there exists a need for more cross-cultural research on the important psychological construct kn
Fam, K.S. & Waller, D.S. 2006, 'Identifying likeable attributes: a qualitative study of television advertisements in Asia', Qualitative Market Research: an international journal, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 38-50.
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Purpose + Numerous studies investigate what contributes to advertising likeability; however, these are often based on quantitative research undertaken in western countries. This paper aims to report the findings of a cross-cultural qualitative study undertaken across five Asian cities (Hong Kong, Shanghai, Jakarta, Bangkok and Mumbai) to discuss Asian consumers' attitudes towards television commercials in their respective country/city. Design/methodology/approach + The data was gathered from two focus group interviews (1 male and 1 female) conducted in each city. Each group comprised of eight people and the interview lasted between 40 and 60 minutes. In each focus group several of the most liked locally produced television commercials were presented to the participants and the discussion that followed centered around visual images that they most liked. Findings + The results found differences in the likeable attributes between the five cities. These variations can be attributed to the differences in local culture, and to a lesser degree, other market-related factors like attitudes towards advertising in general, cultural outlook and perspective, consumer confidence and hours of watching television per week.
Stark, A., Fam, K.S., Waller, D.S. & Tian, Z. 2005, 'Chinese negotiation practice: a perspective from New Zealand exporters', Cross Cultural Management, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 85-102.
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Negotiation is crucial to business alliances, but this process can become more complicated if there are language barriers and differences in cultural values, customs, and lifestyles, such as Western businesses negotiating in the People+s Republic of China (PRC). Previous studies have presented models of the Chinese negotiating process but these are primarily from the US. This study examines the negotiating experiences of selected New Zealand investors who have had experiences negotiating either Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) or short-term sales agreements in the PRC to create two conceptual models. The results provide some interesting insights for doing business in China.
Waller, D.S., Fam, K.S. & Erdogan, B.Z. 2005, 'Advertising of controversial products: a cross-cultural study', The Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 6-13.
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Purpose + The purpose of this paper is to determine attitudes towards the advertising of certain controversial products/services and reasons for being offensive across four different countries, Malaysia, New Zealand, Turkey and the UK. Design/methodology/approach + This was achieved by analyzing the responses to a questionnaire that was distributed to a convenience sample of university students in the four countries. A total of 954 were sampled for this study. The results indicated that geography is not a major determinant of attitudes, and that religious and historical factors play a very important role. Findings + Of the 17 products presented, 11 resulted in similar answers for New Zealand and the UK, and seven were similar for Malaysia and Turkey. However, it was apparent that the two countries mostly populated by Muslims had some differences as Malaysia has a multicultural society that must make some allowances for other ethnic groups. It also appears that racism and racist images are of concern to all those sampled. Originality/value + The opening up of regional markets and the development of regional and global media, such as satellite television and the internet, will mean that marketers will try to take advantage of the associated benefits of a standardized approach to advertising and promotional activities. For those involved in international marketing, it is important that they are aware of possible differences and cultural sensitivities when entering a new market or undertaking a standardized mass-media campaign across a region, whether it be Australasia or Europe.
Shao, A.T. & Waller, D.S. 2005, 'Research services offered by Australian advertising agencies', Australasian Journal of Market & Social Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 11-20.
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Polonsky, M.J. & Waller, D.S. 2004, 'Making oral presentations: some practical guidelines and suggestions.', The Marketing Review, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 431-444.
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Miller, K.E. & Waller, D.S. 2004, 'Attitudes towards DTC advertising in Australia: an exploratory study.', International Journal of Advertising, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 389-405.
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Fam, K.S., Waller, D.S. & Erdogan, B.Z. 2004, 'The influence of religion on attitudes towards the advertising of controversial products', European Journal of Marketing, vol. 38, no. 5/6, pp. 537-555.
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Waller, D.S. 2004, 'Developing an account-management lifecycle for advertising agency-client relationships.', Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 95-112.
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Fam, K.S. & Waller, D.S. 2004, 'Ad likeability and brand recall in Asia: a cross-cultural study.', Journal of Brand Management, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 93-104.
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Fam, K.S. & Waller, D.S. 2003, 'Advertising controversial products in the Asia Pacific: What makes them offensive?', Journal Of Business Ethics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 237-250.
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Waller, D.S. & Fam, K.S. 2002, 'Offence to the advertising of controversial products: a study of gender attitudes in China and Malaysia', Journal of Asia Pacific Marketing, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 59-72.
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Waller, D.S. 2002, 'Advertising agency-client attitudes towards ethical issues in political advertising', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 347-354.
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Waller, D.S., Cusick, D.J., Matheson, H.D. & Miller, M. 2001, 'Advertising Agency Activities Used to Attract New Clients in Australia', Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 129-140.
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Advertising agencies, as communication professionals, should use ``best practice'' activities for promoting themselves to attract new clients. Presents the results of a survey of executives from the top advertising agencies in Australia to determine the activities the agencies use to promote themselves. Overall, it was indicated that ``personal contact'' and ``positive recommendations of satisfied clients'' were perceived to be the most effective for winning new clients. Other activities perceived to be effective were: responding to requests for new business presentations, publicity on recent successful campaigns and winning industry awards.

Other research activity

Fam, K.S. & Waller, D.S. 2003, 'Adverstising in the 21st century China: a study of generational shifts in consumers views towards the advertising of controversial products', City University of Hong Kong Direct Allocation Grant.
Waller, D.S. & Shao, A.T. 2003, 'Strategies, structures and technologies of Australian advertising agencies', Faculty of Business Research Grant.
Waller, D.S., Garlin, F.V. & Hingorani, A. 2002, 'Electronic media planning resource material', Curriculum Development Grant.
Waller, D.S. & Louviere, J.J. 2002, 'A conceptual framework and approach to modelling consumer decision states', Internal Research grant (IRG).
Waller, D.S. & Louviere, J.J. 2002, 'Modelling consumer decision states', UTS IRG.
Waller, D.S. 2002, 'Strategies, structures and technologies of Australian advertising agencies', FRG UTS.
Selected Peer-Assessed Projects