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Associate Professor David Leary

Biography

Dr David Leary is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Law at UTS.

Prior to entering academia he had extensive experience as a lawyer in private practice and as an in house counsel for a public company. As a lawyer he practiced primarily in commercial law which he now teaches at UTS. He also teaches Public Intenational Law, International Environmental Law, the Law of the Sea and Private International Law.

With a wide range of research interests David broadly describes his research as “Law at the frontiers of science and technology”. He is best known internationally for his work relating to the law surrounding bioprospecting and the commercialisation of marine biotechnology. His work has focused in particular on the legal status of biotechnology developed from the biodiversity of extreme environments such as the deep sea, the Arctic and Antarctica. His research findings have contributed to ongoing debate on these issues at the United Nations, the OECD and in Australia.

More recently David’s research has been looking at the legal implications of the emergence of the new field of synthetic biology and nanotechnlogy for the biotechnology industry.

Other recent research projects have included the regultion of shipping in the Arctic and Antarctica and the use of drones in scienific research in Antarcica.

His other research interests include the Law of the Sea, International Environmental Law, climate change and renewable energy.

Professional

  • Solicitor, Supreme Court of New South Wales and High Court of Australia;
  • Member of the Law Society of New South Wales
  • Admitted as Solicitor and Barrister, Supreme Court of Western Australia
  • Member, Australian and New Zealand Society of International Law
  • Member, Asian Society of International Law
  • Member of the Editorial Board of The Yearbook of Polar Law
  • Member, Sino-Australian Research Centre for Coastal Management.
  • Member  International Scientific Advisory Board, Arctic Centre, Finland (2009-2011).
Image of David Leary
Associate Professor, Faculty of Law
LLB (UNSW), B.A. (UNSW), LLM (UNSW), PhD
Member, Law Society of NSW
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 3160

Research Interests

  • The Arctic and Antarctica
  • Law of the Sea
  • International environmental law
  • Biodiversity conservation
  • Biotechnology
  • Synthetic Biology
  • Renewable Energy Law
  • Climate Change Law
  • Environmental Law

Can supervise: Yes

  • Commercial Law
  • Law of the Sea
  • International Environmental Law
  • Public International Law
  • Private International Law

Books

Leary, D.K. 2007, International Law and the Genetic Resources of the Deep Sea, 1, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Netherlands.
Deep-sea genetic resources and the interest of the biotechnology industry in their exploitation are emerging as a significant challenge for international oceans governance. This book is the first comprehensive examination of this issue and explores its relationship with marine scientific research and other activities in the deep sea. As well as a detailed survey of the state of industry interest in this new field of biotechnology it also sets out proposals for future sustainable management of these resources utilizing many existing international law and policy regimes.
Leary, D.K. 2007, International law and the genetic resources of the deep sea.

Chapters

Leary, D.K. 2016, 'The Australian Renewable EnergyTarget scheme: a case study of theimpact of uncertainty on amarket- based mechanism' in Stoianoff, N., Kreiser, L., Butcher, B., Milne, J. & Ashiabor, H. (eds), Green Fiscal Reform for a Sustainable Future Reform, Innovation and Renewable Energy, Edward Elgar, United Kingdom, pp. 187-203.
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A wide range of policy options, including a range of market-based mechanisms are available to governments to support the development of renewable energy. These options include provision of investment incentives such as grant programmes, tax measures such as investment and production tax credits, government procurement policies, and guaranteed price systems such as feed-in tariffs. More common mechanisms include various market-based schemes built around obligations to purchase renewable energy, including portfolio standard or quota systems, and a binding renewable energy target. All of these options are present in some form or other in various government responses to climate change and in efforts to promote the development of renewable energy across Australia. By far the most important of these mechanisms has been the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target (MRET) scheme established under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act 2000 (Cth). This scheme was originally established to spur investment in renewable energy generation in Australia. This chapter argues that this core policy objective has been undermined by a constant stream of government-sponsored inquiries, reviews and legislative amendments that have created uncertainty and undermined investor confidence in the renewable energy industry. This chapter argues that the Australian experience demonstrates a fundamental lesson that the best way to destroy, or at a minimum undermine, the effectiveness of a market-based mechanism is to create a continual climate of uncertainty through inquiries and reviews and numerous amendments to the scheme.
Leary, D.K. 2015, 'The IMO Mandatory International Code of Safety for Ships: Charting a sustainable course for shipping in the Polar Regions?' in Yearbook of Polar Law, Brill Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 426-447.
Many Asian states such as China are increasingly engaged in maritime activties in the polar regions. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has developed a mandatory international code of safety for certain types of ships operating in polar waters (the Polar Code) which applies to vessels of Asian and non-Asian states alike. The Polar Code covers a wide range of issues including ship design and construction, equipment, operation, crew training, search and rescue and environmental protection relating to ships operating in the polar regions. This article examines the Polar Code, which will be implemented via amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). It considers the extent to which the Polar Code lays the foundations for a sustainable future for shipping in the polar regions.
Leary, D.K. & Juniper, S.K. 2014, 'Addressing the Marine genetic resources issue: Is the debate heading in the wrong direction?' in Schofield, C., Lee, S. & Kwon, M.S. (eds), The Limits of Maritime Jurisdiction, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, pp. 769-785.
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Leary, D.K. 2014, 'From hydrocarbons to psychrophiles: the 'scramble' for Antarctic and Arctic resources' in Stephens, T. & VanderZwaag, D.L. (eds), Polar Oceans Governance in an era of environmental Change, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Cheltenham U.K., pp. 125-145.
Leary, D.K. 2011, 'Marine Genetic Resources: the Patentability of Living Organisms and Biodiversity Conservation' in Jacquet, P., Pachauri, R.K. & Tubiana, L. (eds), Oceans: The New Frontier, TERI Press, Delhi, India, pp. 183-193.
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Leary, D.K. & Pisupati, B. 2010, 'Conclusion' in Leary, D. & Pisupati, B. (eds), The Future of International Environmental Law, United Nations University Press, Tokyo, pp. 292-295.
Leary, D.K. 2010, 'International Law and the Genetic Resources of the Deep Sea' in Vidas, D. (ed), Law, Technology and Science for Oceans in Globalisation. IUU Fishing, Oil Pollution, Bioprospecting, Outer Continental Shelf, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden and Boston, pp. 353-369.
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Leary, D.K. & Pisupati, B. 2010, 'Introduction' in Leary, D. & Pisupati, B. (eds), The Future of International Environmental Law, United Nations University Press, Tokyo, pp. 1-16.
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Leary, D.K. & Pisupati, B. 2010, 'Emerging technologies: Nanotechnology' in Leary, D. & Pisupati, B. (eds), The Future of International Environmental Law, United Nations University Press, Tokyo, pp. 227-246.
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Conferences

Leary, D.K. 2010, 'Sustainable Management of Deep Sea Mining in the Pacific Region: Is this an Oxymoron? - A Lawyers Viewpoint', Proceedings of 2nd International Seminar on Islands and Oceans, 2nd International Seminar on Islands and Oceans, Ocean Policy Research Foundation, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 213-222.
Leary, D.K. 2010, 'Ocean Energy Opportunities and Challenges in the Pacific Islands Region within the Context of Climate Change', Proceedings of International Seminar on Islands and Oceans 2010, International Seminar on Islands and Oceans 2010, Ocean Policy Research Foundation, Tokyo, pp. 34-47.
Leary, D.K. 2008, 'Nanotechnology in agriculture: the emerging international debate on the need for regulation', Sustainability on Food, Feed, Fiber, Water, Energy: Science, Technologies, and Global Strategies, International Conference on Sustainable Agriculture for Food, Energy and Industry 2008 (ICSA2008), Hokkaido University, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Sapporo, Japan, pp. 344-351.
Leary, D.K. 2007, 'Lessons from the Arctic: The power of the Arctic experience to shape environmental governance in the Antarctic', Knowledge and Power in the Arctic, University of Lapland, Arctic Centre, Rovaniemi, pp. 43-50.
Leary, D.K. 2005, 'Market Based Mechanisms, Biodiversity Banking and Threatened Species Protection in Australia', The proceedings of the International Forum on Environmental Legislation and Sustainable Development, International Forum on Environmental Legislation and Sustainable Development Organizing Committee, Beijing, China, pp. 223-236.
Leary, D.K. 2002, 'Law Reaches New Depths: The Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area', Aquatic Protected Areas: What works best and how do we know?, Australian Society for Fish Biology, Cairns, Australia, pp. 86-95.

Journal articles

Leary, D.K. 2017, 'Drones on ice: an assessment of the legal implications of the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in scientific research and by the tourist industry in Antarctica.', Polar Record.
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, are used in scientific research and a diverse range of other applications across the globe. They are also being used increasingly for scientific research in Antarctica and to a lesser extent by tourists visiting the world's last great frontier tourist destination. Their use in scientific research in Antarctica offers many benefits to science and if used responsibly may be less invasive than other research techniques, offering a rich source of new scientific data. For tourists, UAVs also offer unique aerial photographic perspectives on Antarctica — the ultimate holiday snap shot. Concerns have been raised about the safety of drone use in the harsh and unpredictable Antarctic conditions, as well as possible environmental impacts. This paper considers these issues and the emerging regulatory response to drone use in Antarctica focusing on the Antarctic Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Operator's Handbook, which provides guidelines to national Antarctic programmes on the use of UAVs in the Antarctic Treaty area, and the temporary ban on use of drones by tourists imposed by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO). Both measures arguably constitute a good first response to this emerging issue, although more still needs to be done.
Leary, D.K. 2015, 'The Synthetic Biology Revolution: Mapping a Future Research Agenda', The University of Tasmania Law Review, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 110-127.
Synthetic biology represents a startling and perhaps revolutionary development in the biosciences with significant implications for the future of biotechnology and its interface with international environmental law. This article identifies the challenges the synthetic biology revolution poses for international environmental law and sets out key research questions for the future. The note opens by first examining how synthetic biology differs from GMO's and provides a brief insight into the current scale of research and development relating to synthetic biology and the ' focus of its recent developments. Beyond that the article then goes on to highlight some of the key environmental risks associated with this revolutionary technology. The note examines the ongoing debates surrounding synthetic biology in the forums associated with the 1992 United Nations Convention on Biblogical Diversity. Finally, the note concludes willI a brief comment on the need for responses shaped under international environmental law to also be linked to developments in other areas of law especially laws dealing with weapons proliferation and terrorism.
Leary, D.K. 2014, 'Year in Review-International Maritime Organisation', Yearbook of International Environmental Law, vol. 24, pp. 564-567.
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Leary, D.K. 2014, 'Planning Law: Friend or Foe of Renewable Energy?', UTS: Law Research Paper, no. 2014.
Leary, D.K. 2013, 'Year in Review-International Maritime Organization', Yearbook of International Environmental Law, vol. 22, pp. 618-622.
Leary, D.K. 2012, 'Australian Water Law, by Kate Stoeckel et al', Law Society Journal, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 82-82.
Leary, D.K. 2012, 'Moving the Marine Genetic Resources Debate Foward: Some Reflections', The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, vol. 27, pp. 435-448.
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This paper offers some brief reflections on issues surrounding the ongoing debate in relation to the legal status of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction. It considers one possible solution to the ideological divide over the relevance of the common heritage of mankind to marine genetic resources, modelled on Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty. The suitability of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture as a possible model is also considered. The fact that this later model is now being canvassed by some States marks a major step forward in international discussions on the issue. Other possible models that have been canvassed in the academic literature are also considered. The fact that these alternatives have not been canvassed at length in diplomatic discussions to date highlights the fact that a detailed examination of the wide range of possible options is urgently needed.
Esteban, M. & Leary, D.K. 2012, 'Current developments and future prospects of offshore wind and ocean energy', Applied Energy, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 128-136.
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The year 2008 saw the emergence of the first generation of commercial ocean energy devices, with the first units being installed in the UK and Portugal. This means that there are currently four ways of obtaining energy from sea areas, namely from wind, tides, waves and thermal differences between deep and shallow sea water. This paper focuses on current developments in offshore wind and ocean energy, highlighting the efforts currently underway in a variety of countries, principally some of the projects typically less talked about such as those in the Asian-Pacific countries. Finally, the growth potential of these industries will be assessed, using as a basis the historical trends in the offshore wind industry and extrapolating it to compute future growth potentials. Using this as a basis, the percentage of the worlds electricity that could be produced from ocean based devices is estimated to be around 7% by 2050, and this would employ a significant amount of people by this time, possibly around 1 million, mostly in the maintenance of existing installations. The paper will also evaluate the likely cost of production per kW of ocean energy technologies using a variety of learning factors
Wright, G. & Leary, D.K. 2011, 'Marine energy', New Zealand Law Journal, vol. August, pp. 227-234.
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Leary, D.K. 2011, 'International Maritime Organization (IMO)', Yearbook of International Environmental Law, vol. 20, no. 2009, pp. 775-779.
Esteban, M., Leary, D.K., Zhang, L., Utama, A., Tezuka, T. & Ishihara, K. 2011, 'Job retention in the British offshore sector through greening of the North Sea energy industry', Energy Policy, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 1543-1551.
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For the case of the UK there are currently three ways of obtaining energy from sea areas, namely from wind, tides and waves. A methodology was developed to determine the future size of the offshore renewable industry based on the concept of employment factor, or the number of people required to maintain each unit of electricity production. An assessment was made of the decline in the number of people employed in oil related jobs in the North Sea and the gap that this could create in the UK's economy unless this pool of offshore expertise could find an alternative employment in the renewable sector. The paper will also investigate the effect of gradually transforming the UK's oil and gas sector into offshore renewables. If this was to happen by 2050 the UK offshore renewable industry could produce between 127 and 146 TWh of electricity, equivalent to around 5766% of the current energy consumption in the country.
Leary, D.K. & Esteban, M. 2011, 'Recent Developments in Offshore Renewable Energy in the Asia-Pacific Region', Ocean Development And International Law, vol. 42, no. 1/2, pp. 94-119.
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This article examines the emergence of offshore renewable energy (i.e., offshore wind, ocean, and tidal energy) in the Asia-Pacific region with a particular focus on developments in China, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand. It outlines plans for the development of offshore wind, tidal, and wave energy projects as well as emerging legal and policy measures supporting the growth of offshore renewable energy in the region. The article highlights that, although some progress has been made on laws and other measures to facilitate offshore renewable energy in the Asia-Pacific region, clear regulatory frameworks are still emerging in these jurisdictions
Leary, D.K. & Walton, D.W. 2010, 'Science for profit. What are the ethical implications of bioprospecting in the Arctic and Antarctica?', Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, vol. 10, no. 1-4, pp. 1-4.
Esteban, M., Leary, D.K., Zhang, L., Utama, A. & Ishihara, K. 2010, 'The greening of the offshore energy sector in the North Sea', International Journal of Labour Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 245-267.
Leary, D.K. 2010, 'Legacies and Change in Polar Sciences: Historical, Legal and Political Reflections on the International Polar Year, edited by Jessica M Shadian and Monica Tennberg', The Yearbook of Polar Law, vol. 2, pp. 343-346.
Leary, D.K. 2010, 'The Corporatisation of International Responses to Climate Change: The Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute', Asia Pacific Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 17-37.
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Leary, D.K. & Walton, D.W.H. 2010, 'Science for profit. What are the ethical implications of bioprospecting in the Arctic and Antarctica?', Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-4.
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The value of chemical compounds and their genetic sources in species from the polar regions is becoming widely recognised as a resource not yet fully exploited. Bioprospecting is a growing activity in the Arctic, where the states concerned are signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity, providing a national framework for ownership, management and control of the activities. In the Antarctic, no such framework exists, and with increasing interest in both microbes and marine species there are concerns that uncontrolled exploitation will damage biodiversity, inhibit scientific research and data exchange, and (through disputes) undermine the authority of the Antarctic Treaty. Papers in this Theme Section highlight the ethical problems of commercialisation of science in the Antarctic for both governments and individuals, and discuss the concept of exclusive reward in a global common, leading finally to a suggestion that a new legal instrument is needed to manage Antarctic bioprospecting for the future. © Inter-Research 2010.
Leary, D.K. 2009, 'Globalisation and the Western Legal Tradition: Recurring Patterns of Law and Authority, by David B Goldman', Law Society Journal, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 77-77.
Leary, D.K., Vierros, M., Hamon, G., Arico, S. & Monagle, C. 2009, 'Marine genetic resources: A review of scientific and commercial interest', Marine Policy, vol. 33, pp. 183-194.
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Marine genetic resources both within and beyond national jurisdiction have been the focus of international negotiations in a range of forums in recent years. One recurrent theme throughout these discussions has been the absence of detailed information upon which policy responses to the emerging issue of the conservation and sustainable use of marine genetic resources (especially in areas beyond national jurisdiction) could be based. In an effort to address some of these knowledge gaps, this article examines the level and nature of scientific and commercial interest in marine genetic resources, including in areas beyond national jurisdiction. It also examines the changing perspectives of the scientific community in relation to the potential of marine genetic resources.
Leary, D.K. 2009, 'International Maritime Organization (IMO)', Yearbook of International Environmental Law, vol. 19, no. 2008, pp. 674-680.
Leary, D.K. 2009, 'Climate Code Red: the case for emergency action, by David Spratt & Philip Sutton', Law Society Journal, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 78-78.
Leary, D.K. 2009, 'Climate Change and other Human Rights Challenges in the Arctic', Human Rights Defender, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 14-16.
Leary, D.K. 2009, 'Yasuni Green Gold: The Amazon Fight to Keep Oil Underground, by Gines Haro Pastor and Georgina Donati', Law Society Journal, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 83-83.
Leary, D.K. & Esteban, M. 2009, 'Climate Change and Renewable Energy from the Ocean and Tides: Calming the Sea of Regulatory Uncertainty', The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 617-651.
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We examine the state of ocean energy in 2009 and consider its potential as a source of renewable energy. We provide a background on the current state of technology and commercial development, and examine the implications for law and policy of the re-emergence of ocean energy as a source of renewable energy in 2009. In the 1970s much of the academic and policy literature highlighted jurisdictional uncertainty surrounding ocean energy under international law. This is not the case today. Although some questions remain with respect to navigation rights, most questions surrounding the nature and extent of coastal State jurisdiction in relation to ocean energy have been resolved by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Instead we argue that one of the biggest challenges faced by ocean energy today is the uncertain state of regulation under domestic legal systems. We highlight issues requiring attention by policy-makers and legislators, including managing hazards to navigation, providing further financial incentives for wide-scale commercialisation of this technology (such as increased research and development funding and feed-in tariffs) and managing ocean energy's relatively benign environmental impacts
Leary, D.K. & Esteban, M. 2009, 'Renewable Energy from the Ocean and Tides: A Viable Renewable Energy Resource in Search of a Suitable Regulatory Framework', Carbon and Climate Law Review, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 417-425.
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Leary, D.K. 2009, 'Bioprospecting in Antartica and the Arctic. Common Challenges?', The Yearbook of Polar Law, vol. 1, pp. 145-174.
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Leary, D.K. 2009, 'Law at the Vanishing Point: A Philosophical Analysis of International Law, by Aaron Fichtelberg', Law Society Journal, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 90-90.
Leary, D.K. 2009, 'Looking beyond the International Polar Year: What are the Emerging and Re-emerging Issues in International Law and Policy in the Polar Regions?', The Yearbook of Polar Law, vol. 1, pp. 1-19.
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Leary, D.K. 2009, 'From Bali to Poznan: An assessment of Australia's response to climate change in 2008', Environmental and Planning Law Journal, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 190-212.
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Australia has moved rapidly from being one of the coalition of the unwilling (that small group of countries whose policy response to climate change was directed by a group of self-confessed climate change sceptics) to a nation that is beginning to take its responsibility to act on climate change seriously and is now playing its part in shaping an effective international response to climate change, but much still remains to be done. This article examines major developments in climate change law and policy in Australia in 2008. This includes the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS), outlined in the recently released White Paper on the CPRS; the positions adopted by Australia at the 14th Meeting of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change on Reducing Emissions for Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in developing countries, held in Poznan, Poland; and the role of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the post-2012 climate change regime. Major structural defects in the CPRS, such as the low medium-term target for emission reductions, the exemption of significant polluters from the CPRS's initial start up phase, the emphasis on the unproven technology of CCS both domestically and in Australia's negotiating stance in the lead up to the crucial Copenhagen meeting in 2009, as well as the failure to engage with the significant opportunities presented by energy efficiency and renewable energy, are all significant weaknesses in Australia's new found engagement with climate change.
Leary, D.K. 2008, 'International Maritime Organization (IMO)', Yearbook of International Environmental Law, vol. 18, no. 2007, pp. 663-670.
Leary, D.K. 2008, 'The Standing of Civil Society to Enforce Commonwealth Environmental Law Under Section 475 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act and its International Implications: The Japanese Whaling Case and the Law of Unintended Conseque', Macquarie Law Journal, vol. 8, pp. 153-178.
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Leary, D.K. 2008, 'International Maritime Organization (IMO)', Yearbook of International Environmental Law, vol. 17, no. 2006, pp. 734-740.
Leary, D.K. 2008, 'Killing Civilians: Method, Madness and Morality in War, by Hugo Slim', Law Society Journal, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 91-91.
Leary, D.K. 2008, 'Worst of the Worst: Dealing with Repressive and Rogue Nations, edited by Robert I Rotberg', Law Society Journal, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 87-87.
Pisupati, B., Leary, D.K. & Arico, S. 2008, 'Access and Benefit Sharing: Issues Related to Marine Genetic Resources', Asian Biotechnology and Development Review, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 49-68.
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Since the entry ip.to force of the CSD in 1993, countries have struggled to find answers to several questions relat.ed to ADS issues and have spent considerable amou~ts of time, energy and money in understanding how to operationalise these principles. One critical area that is beginning to appear during the discussions under the international regime is the status of marine genetic resources with a particular emphasis emerging on genetic resOurces available in areas beyond national jurisdiction. This paper presents some key legal and policy issues that negotiators of the international regime on ABS need to consider in relation to marine genetic resources.
Leary, D.K. 2008, 'Greenland's new legislation on commercial and research-related use of biological resources: implications for the International Polar Year and later', Polar Record, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 97-106.
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New possibilities for economic development have been identified by the Greenland Home Rule Government in recent years. One of these is the potential for development of biotechnology based on Greenlands biodiversity. To ensure that Greenland shares in benefits derived from the exploitation of these resources the Home Rule Parliament recently enacted legislation on commercial and research-related use of biological resources that is premised on rights recognised by the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity. This legislation represents the first law in an Arctic jurisdiction specifically to create a mechanism for access and benefit sharing in relation to Arctic genetic resources. The main area of research and commercial interest so far relates to potential developments in biotechnology from the microbial diversity of ikaite tufa columns located in the Ikka Fjord in southwest Greenland. The legislation seeks to provide a mechanism for regulating access to such biological resources and a means for Greenland to share in the potential benefits that may come from scientific research on them and subsequent commercialisation. Much research in Greenland now falls within the scope of this legislation. The purpose of this article is to explain the provisions of the legislation to the polar research community as well as to review its implications for research in the International Polar Year and later. The legislation imposes many new obligations on researchers in Greenland including obligations to obtain survey licences, obligations on reporting and the regulation of publication of scientific research. Commercially focussed research is also tightly regulated with a particular emphasis on patent rights. However, many aspects of the legislation are uncertain and it is unclear how much of the legislation will be implemented in practice.
Leary, D.K. 2008, 'Bi-polar Disorder? Is Bioprospecting an Emerging Issue for the Arctic as well as for Antarctica?', Review of European Community and International Environmental Law, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 41-55.
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Bioprospecting has recently emerged as a new challenge for environmental governance in Antarctica. While considerable attention now surrounds this issue in Antarctica, there has been little, if any, debate on the question of whether bioprospecting is also an issue requiring a policy or regulatory response in the Arctic. This article briefly considers the emerging debate with respect to bioprospecting in Antarctica. It then provides a detailed survey of the nature and extent of bioprospecting in the Arctic, with a focus on the Nordic countries. It goes on to outline legislative developments in several Nordic countries concerning the regulation of access and benefit sharing in relation to naturally occurring biological materials of actual or potential value commonly referred to as wild genetic resources. It concludes by highlighting some potential disputes raised by the creation of such regimes, especially around the disputed waters of Svalbard. This analysis suggests that a more coordinated regional response may be warranted in the Arctic in the future.
Leary, D.K. 2007, 'Biotechnology and International Law, edited by Francesco Francioni and Tulio Scovazzi', Review of European Community and International Environmental Law, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 247-248.
Leary, D.K. 2007, 'Faces in the Street: Louisa and Henry Lawson and the Castlereagh Street Push, by Pip Wilson', Law Society Journal, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 93-93.
Leary, D.K. 2007, 'Natural Resource Management and Conservation - Fisheries and Marine Mammals', Yearbook of International Environmental Law, vol. 16, no. 2005, pp. 470-487.
M, S.S., Elliott, W., Pisupati, B., Leary, D.K. & Okada, Y. 2007, 'Symposium: "Biodiversity and Climate Change"', Environmental Policy and Law, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 422-424.
Leary, D.K. 2006, 'The Precautionary Principle in Practice: Environmental Decision-Making and Scientific Uncertainty, by Jacqueline Peel', Alternative Law Journal, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 179-179.
Leary, D.K. 2005, 'Conservation and management of vulnerable deep-water ecosystems in areas beyond national jurisdiction: are marine protected areas sufficient?', Parks, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 57-64.
Leary, D.K. & Chakraborty, A. 2005, 'New Horizons in the Law of the Sea', Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 675-681.
Leary, D.K. 2005, 'Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive, by Jared Diamond', Macquarie Journal of International and Comparative Environmental Law, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 125-127.
Leary, D.K. 2004, 'Bioprospecting and the Genetic Resources of Hydrothermal Vents on the High Seas: What is the Existing Legal Position, Where are we Heading and What are our Options?', Macquarie Journal of International and Comparative Environmental Law, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 137-178.
Leary, D.K. 2004, 'Emerging Legal Regimes Regulating Bioprospecting for Thermophiles and Hyperthermophiles of Hydrothermal Vents', Marine Biotechnology, vol. 6, no. Supplement 1, pp. 351-359.
Emerging legal regimes regulating access to hydrothermal vents for marine scientific research (MSR) and bioprospecting are now taking shape at three levels. First, possible options for regulating access to the genetic resources of the deep sea on the high seas are being considered by parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Reports

Larsen, J.N. & Fondahl, G. Nordic Council or Ministers 2015, Arctic Human Development Report. Regional Processes and Global Linkages., pp. 221-252, Denmark.
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Esteban, M., Websersik, C. & Leary, D.K. Henley Media Group Ltd in association with the Commonwealth Secretariat 2009, Nanotechnology, ocean energy and forestry - making climate change mitigation work, pp. 163-169, United Kingdom.
Leary, D.K. United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies 2008, Bioprospecting in the Arctic, pp. 1-45, Yokohama, Japan.
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Esteban, M., Webersik, C., Leary, D.K. & Thompson-Pomeroy, D. United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS) 2008, Innovation in Responding to Climate Change: Nanotechnology, Ocean Energy and Forestry, pp. 1-46, Japan.
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Leary, D.K. United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS) 2008, Looking Beyond the International Polar Year: Emerging and Re-emerging Issues in International Law and Policy in the Polar Regions, pp. 1-62, Japan.
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Vierros, M., Hamon, G., Leary, D.K., Arico, S. & Monagle, C. United Nations University, Institute of Advanced Studies; UNESCO 2007, An Update on Marine Genetic Resources: Scientific Research, Commercial Uses and a Database on Marine Bioprospecting, New York.