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Professor Damien Giurco

Biography

Professor Damien Giurco is Director (Innovation) at the Institute for Sustainable Futures. Concurrently, he is Professor of Resource Futures, team leader for the research areas of Resources and Energy.

With a focus on strategies for responsible prosperity– Damien has worked collaboratively with government and industry clients spanning the minerals, water, waste and energy sectors to create change towards sustainable futures in a digital age.

Wealth from Waste Cluster ISF is leading a CSIRO Cluster to identify pathways for creating wealth from waste containing metals, including e-waste. The $9m three year collaboration [2014-2016] partners with researchers at The University of Queensland, Monash, Swinburne and Yale. A special issue of Resources outlining initial research findings is available and research from the Cluster together with an Action Agenda for the Circular Economy was presented at the World Resources Forum Asia-Pacific at UTS. Building on findings from the Mineral Futures Collaboration Cluster, Damien continues to progress questions of minerals and sustainability through the Resourcing Future Generations Initiative.

Smart Metering for Urban Water In this ARC-Linkage project with MidCoast Water, Damien leads a team researching the future role of smart metering in sustainable urban water futures. In particular, the project seeks to understand how access to dynamic information on water use will affect householder behaviours and management of water by utilities in the information age.

Professional

Currently
Editor-in-Chief: Resources - Open Access Journal

Formerly
Coordinator Sustainable Digital Cities Network
Chair [2011-2013] of the AusIMM Sustainability Committee and then member [20of the Community and Environment Society Committee

Image of Damien Giurco
Professor of Resource Futures, Institute for Sustainable Futures
Core Member, ISF - Institute for Sustainable Futures
B.Sc (Melb), B.Eng (Chem) (Hons) (Melb), PhD (Syd)
Download CV  (PDF, 90KB)
Phone
+61 2 9514 4978
Can supervise: Yes

Damien is supervising/co-supervising the following students:
Simon Wright (UTS PhD) - Networks, innovation and industrial ecology
Ariane Liu (UTS PhD) - Smart metering for urban water
Jacob Fry (University of Sydney) - Waste input-output modelling
Kevin Morrison (Masters) - Resource governance: the story of the MRRT
Brett Sukara (UTS PhD) - Supply chain networks and alignment

The following students have completed:
Artem Golev (University of Queensland - completed PhD 2013) - Application of industrial ecology principles for enhanced resource efficiency in heavy industrial areas
Johannes Behrisch (UTS - completed PhD 2014) - Incorporating ecological considerations into industrial design practice
Reza Memary (UTS - completed PhD 2016) - Systems approaches to life cycle assessment of metals

Future PhD topics include:
- influence of the digital economy on patterns of production and consumption
- material requirements of low carbon economy
- resource productivity and the circular economy

  • Frameworks and tools: industrial ecology, circular economy, life cycle thinking, backcasting, scenarios, material flow analysis.
  • Modelling and policy: urban water, energy, minerals & metals, waste & resource recovery, cities.
  • Indicators and decision support: cost-effectiveness, sustainability assessment, city and campus sustainability.

Books

Giurco, D. 2009, Copper Cycles: Modelling Material Flows, Technologies and Environmental Impacts, 1, VDM Verlag Dr. Muller, Saarbrucken, Germany.
The environmental impacts of resource use in society are being increasingly scrutinised, particularly in response to the challenge of climate change. We need to better understand the impacts of producing and recycling metals through the global economy. Traditional approaches, namely, those seeking increased efficiency largely within processing technologies, must be broadened to consider the entire production and consumption cycle. With copper as its focus, this book develops a multi-scale framework for characterising material flows through the production and consumption cycle. Models of material flows and of existing and new copper processing technologies are linked to inform environmental performance, based on a Life Cycle Impact Assessment approach. The analysis shows how an increased recycling of copper reduces environmental impacts far more dramatically than introducing new technology for processing terrestrial ores, which themselves are declining in quality. This data-rich work will be of interest to academics, minerals industry professionals and policy makers with an interest in developing strategies to deliver resource governance for sustainability.
Giurco, D., Carrard, N.R. & Inman, M. 2009, Water end-use measurement: a guide to study design, sampling and smart metering technology, 1, VDM Verlag Dr Muller, Germany.
Water management in cities is a critical issue for the health and sustainability of urban communities. Collecting accurate data is crucial for delivering effective, integrated approaches to urban water planning. With a focus on residential (rather than commercial or industrial) water use, this guide helps water planners to design and implement effective end-use measurement studies. An improved understanding of where and when water is used in homes, assists with long term planning within water utilities and with the evaluation of water saving programs. The guide is structured to lead the reader through the development of study design and objectives; data requirements and technology selection ? including smart meters; and sample size selection within cost and resource constraints. Included with the guide are a selection of case studies, an extensive list of technology providers and a review of existing water end-use studies. This practical guide will interest water industry planners and policy makers as well as research providers and technology specialists. Financial support for the development of this guide from the Smart Water Fund is gratefully acknowledged.

Chapters

Stewart, R.A., Sahin, O., Siems, R., Talebpour, M.R. & Giurco, D. 2015, 'Performance and economics of internally plumbed rainwater tanks: An Australian perspective' in Memon, F.A. & Ward, S. (eds), Alternative Water Supply Systems, IWA Publishing, London, United Kingdom, pp. 3-23.
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Florin, N., Sharpe, S., Wright, S. & Giurco, D. 2015, 'Business models for a circular world: the case of metals' in Ludwig, C., Matasci, C. & Edelmann, X. (eds), Part IV Circular Economy and Decoupling, Natural Resources: Sustainable targets, Technologies, Lifestyles and Governance, A World Resources Production, Printed by Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland, pp. 253-259.
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Bangerter, P., Corder, G., Giurco, D., McLellan, B. & Murphy, A. 2015, 'Sustainability in plant design' in Boom, R., Twigge-Molecey, C., Wheeler, F. & Young, J. (eds), Metallurgical plant design, Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Montreal, Canada, pp. 157-179.
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Beal, C., Stewart, R.A., Giurco, D. & Panuwatwanich, K. 2014, 'Intelligent Metering for Urban Water Planning and Management' in Kemi Adeyeye (ed), Water Efficiency in Buildings: Theory and Practice, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, United Kingdom, pp. 129-146.
This reference source on water efficiency in buildings provides comprehensive and up-to-date information. Both multi-disciplinary and practical, it signposts current knowledge, innovation, expertise and evidence on an important subject which is high in the resource management debate. Water Efficiency in Buildings: a review of theory and practice is structured into five sections: Policy; People; Building Design and Planning; Alternative Water Technologies; and Practical Examples & Case Studies. This final section of the book presents new and current practice as well as lessons learnt from case examples on the use of water saving technologies and user engagement. Current evidence is vital for effective policy making. The dynamic nature of issues around water resource management creates a higher need for robust and reliable data and research information that can inform policy and regulations. This compendium provides a roadmap for researchers and building professionals on water efficiency as well as for policy makers and regulators. The case studies and research presented fall within the water supply and demand spectrum, especially those that focus on process efficiency, resource management, building performance, customer experiences and user participation, sustainable practises, scientific and technological innovation. The benefit and impact of the research is at the localandnational level, as well as in the global context.
White, S., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D. & Turner, A.J. 2008, 'Putting the economics in its place: decision-making in an uncertain environment' in Zografos, C. & Howarth, R. (eds), Deliberative Ecological Economics, Oxford University Press, New Dehli, India, pp. 80-106.
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Giurco, D., Stewart, M. & Petrie, J. 2000, 'The role of LCA in performance assessment in minerals processing: a copper case study' in Singhal, R. & Mehrotra, A. (eds), Environmental issues & management of waste in energy and mineral production, Taylor and Francis, Rottedam, pp. 267-273.

Conferences

Madden, B., Florin, N. & Giurco, D. 2016, 'Assessment of waste to energy as a resource recovery intervention using system dynamics: A case study of New South Wales, Australia', Life Cycle Assessment and Other Assessment Tools For Waste Management and Resource Optimisation, Grand Hotel San Michele.
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Driven by an increasing population, affluence and economic activity, waste—an almost inevitable by-product of modern production and consumption—is being generated at a rate that is growing exponentially with time in Australia. Despite the global maturity of waste to energy technology as a waste valorisation process, it is yet to be applied at scale in Australia, which has traditionally relied on landfill disposal, and more recently recycling, for the management of waste. Recent policy frameworks implemented have enabled the uptake of waste to energy in parts of Australia to divert waste from landfill, while offsetting non-renewable energy sources in the transition to a low-carbon energy landscape. However, recent policy dictates that higher order waste valorisation processes such as re-use and recycling, must not be undermined by energy recovery processes. In this paper, we present initial findings from a system dynamics model, developed to assess interventions to improve resource recovery in a multi-stream (municipal, construction and commercial) waste system specific to New South Wales. The system under investigation is characterised by causal feedback processes between waste generation, valorisation processes, and waste management policies, making it ideal for study using a system dynamics approach, and offers benefits in terms of greater understanding of the system processes over more typical mechanistic approaches [1]. System dynamics modelling has been used in the study of sustainable waste management, and waste management planning (see [2], [3], and [4]), and has yet to be applied in the context of waste to energy in Australia. Using socioeconomic and waste management data as inputs, projected waste generation and recycling rates under reference conditions are compared to scenarios with waste to energy intervention, to estimate the potential of energy recovery in achieving local waste management targets. Several scenarios are modelled with variation in al...
McLennan, B., Florin, N., Giurco, D., Kishita, Y., Itaoka, K. & Tezuka, T. 2015, 'Decentralised energy futures: the changing emissions reduction landscape', Procedia CIRP, The 22nd CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Elsevier, Sydney, Australia, pp. 138-143.
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The world is witnessing an energy revolution as renewables become more competitive and energy security becomes a high priority for an increasing number of countries. This development is changing the point along the supply chain ripe for reducing emissions. Whereas carbon capture and storage (CCS) coupled to coal or gas power production offers the potential to decarbonise the current centralised power systems, this relies on a significant increase in electrification to achieve deep emission reductions beyond the power sector, including industrial emissions and transportation. At the same time there is a trend towards decentralised industrial processes, e.g., driven by cost reductions in decentralised production systems and miniature processing plant. New strategies for reducing emissions from decentralised industrial and energy emission point sources will be increasingly important. This paper evaluates different emission reduction strategies that may be relevant to a decentralised energy and manufacturing future, including increased electrification, energy storage, renewable energy and renewable feedstock. Systemic opportunities or barriers and considerations of policy and decentralised decision-making are examined.
McLellan, B., Florin, N., Giurco, D., Kishita, Y., Itaoka, K. & Tezuka, T. 2015, 'Decentralised energy futures: the changing emissions reduction landscape', Procedia CIRP, 22nd CIRP conference on LIfe Cycle Engineering, Elsevier, Sydney, pp. 138-143.
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The world is witnessing an energy revolution as renewables become more competitive and energy security becomes a high priority for an increasing number of countries. This development is changing the point along the supply chain ripe for reducing emissions. Whereas carbon capture and storage (CCS) coupled to coal or gas power production offers the potential to decarbonise the current centralised power systems, this relies on a significant increase in electrification to achieve deep emission reductions beyond the power sector, including industrial emissions and transportation. At the same time there is a trend towards decentralised industrial processes, e.g., driven by cost reductions in decentralised production systems and miniature processing plant. New strategies for reducing emissions from decentralised industrial and energy emission point sources will be increasingly important. This paper evaluates different emission reduction strategies that may be relevant to a decentralised energy and manufacturing future, including increased electrification, energy storage, renewable energy and renewable feedstock. Systemic opportunities or barriers and considerations of policy and decentralised decision-making are examined.
Sahin, O., Stewart, R., Turner, A., Giurco, D. & Porter, M. 2015, 'Systems model for optimising the long-term water supply system of a major city considering the competing goals of water security and flooding risk', 10th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
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Liu, A., Giurco, D. & Mukheibir, P. 2015, 'Household water-use feedback: moving forwards towards sustainable urban water', International Conference on Sustainable Water Management, Murdoch University, pp. 1-8.
Sustainable water management is becoming increasingly essential in an age characterised by rapid population and urban growth, industrial development and climate change. Opportunities to promote conservation and water-use efficiencies remain attractive in directly reducing water demand. Smart water metering and the provision of detailed water-use feedback to consumers present exciting new opportunities for improved urban water management. This paper explores two smart water metering trials in New South Wales, Australia, which provided household water consumption feedback via (i) paper end-use reports and (ii) an online portal. This combination enabled a deeper exploration of the various impacts of detailed feedback enabled via smart water metering, while simultaneously extending experience of the practical issues and challenges involved. The positive effects uncovered by the research present an important opportunity for smart water metering feedback to contribute towards more sustainable urban water management. Their summary contributes empirical evidence on the impacts for water utilities considering embarking on the smart water metering journey with their customers. The identification of future research and policy needs sets an agenda for smart water metering to promote a sustainable digital urban water future. A more coordinated approach to feedback programs is called for between the water industry and research to ensure very clear business and sustainability objectives are met. Utilities should also aim to integrate the design and plans for advanced feedback programs at the outset of smart meter implementations.
McLellan, B., Giurco, D., Corder, G., Golev, A., Kishita, Y. & Sharpe, S. 2015, 'Mineral-Water-Energy Nexus: Implications of Localized Production and Consumption for Industrial Ecology', The Tipping Point: Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity, 21st International Sustainable Development Research Society Conference: The Tipping Point: Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity, Geelong, Australia.
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Urban and remote areas are increasingly using decentralised systems for renewable energy production and storage, as well as for water harvesting and recycling and to a lesser extent for product manufacture via 3D printing. This paper asks two questions – how will these developments affect (i) the end-uses of minerals, including critical minerals and (ii) the implications for industrial ecology and the development of a sound materials cycle society. We find a trade-off between using higherperformance critical minerals in low concentrations which are complex to recycle, and unalloyed, standardised materials for increased effectiveness across multiple reuse cycles. Design and operational challenges for managing decentralised infrastructure are also discussed as their uptake approaches a tipping point.
Liu, A., Giurco, D. & Mukheibir, P. 2014, 'Online household water portal: user interactions and perceptions of water-use', The 2nd Smart Water Grid International Conference 2014, Incheon, South Korea.
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Florin, N., Sharpe, S., Wright, S. & Giurco, D. 2014, 'Business Models for a circular world: the case of metals', The World Resources Forum, Arequipa, Peru.
Giurco, D., Mohr, S.H., Fyfe, J., Rickwood, P., Teng, M.L. & Franklin, J. 2013, 'Modelling bounce-back in water consumption post-drought', Proceedings of the 5th National Water Efficiency Conference, 5th National Water Efficiency Conference, Australian Water Association (AWA), Sydney, pp. 1-5.
Mukheibir, P., Giurco, D., Turner, A.J., Franklin, J., Teng, M.L. & McClymont, T. 2013, 'Integrated resources planning: Contemporary insights', Proceedings of the 5th National Water Efficiency Conference, 5th National Water Efficiency Conference, Australian Water Association (AWA), Sydney, pp. 1-9.
Liu, A., Giurco, D., Mukheibir, P. & Graeme, W. 2013, 'Smart metering and billing: Information to guide household water consumption', Proceedings of the 2013 AWA Water Education, Efficiency and Skills conference, AWA Water Education, Efficiency and Skills conference, Australian Water Association (AWA), Sydney, Australia.
Giurco, D. 2013, 'Towards Vision 2040 - The role of mine closure planning in responsible resource governance', Mine Closure and Environmental Impacts, Brisbane, Australia.
Mudd, G.M., Weng, Z., Northey, S., Jowitt, S., Memary, R., Mohr, S.H., Giurco, D. & Mason, L.M. 2013, 'A projection of future energy and greenhouse gas emissions intensity from copper mining', 23rd World Mining Congress 2013 Proceedings, 23rd World Mining Congress 2013, Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Montreal, Canada, pp. 1-14.
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In this study, we develop a detailed model of the likely future carbon footprint of primary copper supply. We develop a peak copper production model, based on a detailed copper resource data set, and combine this with a comprehensive life cycle assessment model of copper mining and milling to predict greenhouse gas emission rates and intensities of Australian and global copper production up to 2100. By establishing a quantitative prediction of both copper production and corresponding greenhouse gas emissions of Australian and global copper industry, we then analysed the emissions intensity of various energy input scenarios, such as business-as-usual, solar thermal electricity and solar thermal electricity with biodiesel. The Australian Government has an aspirational goal for long-term greenhouse gas emissions of an 80% reduction from the 2000 level by 2050. For the copper sector, this means moving from about 12.6 Mt CO2e in 2000 to a goal of some 2.52 Mt CO2e in 2050 (assuming equal emissions reductions across the economy). Based on the energy sources modelled, only the solar thermal plus biodiesel scenario was capable of achieving this goal at about 0.15 Mt CO2e, since the solar thermal alone scenario still includes normal petro-diesel as a major source of emissions. Overall, it is clear that there are abundant resources which can meet expected long-term copper demands, the critical issue is more the carbon (and environmental) footprint of different copper supplies and use rather than how much is available for mining. It is clear that the switch to renewable energy can have a profound impact on the carbon intensity of copper supply, even allowing for increased energy intensity as ore grades decline, and a complete conversion to renewable energy will position the copper sector to meet existing annual greenhouse gas emissions targets and goals.
Behrisch, J.C., Ramirez Jr, M. & Giurco, D. 2012, 'The role of industrial design consultancies in diffusing the concept of ecodesign', Proceedings of the DRS 2012 Bangkok, DRS 2012 Bangkok, Design Research Society, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 1-12.
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Giurco, D. 2011, 'Interview with Damien Giurco on strategies to reduce rare earths environmental impact and where you should look toward for industry insight (podcast)', Rare Earths and Strategic Metals 2011, Sydney.
Giurco, D., Mason, L.M., Lederwasch, A.J., Prior, T.D. & Daly, J.G. 2011, 'Mining, minerals and innovation: Building long term value for Australia', AMEC Convention 2011, Association of Mining and Exploration Companies (AMEC), Perth, WA, pp. 1-22.
Morrison, K.C. & Giurco, D. 2011, 'The future of Australia's mineral wealth: Leasing to support an ageing population', Proceedings of the Second International Future Mining Conference 2011, Second International Future Mining Conference, AusIMM, University of NSW, Sydney, pp. 227-234.
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Fyfe, J., Blackburn, N., Mason, L.M., Giurco, D. & Read, W. 2011, 'Supporting Industrial Ecology in SMEs: the Streamline Waste Exchange', 7th Australian Conference on Life Cycle Assessment, Conference Proceedings, Melbourne: Life Cycle Assessment: Revealing the secrets of a green market, 7th Australian Conference on Life Cycle Assessment: Life Cycle Assessment: Revealing the secrets of a green market, Australian Life Cycle Assessment Society, Melbourne, Victoria, pp. 1-10.
Mason, L.M., Giurco, D., Prior, T.D. & Mudd, G.M. 2011, 'Sustainable mineral resource nanagement: Understanding long-term national benefit and reconciling competitiveness and concern through national sustainability reporting', ICOSSE'11: Second International Congress on Sustainability Science and Engineering, Tucson, Arizona, USA.
Behrisch, J.C., Ramirez Jr, M. & Giurco, D. 2011, 'Ecodesign in industrial design consultancies - comparing Australia, China, Germany and the USA', DS 68-Abstracts: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 11), Impacting Society through Engineering Design, Programme and Abstract Book, International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED), The Design Society, The Design Society, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 1-10.
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Memary, R., Giurco, D., Prior, T.D., Mason, L.M., Mudd, G.M. & Peterseim, J. 2011, 'Clean energy and mining - future synergies', Proceedings of the Second International Future Mining Conference 2011, International Future Mining Conference and Exhibition, The AusIMM (The Mineral Institute), Sydney, Australia, pp. 217-226.
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The environmental and economic impacts of a signifi cant dependence on fossil fuels are affecting the future of sectors such as of mining. These impacts are prompting the Australian Government to seek solutions for reducing its dependence on fossil fuels more generally, such developing clean energy and improving energy effi ciency. However, limited research has been undertaken to assess the potential synergies between clean energy and mining in an uncertain global future. This paper analyses current energy use by mining in Australia and reviews the drivers and opportunities for energy effi ciency and cleaner energy technologies to be coupled to mining under three future scenarios. Linkages between mining and clean energy are investigated for three global scenarios for mining and metals to 2030, developed by the World Economic Forum (WEF), namely Green Trade Alliance, Rebased Globalism and Resource Security. These scenarios are applied to assess how they could change the barriers, opportunities and trade-offs required for the development of a more sustainable energy sources by the minerals industry in Australia.
Giurco, D., Prior, T.D. & Mason, L.M. 2011, 'Vision 2040 - Mining technology, policy and market innovation', Proceedings of the Second International Future Mining Conference 2011, International Future Mining Conference and Exhibition, AusIMM (The Minerals Institute), University of New South Wales, Sydney, pp. 163-170.
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Giurco, D., Boyle, T.M., White, S., Clarke, B. & Houlihan, P. 2011, 'Demand management: influence of new supply infrastructure and declining perceptions of scarcity', 4th National Water Efficiency Conference, Melbourne, Victoria.
Mudd, G.M., Giurco, D., Memary, R., Mason, L.M. & Prior, T.D. 2011, 'Peak minerals: characterising impacts and future options', Proceedings of Sustainability through Resource Conservation and Recycling '11, 2nd International Symposium on Sustainability through Resource Conservation and Recycling '11 (SRCR '11), Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth, Cornwall, UK.
Cooper, C. & Giurco, D. 2011, 'Mineral resources landscape: assessing sustainability for the case of deep sea mining', Proceedings of Sustainability through Resource Conservation and Recycling '11, 2nd International Symposium on Sustainability through Resource Conservation and Recycling '11 (SRCR '11), Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth, Cornwall, UK.
Prior, T.D., Daly, J.G. & Giurco, D. 2010, 'Resourcing the future: foresight to secure long-term national benefit from Australia's minerals', International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE) 11th Biennial Conference, ISEE Conference 2010: Advancing Sustainability in a Time of Crisis, International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE), Oldenburg/Bremen, Germany, pp. 1-25.
Prior, T.D., Giurco, D., Mudd, G.M., Mason, L.M. & Behrisch, J.C. 2010, 'Resource depletion, peak minerals and the implications for sustainable resource management', International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE) 11th Biennial Conference, ISEE Conference 2010: Advancing Sustainability in a Time of Crisis, International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE), Oldenburg/Bremen, Germany, pp. 1-20.
Behrisch, J.C., Ramirez Jr, M. & Giurco, D. 2010, 'The use of ecodesign strategies and tools: state of the art in industrial design praxis. Comparing Australian and German consultancies', Knowledge collaboration & learning for sustainable innovation. Proceedings of the ERSCP-EMSU conference, Delft, The Netherlands, October 25-29, 2010, Knowledge collaboration & learning for sustainable innovation. The 14th European Roundtable on Sustainable Production and Consumption (ERSCP) and The 6th Environmental Management for Sustainable Universities (EMSU), Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology on behalf of, Delft, The Netherlands, pp. 1-22.
This paper assesses the use of ecologically sustainable design approaches by industrial design (ID) consultancies in Australia and Germany. Whilst much academic research has focussed on the development of ecodesign strategies and tools, it remains unclear to what extent these are actually applied by practitioners. This paper investigates the extent to which design consultancies integrate ecodesign into their services and portfolios and their proactive promotion of sustainable design tools and strategies to their clients. This was achieved through a content analysis of commercial websites of ID consultancies in Australia (n=96) and Germany (n=217). The review criteria included: their general awareness of environmental issues related to product design, the share of ecologically responsible products in their portfolio and the kinds of sustainable design expertise that they advertise. The paper concludes that the majority of ID companies in Germany and in Australia do not appear to actively practice ecodesign. Nevertheless, amongst those that were found to practice ecodesign, a broad range of ecodesign strategies is visible; selection of low impact materials was the most prominent strategy used in Australia while reduction of impact during use was most common in Germany. Industrial design consultancies have significant potential to foster ecodesign implementation. A major barrier for ecodesign appears to be the lack of marketing arguments for ecodesign on the behalf of the consultancies. The legislative framework in Germany, often seen as progressive for ecodesign appears to have minor impact on the extent ID consultancies take up ecodesign.
Giurco, D., Prior, T.D., Mason, L.M. & Mudd, G.M. 2010, 'Peak minerals: mapping sustainability issues at local and national scales', Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Sustainability Engineering and Science, International Conference on Sustainability Engineering and Science, The New Zealand Society for Sustainability Engineering and Science, Faculty of Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 1-10.
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Peak minerals adopts the Hubbert metaphor for peak oil to highlight issues associated with initial mining of `cheaper, more accessible and higher quality ores pre-peak, to `lower grade, more remote, complex and expensive ores post-peak. In doing so, it prompts focus on the `services provided by the resource in-use as well as the transition strategy to supply those services following the decline of production post-peak. This paper applies the peak minerals metaphor as a basis for examining the social and environmental implications pre- and post-peak production across spatial scales. Using document review and stakeholder analysis from a National Peak Minerals Forum held in Australia, social and environmental impacts are mapped at local and national scales. This innovative mapping found that currently, consideration is given to local social and environmental issues and global economic issues, however, triple bottom line issues at the national scale are currently overlooked. As minerals resources belong to the people of a nation, this finding will inform future approaches to transition strategies seeking to maximise long term value for the use of the resources.
Boydell, S., Giurco, D., Rickwood, P., Glazebrook, G.J., Zeibots, M.E. & White, S. 2009, 'Using an integrated assessment model for urban development to respond to climate change in cities', Energy Efficient Cities: Assessment tools and benchmarking practices, Urban Research Symposium, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, Marseille, France, pp. 65-91.
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This chapter describes an integrated assessment model for city-scale urban development that links the energy used in passenger transport (public and private) and residential in-house energy use. The model divides the urban region into disjoint subregions, the core of the model being centered on residential location choice, which is calibrated by population, demographic characteristics, and building types, leading to preferences for each subregion based on household type. Submodels are subsequently used to calibrate different rates of energy in accordance with household and demographic factors.THis generates a picture of consumption patterns across the metropolitan area, enabling an appreciation of spatially heterogenous factors such as differing levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, alongside variations in the distribution of infrastructures that can create considerable variation in energy consumption between districts within cities. The energy impacts of policy decisions that affect, by way of example, where new housing is to be built and of what type, can then be simulated. The workings of the model are demonstrated in the chapter using data on Sydney, Australia, as a case study, with the research offering a policy scenario to city officials to monitor its progress towards a 2030 vision for a sustainable Sydney.
Behrisch, J.C., Ramirez Jr, M. & Giurco, D. 2010, 'Application of ecodesign strategies amongst Australian industrial design consultancies', Sustainability in Design: Now! Challenges and Opportunities for Design Research, Education and Practice in the XXI Century. Proceedings of the LeNS Conference, Bangalore, India 29th September to 1st October 2010 (Volume II), Sustainability in Design: NOW! Challenges and Opportunities for Design Research, Education and Practice in the XXI Century., LeNS (the Learning Network on Sustainability), Bangalore, India, pp. 1377-1387.
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By promoting and applying ecologically sustainable design (ecodesign) strategies in the product planning stage, industrial designers can have significant influence on reducing the environmental impacts of products. Despite this potential, there remains little quantitative analysis of the awareness, application and influence of ecodesign praxis amongst industrial designers. This paper presents a comprehensive content analysis of the websites of 96 industrial design (ID) consultancies in Australia, probing for evidences of ecodesign application in each companys capability statement and project portfolios. Our study found that that less than half of consultancies visibly promote their ecodesign activities on websites.
Boydell, S., Giurco, D., Rickwood, P., Glazebrook, G., Zeibots, M. & White, S. 2010, 'Using an Integrated Assessment Model for Urban Development to Respond to Climate Change in Cities', ENERGY EFFICIENT CITIES: ASSESSMENT TOOLS AND BENCHMARKING PRACTICES, pp. 85-111.
Giurco, D., Prior, J.H. & Boydell, S. 2009, 'Future Latrobe Valley scenarios for a carbon-constrained world: industrial ecology, environmental impacts and property rights', SSEE 2009 International Conference Website, Solutions for a Sustainable Planet, Society for Sustainability and Environmental Engineering (SSEE), Melboune, Australia, pp. 1-13.
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The Latrobe Valley has substantial brown coal deposits which are currently mined for use in coal-fired power stations which supply 85% of Victoriaâs electricity. This paper considers the role that industrial ecology could play in underpinning the future structure (2050-2100) of the Latrobe valley industry base in a carbon-constrained world. Potential future scenarios for industry clusters were developed around three themes: bio-industries and renewables (no coal usage); electricity from coal with carbon capture and storage (low to high coal use options exist within this scenario); coal to products (e.g. hydrogen, ammonia, diesel, methanol, plastics, char with medium to high overall coal use relative to current levels). This research uses life cycle thinking to characterise the potential water, greenhouse gas and property rights impacts across life cycle stages.
Cooper, C. & Giurco, D. 2009, 'The mineral resources landscape - an expanded conceptualisation of minerals sustainability', Proceedings of Sustainable Development Indicators in the Minerals Industry 2009 Conference (CD-ROM), Proceedings of Sustainable Development Indicators in the Minerals Industry, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 115-122.
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As part of global systems of mineral production and consumption, the Australian minerals sector is facing sustainability challenges across technological, social, ecological, economic and governance domains, as well as between local, national and global scales. To ensure that the Australian minerals sector progresses towards sustainability, it is imperative to understand the possible ways in which Australias mineral resources could support sustainable futures. A significant research gap exists between the complex nature of questions concerning minerals sustainability and the reductionist methods available to deal with them. This paper argues the need for broader, more integrated approaches to questions concerning minerals sustainability, which can address multiple human perspectives, complex and `messy patterns and processes across multiple organisational, temporal and geographical scales and whole systems of mineral production and consumption.
Boydell, S., Giurco, D., Rickwood, P., Glazebrook, G.J., Zeibots, M.E., White, S. & Thomas, L.E. 2009, 'Using integrated urban models to respond to climate change in cities', Fifth Urban Research Symposium on Cities and Climate Change Website: Responding to an Urgent Agenda, Urban Research Symposium on Cities and Climate Change: Responding to an Urgent Agenda, Urban Research Symposium, World Bank, Marseille, France, pp. 1-33.
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This paper presents a single, integrated urban model that focuses on the key areas of transport, domestic energy-use, and domestic water use and how these relate to urban planning and other policies. The model structure is spatial ½ requiring a sub-division of the urban region into disjoint sub-regions. Such a sub-division is necessary, not only because spatial information is essential to any transport model, but also because climatic and demographic factors are common to all resource models, and are spatially heterogeneous. The model is intended for use by local, regional, and state authorities, government departments, energy, and utility service companies as a modelling and decision support tool for analysing the impact on cities of a range of energy, water, transport, and land use related policies. In particular, it seeks to understand the impact - reductions possible at household and city scales. Growing awareness of the threats from climate change has focused attention on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the need to reduce them. Using a sample analysis of Sydney, our on-going research collaboration seeks to examine the working relationships between multiple infrastructure sectors through a single analysis platform. The need to integrate policy for multiple infrastructures is critical given the multiple fronts on which the sustainability of urban systems are now jeopardised.
Atherton, A.M. & Giurco, D. 2009, 'UTS Environmental Sustainability Initiative: case study', 2009 Tertiary Education Management Conference, Tertiary Education Management Conference, Tertiary Education Facilities Management Association (TEFMA), Darwin, Australia, pp. 1-10.
Implementing environmental sustainability programs across university campuses presents both opportunities and challenges. The University of Technology Sydney (UTS) launched a coordinated approach to sustainability in 2008. This paper presents a case study of UTSs Environmental Sustainability Initiative (ESI). It begins by outlining the aims and governance structures for the initiative which consists of a Sustainability Steering Committee; Committee of Working Group Heads and then working groups across six focus areas of energy, transport, procurement, water, waste, planning and design, and also reporting and communications. The paper then describes the development and consultation processes, and final outcomes, for three strategy documents in the areas of climate change (energy), transport and paper use (procurement). We discuss the role that such working groups, together with other support structures, can play in creating a more sustainable university, and offer practical guidance for other universities and organisations undergoing organisational change for sustainability. We also discuss some of the challenges that emerged such as: how to engage with staff and students to develop shared aspirations and reflect these in tangible objectives, targets and actions; and how to evolve organisational structures to implement strategies and create a sustainable higher education institution.
Giurco, D., Patterson, J.J., Bossilkov, A. & Kazaglis, A. 2009, 'Industrial water reuse synergies: a Port Melbourne scoping study', 15th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference, 15th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference, International Sustainable Development Research Society (ISDRS), Utrecht University, The Netherlands, pp. 1-14.
Giurco, D., Langham, E., Warnken, M. & Cohen, B. 2009, 'Future scenarios in the Latrobe Valley: Contrasting impacts with life cycle thinking', 15th Annual Sustainable Development Conference, Utrecht.
Giurco, D., Cooper, C., Mason, L.M., Evans, G., Moffat, K. & Littleboy, A. 2009, 'Minerals and sustainability - exploring cross-scale issues and responses', SSEE 2009 International Conference: Solutions for a Sustainable Planet, Society for Sustainability and Environmental Engineering International Conference, Engineers Australia, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-12.
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The ways in which Australias minerals resources are used to support sustainable futures merits serious and broad discussion. This paper reviews the issues associated with minerals and sustainability and the contemporary responses to these issues by stakeholders at the global, national and local scale. A framework for integrating minerals and sustainability - the Mineral Resources Landscape - is used to map the contemporary issues and stakeholder activities relative to each other and provides a platform for discussion of further research questions required to position the Australian minerals sector as `metals service provider in a sustainable future. This research begins part of a three year `Mineral Futures collaboration between universities and CSIRO exploring commodity futures, technology futures and mineral-rich regions in transition.
Kazaglis, A., Fagan, J. & Giurco, D. 2008, 'Identifying and assessing industrial ecology opportunities in Melbourne', Enviro 08 Australasia's Environmental & Sustainability Conference & Exhibition, Melbourne, Australia.
Giurco, D., Carrard, N.R., Wang, X., Inman, M. & Nguyen, M. 2008, 'Innovative smart metering technology and its role in end-use measurement', 3rd National Water Efficiency Conference Proceedings, 3rd National Water Efficiency Conference (Water Efficiency 2008), AWA, Surfers Paradise, Australia, p. EFF33.
Giurco, D. 2008, 'Innovative smart water metering: potential & policy', Measurement & Metering Innovation Conference, Sydney.
Kazaglis, A., Patterson, J.J., Fagan, J. & Giurco, D. 2008, 'Industrial ecology opportunities in Melbourne (poster)', Enviro 08 Conference, Melbourne, Australia.
Giurco, D., Schmidt, P. & McLellan, B.C. 2008, 'Australian Life Cycle Initiative (AusLCI) & CSRP database: Australian data', CSRPâ08 Conference, Brisbane, Australia.
Giurco, D. 2007, 'L'acqua e' vita, Associazione Napoletana', Leichardt.
White, S., Turner, A.J., Fane, S.A. & Giurco, D. 2007, 'Urban water supply-demand planning: a worked example', 4th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply: Proceedings 1, IWA Efficient 2007, IWA Specialist Group: Efficient Operation and Management, Jeju Island, Korea, pp. 419-420.
Rickwood, P., Giurco, D., Glazebrook, G.J., Kazaglis, A., Thomas, L.E., Zeibots, M.E., Boydell, S., White, S., Caprarelli, G. & McDougall, J. 2007, 'Integrating population, land-use, transport, water and energy-use models to improve the sustainability of urban systems', State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, State of Australian Cities Conference, SOAC, Adelaide, pp. 314-324.
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Giurco, D. 2007, 'Urban infrastructure & impacts', 1st workshop on the complex dynamics of urban systems: CSIRO, Sydney.
Giurco, D. 2007, 'End use measurement in Australia', Water end use symposium & Trace Wizard training, Gold Coast.
Giurco, D. 2007, 'Water - beyond desalination', RMIT Green Building and Design Course, Sydney.
Giurco, D. & Petrie, J. 2006, 'Managing material flows and impacts for copper', Material, Mineral and Metal Ecology MME06, Material, Mineral and Metal Ecology MME06, MME06, Cape Town.
White, S., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D. & Turner, A.J. 2006, 'Putting the economics in its place: decision making in an uncertain environment', Ninth Biennial Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics, New Delhi, India.
Giurco, D., Stewart, M. & Petrie, J. 2005, 'Understanding industrial ecology across scales: developing a reference schema', 11th Annual Sustainable Development Research Conference, 11th Annual Sustainable Development Research Conference, Inderscience Publishers, Helsinki.
Stewart, M., Giurco, D., Brent, G. & Petrie, J. 2002, 'LCIs for minerals processing in South Africa and Australia and their use in decision making for technology choice', Life-cycle assessment of metals: Issues and research directions, International Workshop on Life Cycle Assessment and Metals, Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemist, Montreal, Canada, pp. 96-101.
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Warnken, M. & Giurco, D. 2003, 'Use of biomass as a fossil fuel replacement in Australian cement kilns', Bioenergy Australia 2003 Conference, Sydney.
Stewart, M., Giurco, D. & Petrie, J. 2003, 'A sustainability analysis of the metals value chain: a focus on copper', Proceedings of XXII International Mineral Processing Congress, Proceedings of XXII International Mineral Processing Congress, IMPC, Cape Town, pp. 572-582.
Giurco, D., Stewart, M. & Petrie, J. 2003, 'The strategic assessment of value-chain and environment (SAVE) methodology: demonstrated for the case of copper', 2nd International Society for Industrial Ecology Conference, International Society for Industrial Ecology, Ann Arbor, USA.
Petrie, J., Stewart, M., Basson, L. & Giurco, D. 2002, 'Decision making for sustainability: a support framework for mining and minerals processing', Green Processing Conference, Green Processing Conference, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Cairns.
Giurco, D., Stewart, M. & Petrie, J. 2002, 'Recycling within the global copper industry', Joint SETAC/ISIE Symposium, Joint SETAC/ISIE Symposium, SETAC/ISIE, Barcelona.
Stewart, M., Giurco, D., Brent, G. & Petrie, J. 2002, 'Life cycle inventories for minerals processing in South Africa and Australia: uses in decision making for technology choice', International Workshop on Life-Cycle Assessment and Metals, Montreal.
Giurco, D., Stewart, M., Suljada, T. & Petrie, J. 2001, 'Copper recycling alternatives: an environmental analysis', 5th Annual Environmental Engineering Research Event, Noosa.
Stewart, M., Giurco, D. & Petrie, J. 2001, 'Decision making for sustainability: the case of minerals development in Australia', 6th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Melbourne.
Giurco, D., Stewart, M. & Petrie, J. 2001, 'Decision making to support sustainability in the copper industry: technology selection', 6th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Melbourne.

Journal articles

Liu, A., Giurco, D. & Mukheibir, P. 2016, 'Urban water conservation through customised water and end-use information', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 112, pp. 3164-3175.
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Fry, J., Lenzen, M., Giurco, D. & Pauliuk, S. 2016, 'An Australian Multi-Regional Waste Supply-Use Framework', Journal of Industrial Ecology.
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© 2015 by Yale University. The production of waste creates both direct and indirect environmental impacts. A range of strategies are available to reduce the generation of waste by industry and households, and to select waste treatment approaches that minimize environmental harm. However, evaluating these strategies requires reliable and detailed data on waste production and treatment. Unfortunately, published Australian waste data are typically highly aggregated, published by a variety of entities in different formats, and do not form a complete time-series. We demonstrate a technique for constructing a multi-regional waste supply-use (MRWSU) framework for Australia using information from numerous waste data sources. This is the first MRWSU framework to be constructed (to the authors' knowledge) and the first sub-national waste input-output framework to be constructed for Australia. We construct the framework using the Industrial Ecology Virtual Laboratory (IELab), a cloud-hosted computational platform for building Australian multi-regional input-output tables. The structure of the framework complies with the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA). We demonstrate the use of the MRWSU framework by calculating waste footprints that enumerate the full supply chain waste production for Australian consumers.
McLellan, B., Yamasue, E., Tezuka, T., Corder, G., Golev, A. & Giurco, D. 2016, 'Critical Minerals and Energy–Impacts and Limitations of Moving to Unconventional Resources', Resources, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 19-19.
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Sahin, O., Stewart, R.A., Giurco, D. & Porter, M.G. 2016, 'Renewable hydropower generation as a co-benefit of balanced urban water portfolio management and flood risk mitigation', Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.
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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd.Understanding energy-water system interactions is critical to the effective management of urban infrastructure. This paper explores the potential for hydropower as a co-benefit in a novel operating regime for Sydney's main water reservoir (Warragamba Dam). Hydropower could be generated as part of storage level management in the reservoir aimed at introducing flood retention 'airspace' (to mitigate downstream flood risk from extreme rainfall) whilst augmenting the use of installed desalination capacity to maintain secure supplies of water. A purpose-built systems dynamics model provides the mechanism for evaluating and comparing future operating scenarios over a 25 year period (i.e. until 2040). Importantly, the findings reveal the potential for desalination plants, integrated into a populous city's water supply network, to satisfy a much broader planning agenda. Specifically, the study provides evidence that Sydney's interdependent goals of deferring capital intensive flood storage works, maintaining water security, better utilising existing desalination and hydropower assets, and increasing renewable energy generation can be achieved through applying systems thinking to a complex citywide water planning problem. The work also makes a valuable contribution to the energy-water nexus literature at the under-explored city-scale.
Giurco, D., Teske, S., Fam, D.M. & Florin, N. 2016, 'Energy-mineral Nexus: Tensions between Integration and Reconfiguration', Journal for Japan Society of Energy and Resources, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 26-31.
Turner, A., Sahin, O., Giurco, D., Stewart, R. & Porter, M. 2016, 'The potential role of desalination in managing flood risks from dam overflows: the case of Sydney, Australia', JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, vol. 135, pp. 342-355.
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Golev, A., Corder, G.D. & Giurco, D. 2015, 'Barriers to Industrial Symbiosis: Insights from the Use of a Maturity Grid', Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 19, no. 1.
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The concept of industrial symbiosis (IS) over the last 20 years has become a well-recognized approach for environmental improvements at the regional level. Many technical solutions for waste and by-product material, water, and energy reuse between neighboring industries (so-called synergies) have been discovered and applied in the IS examples from all over the world. However, the potential for uptake of new synergies in the regions is often limited by a range of nontechnical barriers. These barriers include environmental regulation, lack of cooperation and trust between industries in the area, economic barriers, and lack of information sharing. Although several approaches to help identify and overcome some of the nontechnical barriers were examined, no methodology was found that systematically assessed and tracked the barriers to guide the progress of IS development. This article presents a new tool - IS maturity grid - to tackle this issue in the regional IS studies. The tool helps monitor and assess the level of regional industrial collaboration and also indicates a potential path for further improvements and development in an industrial region, depending on where that region currently lies in the grid. The application of the developed tool to the Gladstone industrial region of Queensland, Australia, is presented in the article. It showed that Gladstone is at the third (active) stage of five stages of maturity, with cooperation and trust among industries the strongest characteristic and information barriers the characteristic for greatest improvement.
Mohr, S.H., Wang, J., Ellem, G., Ward, J. & Giurco, D. 2015, 'Projection of world fossil fuels by country', Fuel, vol. 141, pp. 120-135.
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Corder, G.D., Golev, A. & Giurco, D. 2015, '"Wealth from metal waste": Translating global knowledge on industrial ecology to metals recycling in Australia', Minerals Engineering, vol. 76, no. 15 May 2015, pp. 2-9.
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Australia's rich stocks of mineral resources have been the source of national wealth and competitive advantage in the past. However, the security of this wealth is not guaranteed into the future, and what were once considered waste materials from mining, infrastructure and products are now becoming accessible and valuable as 'above-ground' mineral resources. Globally there is growing capacity and innovation in recycling, closed-loop supply chains and Australia's role as a global leader in primary production must anticipate and adapt to the implications of a rise in the importance of recycling. However, both at a global level and in Australia, there are a broad range of factors and local influences affecting the successful application and implementation of industrial ecology beyond technical re-use solutions. This paper presents the initial outcomes from a major collaborative research project (Wealth from Waste Cluster), funded by the CSIRO Flagship Collaboration Fund and partner universities, focused on identifying viable options to 'mine' metals contained in discarded urban infrastructure, manufactured products and consumer goods. This paper presents initial estimates of the mass and current worth of metals in end-of-life products. Results from this analysis have identified that the value of metals in end-of-life products is more than AUD6 billion per year, and assuming existing recovery rates, the estimated potential for recovering metals from "waste" or end-of-life products is of the order of AUD2 billion per year. In addition a metal flow analysis of the Australian economy identified that approximately half the scrap metal collected in Australia (approximately 2.5 million tonnes per year) is currently being transported overseas which potentially could be recycled in Australia if suitable technology were available.
Mohr, S., Giurco, D., Yellishetty, M., Ward, J. & Mudd, G. 2015, 'Projection of Iron Ore Production', Natural Resources Research, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 317-327.
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© 2014, International Association for Mathematical Geosciences. A comprehensive country-by-country projection of world iron ore production is presented along with alternative scenarios and a sensitivity analysis. The supply-driven modelling approach follows Mohr (Projection of world fossil fuel production with supply and demand interactions, PhD Thesis, http://www.theoildrum.com/node/6782, 2010) using an ultimately recoverable resource of 346 Gt of iron ore. Production is estimated to have a choppy plateau starting in 2017 until 2050 after which production rapidly declines. The undulating plateau is due to Chinese iron ore production peaking earlier followed by Australia and Brazil in turn. Alternative scenarios indicate that the model is sensitive to increases in Australian and Brazilian resources, and that African iron ore production can shift the peak date only if the African Ultimately Recoverable Resources (URR) is 5 times larger than the estimate used. Changes to the demand for iron ore driven by substitution or recycling are not modelled. The relatively near-term peak in iron ore supply is likely to create a global challenge to manufacturing and construction and ultimately the world economy.
Giurco, D., Herriman, J., Turner, A., Mason, L., White, S., Moore, D. & Klostermann, F. 2015, 'Integrated Resource Planning for Urban Waste Management', Resources, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 3-24.
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Liu, A., Giurco, D. & Mukheibir, P. 2015, 'Motivating metrics for household water-use feedback', Resources Conservation and Recycling, vol. 103, pp. 29-46.
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Golev, A., Corder, G. & Giurco, D. 2015, 'Wealth from waste', AusIMM Bulletin, no. 4.
Benn, S.H., Giurco, D., Brown, P.J. & Agarwal, R. 2014, 'Towards Responsible Steel: Preliminary Insights', Resources, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 275-290.
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Northey, S., Mohr, S.H., Mudd, G.M., Weng, Z. & Giurco, D. 2014, 'Modelling future copper ore grade decline based on a detailed assessment of copper resources and mining', Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 83, pp. 190-201.
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The concept of 'peak oil' has been explored and debated extensively within the literature. However there has been comparatively little research examining the concept of 'peak minerals', particularly in-depth analyses for individual metals. This paper presents scenarios for mined copper production based upon a detailed assessment of global copper resources and historic mine production. Scenarios for production from major copper deposit types and from individual countries or regions were developed using the Geologic Resources Supply-Demand Model (GeRS-DeMo). These scenarios were extended using cumulative grade-tonnage data, derived from our resource database, to produce estimates of potential rates of copper ore grade decline. The scenarios indicate that there are sufficient identified copper resources to grow mined copper production for at least the next twenty years. The future rate of ore grade decline may be less than has historically been the case, as mined grades are approaching the average resource grade and there is still significant copper endowment in high grade ore bodies. Despite increasing demand for copper as the developing world experiences economic growth, the economic and environmental impacts associated with increased production rates and declining ore grades (particularly those relating to energy consumption, water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions) will present barriers to the continued expansion of the industry. For these reasons peak mined copper production may well be realised during this century.
Giurco, D., Littleboy, A., Boyle, T.M., Fyfe, J. & White, S. 2014, 'Circular Economy: Questions for Responsible Minerals, Additive Manufacturing and Recycling of Metals', Resources, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 432-453.
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The concept of the circular economy proposes new patterns of production, consumption and use, based on circular flows of resources. Under a scenario where there is a global shift towards the circular economy, this paper discusses the advent of two parallel and yet-to-be-connected trends for Australia, namely: (i) responsible minerals supply chains and (ii) additive manufacturing, also known as 3D production systems. Acknowledging the current context for waste management, the paper explores future interlinked questions which arise in the circular economy for responsible supply chains, additive manufacturing, and metals recycling. For example, where do mined and recycled resources fit in responsible supply chains as inputs to responsible production? What is required to ensure 3D production systems are resource efficient? How could more distributed models of production, enabled by additive manufacturing, change the geographical scale at which it is economic or desirable to close the loop? Examples are given to highlight the need for an integrated research agenda to address these questions and to foster Australian opportunities in the circular economy.
Giurco, D., Prior, J.H. & Boydell, S. 2014, 'Industrial ecology and carbon property rights', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. June, no. June.
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This paper examines the potential for property rights in carbon to affect industrial ecology opportunities. Given that emissions trading schemes for greenhouse gases are becoming more widely implemented, the definition of the carbon property right can affect barriers and opportunities for industrial ecology, alongside other factors. The paper uses legislation for emissions trading in Australia and two possible scenarios for the future of energy generation in the Latrobe Valley, Australia in 2050 as an illustrative case study to identify issues for industrial ecology arising from ill-defined carbon property rights. Currently, electricity generation in the region is reliant on coal-based generators. Scenario one focuses on bio-industries and renewables with no coal usage; and scenario two focuses on electricity from coal with carbon capture and storage resulting in moderate to high coal use. If a carbon property right for soil carbon emerges before a property right for subterranean carbon, then bio-based industrial ecology opportunities could be enabled ahead of a regional symbiosis involving carbon capture and storage. A generalised framework for considering the intersection of industrial ecology and carbon property rights is presented with a focus on tensions in: contributing to sustainable development, system boundaries and finally exchange mechanisms.
Jackson, M.L., Lederwasch, A.J. & Giurco, D. 2014, 'Transitions in Theory and Practice: Managing Metals in the Circular Economy', Resources, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 516-543.
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Transitioning from current resource management practice dominated by linear economic models of consumption and production, to circular models of resource use, will require insights into the stages and processes associated with socio-technical transitions. This paper is concerned with transitions in practice. It explores two frameworks within the transitions literaturethe multi-level perspective and transition management theoryfor practical guidance to inform a deliberate transition in practice. The critical futures literature is proposed as a source of tools and methods to be used in conjunction with the transition frameworks to influence and enable transitions in practice. This enhanced practical guidance for initiating action is applied to a specific contexttransitioning the Australian metals sector towards a circular economy model. This particular transition case study is relevant because the vision of a circular economy model of resource management is gaining traction internationally, Australia is significant globally as a supplier of finite mineral resources and it will also be used in a collaborative research project on Wealth from Waste to investigate possibilities for the circular economy and metals recycling.
Giurco, D., Mclellan, B., Franks, D.M., Nansai, K. & Prior, T.D. 2014, 'Responsible mineral and energy futures: views at the nexus', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 6 July 201, no. 6 July.
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Societal prosperity is underpinned by access to the increasingly interdependent resources of minerals and energy. In an era of mineral resource constraints and radical transition in the energy sector, this paper reviews the extent to which a long-term view of production and use is adopted in both fields. A long-term view including the mineral-energy nexus is deemed to be necessary (although not sufficient) for managing future resource constraints and energy transitions. Alarmingly, it identifies that the future of minerals resources and production is generally considered 5-10 years ahead rather than several decades or more as for energy. Additionally, the sectors are generally studied independently, rather than with a focus on the nexus. With these findings as evidence of an unaddressed problem, the paper then focusses on the current forces for change in the minerals industry: namely community drivers regarding social licence to operate, new technologies and consumer and government drivers on responsible minerals. As discussions of sustainable development become displaced by the emerging discourse of `responsible minerals, what is adopted and discarded? Whilst responsible minerals considers chain-of-custody, it does not adopt a long-term view and overlooks the mineral-energy nexus. Using three illustrative cases at the nexus of (i) rare earths-renewables, (ii) coal-steel and (iii) uranium nuclear we extend the theoretical discussion on `responsible with a range of contemporary examples from the perspectives of producing (Australia) and consuming countries (Japan, Switzerland) and propose a research agenda for an expanded notion of responsible minerals which recognises the complexity of the mineral-energy nexus and connects it to progressing sustainable futures.
Golev, A., Corder, G.D. & Giurco, D.P. 2014, 'Industrial symbiosis in gladstone: A decade of progress and future development', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 421-429.
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© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Heavy industrial areas with large volume waste streams show great promise for applying the concept of industrial symbiosis. This article examines industrial symbiosis in Gladstone, one of Australia's rapidly developing heavy industrial areas. Along with the analysis of the area's progress over the last decade and detailed description of existing resource synergies, it also overviews Gladstone's future prospects, including identification of potential resource synergies based on likely future industries and their waste streams, and an estimation of the overall environment benefits from the implementation of these new synergies. Based on estimates of the future waste streams for 2020 there is likely to be a large growth of environmental impacts in the Gladstone industrial area, including a fourfold increase in solid wastes, doubling fresh water consumption and threefold increase in carbon dioxide emissions. The implementation of new synergy projects can significantly contribute to improving resource efficiency covering from 5%to 40%of the overall future emitted and disposed waste streams.
Giurco, D., Turner, Fane & White, S.B. 2014, 'Desalination for Urban Water: Changing Perceptions and Future Scenarios in Australia', Chemical Engineering Transactions, vol. 42, pp. 13-18.
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In response to prolonged drought, large desalination plants have been built in Australia's major cities over the last decade. This paper identifies those plants and focuses on the context surrounding the decision to build the plant in Sydney. Whilst a portfolio approach allowed lower cost options for secure supply to be identified – including an innovative 'desalination-readiness option' – perceived uncertainty and political decisions led the state government to build the desalination plant before the carefully considered planning triggers dictated and without revisiting the decision when the drought broke. Media analysis is used to construct a timeline of reported headlines relating to the pre- and post-construction periods including events surrounding heavy rain, overflowing dams and dialogue on desalination being unnecessary and expensive. The paper highlights a disconnect between the planning processes, stakeholder and community engagement and political decision-making. Given desalination is now an embedded feature of water supply in most major Australian cities, scenarios are used to assess the potential role of desalination in the future urban water landscape and broader economy.
Prior, T.D., Daly, J.G., Mason, L.M. & Giurco, D. 2013, 'Resourcing the future: Using foresight in resource governance', Geoforum, vol. 44, no. 2013, pp. 316-328.
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Australia is a major supplier of minerals globally, but the countrys ability to meet both projections for future demand and sustainability goals is hampered by a range of environmental and social issues associated with traditional modes of minerals production. At a time when societys expectations for the environmental and social performance of companies are becoming more stringent, mineral production in Australia has become more difficult and expensive issues that are often disguised by (and overlooked as a result of) high resource prices and an outwardly buoyant economy. Difficulty and expense are characterised not by the absence of resources, but by declining ore grades, substantially increasing mine waste, rising energy consumption, and falling multi-factor productivity. Together, social changes and production challenges are reinforcing the recognition that business as usual cannot deliver on the sustainability imperative. Technological development has been an important focus in seeking to address many of the challenges facing the Australian minerals industry, but this alone has not been adequate, and may not be the panacea of the future. Research exploring the future of minerals production and its implications for society and the economy must be accompanied by foresight into the long-term strategic challenges, future scenarios, social, economic and regional contexts where these implications will play out
Mukheibir, P., Giurco, D., Turner, A.J., Franklin, J., Teng, M.L. & McClymont, T. 2013, 'End-use demand forecasting: Contemporary insights', Water, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 76-80.
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This paper reports on the application of integrated resource planning using the integrated supply demand planning tool in regional Victoria (Geelong and Colac) and New South Wales (Lower Hunter region) . It discusses data assumptions and findings across the case studies. A key finding is that the uptake of efficient appliances has been decreasing total water use (e.g. in toilets and showers) despite population growth. However, this will be driven close to the maximum limits over the next 15 years or so, while customer behaviour patterns such as length and frequency of appliance use will be crucial for informing future demand side management strategies.
Yellishetty, M., Mudd, G.M., Giurco, D., Mason, L.M. & Mohr, S.H. 2013, 'Iron ore in Australia - too much or too hard?', The AusIMM Bulletin, vol. 3, no. June, pp. 42-47.
Prior, T.D., Wager, P.A., Stamp, A., Widmer, R. & Giurco, D. 2013, 'Sustainable governance of scarce metals: The case of lithium', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 461-462, no. 1, pp. 785-791.
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Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for societythey support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like `servicizing the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries.
Liu, A., Giurco, D., Mukheibir, P. & Graeme, W. 2013, 'Smart metering and billing: Information to guide household water consumption', Water, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 73-77.
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Until now householders have received limited information on their water consumption patterns. Smart water metering presents far more detailed information resources and the opportunity to transform the e xisting flow of information to consumers for improved efficiencies in water usage. However, a balance is needed between delivering current minimal information and the ful l detail smart metering can provide on time of use and end uses. It is critical to understand what information is of value to householders. This paper presents results from a recent householder survey at MidCoast Water {N5W}, which improves our understanding of the customer perspective on water consumption information.
Mason, L.M. & Giurco, D. 2013, 'Planning for extreme weather - Lessons from Queensland', AusIMM Bulletin, vol. Feb, no. 1, pp. 52-53.
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Giurco, D. 2013, 'Creating an innovation nation', Queensland Mining and Energy Bulletin, vol. 17, no. Winter, pp. 14-14.
Delaney, C.C., Giurco, D. & Boyle, T.M. 2013, 'Can smart meters create smart behaviour?', World Academy of Science, Engineering and Techn..., vol. 79, no. 137, pp. 714-721.
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Intelligent technologies are increasingly facilitating sustainable water management strategies in Australia. While this innovation can present clear cost benefits to utilities through immediate leak detection and deference of capital costs, the impact of this technology on households is less distinct. By offering real-time engagement and detailed end-use consumption breakdowns, there is significant potential for demand reduction as a behavioural response to increased information. Despite this potential, passive implementation without well-planned residential engagement strategies is likely to result in a lost opportunity. This paper begins this research process by exploring the effect of smart water meters through the lens of three behaviour change theories. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Belief Revision theory (BR) and Practice Theory emphasise different variables that can potentially influence and predict household water engagements. In acknowledging the strengths of each theory, the nuances and complexity of household water engagement can be recognised which can contribute to effective planning for residential smart meter engagement strategies
Willis, R., Stewart, R.A., Giurco, D., Talebpour, M.R. & Mousavinejad, A. 2013, 'End use water consumption in households: Impact of socio-demographic factors and efficient devices', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 60, pp. 107-115.
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To assess water savings in households using efficient devices and to understand how savings vary between different socio-demographic groups in the community, high resolution end use water consumption data is required (i.e. disaggregating water use for showers, toilets, clothes washers and garden irrigation etc.). This paper reports selected findings from the Gold Coast Residential End Use Study (Australia), which focussed on the relationship between a range of socio-demographic and household stock efficiency variables and water end use consumption levels. A mixed methods approach was executed using qualitative and quantitative data. The study provided evidence as to the potential savings derived from efficient appliances as well as socio-demographic clusters having higher water consumption across end uses. The payback period for some water efficient devices was also explored. The study has implications for urban water demand management planning and forecasting.
Giurco, D. & Morrison, K.C. 2013, 'Coalition to axe mining tax, but petroleum will keep on giving', The Conversation, vol. 12 Sept.
Boyle, T.M., Giurco, D., Mukheibir, P., Liu, A., Delaney, C.C., White, S. & Stewart, R.A. 2013, 'Intelligent metering for urban water: A review', Water, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1052-1081.
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This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc.) as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly pilot or demonstration scale with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation
Giurco, D., Mohr, S.H., Fyfe, J., Rickwood, P., Teng, M.L. & Franklin, J. 2013, 'Modelling bounce-back in water consumption post-drought', Water, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 79-84.
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Focused on a case study of Geelong, Victoria, this paper presents the results of a unique comparison of (i) a custombuilt regression model for forecasting total customer water demand and (ii) end-use based water projections using the integrated Supply Demand Planning model (iSDP) model. The regression model used historical data for calibration based on level of restrictions, evapotranspiration, temperature, and rainfall. By selecting a future climate scenario (and any anticipated restriction periods) for the next 10-year period, demand can be projected by the model.
Giurco, D. 2013, 'A National Minerals Strategy: Making our own luck in the Asian Century', Australasian Mining Review, vol. 8, no. 2013, pp. 16-16.
Herriman, J., Moore, D.D., Gero, A., Giurco, D., White, S., Mason, L.M. & Cordell, D.J. 2012, 'Living with waste: Australia's landfill future', Remediation Australasia, vol. 11.
Giurco, D. & Cooper, C. 2012, 'Mining and sustainability: asking the right questions', Minerals Engineering, vol. 29, no. March, pp. 3-12.
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Attempts to pursue sustainability in the minerals sector have largely focused on reducing impacts at mining and processing sites. The Mineral Resources Landscape (Cooper and Giurco, 2011), offers an expanded conceptualisation of minerals sustainability, spanning production, consumption and recycling and connecting social, ecological, technological, economic and governance domains, across local and global scales. By mapping issues and impacts, the Minerals Resources Landscape makes explicit the disconnect between externalised impacts and the potential leverage points where they can be addressed. This paper applies the Mineral Resources Landscape to map stakeholder concerns for the case of deep sea mining in Australia. It found that in exploring the future use of this technology to meet growing resource demand, the potential role of dematerialisation and recycling were overlooked. The paper concludes with reflections on the usefulness of the approach for citizens, companies and governments.
McLellan, B.C., Corder, G.D., Giurco, D. & Ishihara, K. 2012, 'Renewable energy in the minerals industry: a review of global potential', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 32, no. 2012, pp. 32-44.
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This paper examines the major minerals producing countries and the potential that local energy mix and renewable energy resources have for lowering the impact of the industry, with respect to carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, it seeks to estimate the potential for new technologies, energy efficiency and demand-side measures to reduce emissions. Of total carbon dioxide emissions, 71% arise from fossil fuels used in thermal applications and 29% from indirect electricity generation. We find the highest theoretical potential for reduction of emissions from thermal applications is from the increased use of renewable biofuels and charcoal instead of fossil fuels (up to 46% of total industry net emissions), while conversion of various applications to use renewable hydrogen may reduce emissions by 28%. Electricity generation emissions could be "substantially reduced" by switching to electricity generation from cleaner sources, with hydropower a key potential contributor (reduction of 22% of total industry emissions). Solar thermal and electrical production may only be capable of 2-7% reduction in the industry's emissions.
Mohr, S.H., Mudd, G.M. & Giurco, D. 2012, 'Lithium resources and production: Critical assessment and global projections', Minerals, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 65-84.
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This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR) of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1) and 55.0 (Case 3) Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE) was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.
Giurco, D., Prior, T.D., Mason, L.M., Mohr, S.H. & Mudd, G.M. 2012, 'Life-of-resource sustainability considerations for mining', Australian Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 47-56.
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Mining in Australia is booming. Notwithstanding, production conditions are progressively transitioning from the mining of cheaper, easily accessible and higher quality ores to lower grade, more remote, complex and expensive ores. Sustainability discussions in the minerals industry have largely sought to improve the social and environmental performance of individual operations, including planning for closure. However, the national implications of a change in the circumstances underpinning the current prosperity of mining are underexplored. This paper uses a peak minerals metaphor to map life-of-resource environmental and social considerations, pre- and post-peak production, at local and national scales. An examination of how the social and environmental impacts change, over the life of a resources extraction, is used to inform strategies for the role of technological and policy innovation in underpinning long-term national benei t from minerals in Australia.
May, D., Prior, T.D., Cordell, D.J. & Giurco, D. 2012, 'Peak minerals: theoretical foundations and practical application', Natural Resources Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 43-60.
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This article reviews the theoretical foundations for the concept of peak minerals; drawing on similarities and differences with peak oil as modelled using Hubbert style curves. Whilst several studies have applied peak modelling to selected minerals, discussion of the appropriateness of using Hubbert style curves in the minerals context remains largely unexplored. Our discussion focuses on a comparison between oil and minerals, on the key variables: rates of discovery, estimates of ultimately recoverable resources and demand and production trends. With respect to minerals, there are several obstacles which complicate the application of Hubbert style curves to the prediction of future mineral production, including the lack of accurate discovery data, the effect of uncertain reserve estimates, and varying ore quality and quantity. Another notable difference is that while oil is often combusted during use, minerals are used to make metals which are inherently recyclable. Notwithstanding, by using a range of estimates of resources and/or reserves, a period of time can be identified which indicates when a peak in minerals production may occur. This information may then be used to plan for a transition from using a potentially constrained resource, to using substitutes if available, or to reducing demand for that mineral in society.
Memary, R., Giurco, D., Mudd, G.M. & Mason, L.M. 2012, 'Life cycle assessment: a time-series analysis of copper', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 33, pp. 97-108.
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This paper presents a time-series Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach to examine the historical environmental impacts associated with copper mining and smelting in Australia from 1940 to 2008. It uses cradle-to-gate LCA models to estimate impacts from the five largest Australian copper mines, incorporating changes in ore grade and differences in technologies and regional energy sources. Using copper as an example of the different life-cycle impacts of metals, this study demonstrates the influence of both temporal and spatial factors. For mine/smelters, results show that the carbon footprint of copper produced at all sites over the time period investigated ranges from 2.5 to 8.5 kg CO 2-eq./kg Cu and the difference between different locations in any given year can be up to 6 kg CO 2-eq./kg Cu. The estimated impact potentials derived from the LCA models for Australia's largest mine/smelter at Olympic Dam are then compared to impacts reported by mine operators for global warming potential and acidification. The results of the LCA analysis indicate the importance of considering time-varying parameters and highlight an opportunity to use LCA models more broadly for assessing future technology and energy options in the mineral sector.
Mukheibir, P., Stewart, R.A., Giurco, D. & O'Halloran, K. 2012, 'Understanding non-registration in domestic water meters: Implications for meter replacement strategies', Water, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 95-100.
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Giurco, D. 2012, 'Vision 2040: A future for mining and Australia', Dialogue, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 13-18.
Giurco, D., Mohr, S.H., Mudd, G.M., Mason, L.M. & Prior, T.D. 2012, 'Resource criticality and commodity production projections', Resources, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 22-33.
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Resource criticality arising from peak production of primary ores is explored in this paper. We combine the Geologic Resource Supply-Demand Model of Mohr [1] to project future resource production for selected commodities in Australia, namely iron and coal which together represent around 50% of the value of total Australian exports as well as copper, gold and lithium. The projections (based on current estimates of ultimately recoverable reserves) indicate that peak production in Australia would occur for lithium in 2015; for gold in 2021; for copper in 2024; for iron in 2039 and for coal in 2060. The quantitative analysis is coupled with the criticality framework for peak minerals of Mason et al. [2] comprising (i) resource availability, (ii) societal resource addiction to commodity use, and (iii) alternatives such as dematerialization or substitution to assess the broader dimension s of peak minerals production for Australia.
Prior, T.D., Giurco, D., Mudd, G.M., Mason, L.M. & Behrisch, J.C. 2012, 'Resource depletion, peak minerals and the implications for sustainable resource', Global Environmental Change, vol. 22, pp. 577-587.
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Today's global society is economically, socially and culturally dependent on minerals and metals. While metals are recyclable, terrestrial mineral deposits are by definition 'non-renewable' over human timescales and their stocks are thus finite. This raises the spectre of 'peak minerals' - the time at which production from terrestrial ores can no longer rise to meet demand and where a maximum (peak) production occurs. Peak minerals prompts a focus on the way minerals can be sustainably used in the future to ensure the services they provide to global society can be maintained. As peak minerals approaches (and is passed in some cases), understanding and monitoring the dynamics of primary mineral production, recycling and dematerialisation, in the context of national and global discussions about mineral resources demand and the money earned from their sale, will become essential for informing and establishing mechanisms for sustainable mineral governance and use efficiency into the future. Taking a cross-scale approach, this paper explores the economic and productivity impacts of peak minerals, and how changes in the mineral production profile are influenced not only by technological and scarcity factors, but also by environmental and social constraints. Specifically we examine the impacts of peak minerals in Australia, a major global minerals supplier, and the consequences for the Asia-Pacific region, a major destination for Australia's minerals. This research has profound implications for local and regional/global sustainability of mineral and metal use. The focus on services is useful for encouraging discussion of transitions in how such services can be provided in a future more sustainable economy, when mineral availability is constrained. The research also begins to address the question of how we approach the development of strategies to maximise returns from mineral wealth over generations
Giurco, D. & White, S. 2012, 'National container deposit scheme crushed by Australian Senate', The Conversation, vol. 19 Sept.
Mason, L.M., Prior, T.D., Mudd, G.M. & Giurco, D. 2011, 'Availability, addiction and alternatives: three criteria for assessing the impact of peak minerals on society', Journal Of Cleaner Production, vol. 19, no. 9-10, pp. 958-966.
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The concept of `peaks' in the production of natural resources has attracted attention in the area of energy production, with concerns about `peak oil driving recent research and investment in alternative sources of energy. There are fundamental and important differences between a peak in the production of oil and peaks in the production of metalliferous minerals, but in both cases production changes from `easier and less expensive early in a resources life to `difficult and expensive as time progresses. The impacts of this change in production circumstances require critical consideration in the governance of national and subnational mineral endowments. This paper develops a framework for evaluating the impacts of changing patterns of mineral production. The framework considers three criteria: availability of a resource (considering its geological characteristics and geographical distribution); societys addiction to the resource (its centrality and criticality to economic, social and environmental systems); and the possibility of finding alternatives (whether the resource can be substituted or recovered). An initial assessment against these criteria provides an overview of how a production peak might affect the production of minerals in Australia and the impacts that this might have on the Australian economy. Assessing important resources against these three criteria will be imperative in future considerations regarding the roles minerals and metals play as service providers in our economic, social and environmental systems. Additionally, this analysis should prompt a reassessment of the value of minerals beyond economic measures. Indicators derived from these criteria will inform strategies that can address future changes in production characteristics e meeting challenges with strong governance, and realising opportunities with proactive policy.
Giurco, D., Mason, L.M., Lederwasch, A.J., Prior, T.D. & Daly, J.G. 2011, 'Vision 2040: Innovation in mining and minerals', The AusIMM Bulletin, vol. Feb 2011, no. 1, pp. 70-74.
The Vision 2040: Innovation in Mining and Minerals Workshop was held in Brisbane on the November 14-15, 2010 to develop a shared vision for the future of the mining and minerals industry in Australia. Participants were given an opportunity to engage in, and contribute to, a process exploring Australia's mining and minerals industry to deliver long-term national benefit. Professor Roos, Chairman of VTT International focused on the importance of technology-based innovation, design-based innovation and business-model based innovation. Dr Herbertson, Principal, Crucible Carbon focused on technologies that have potential to significantly reduce the negative environmental impacts of the mining industry. Darryl Pearce, General Manager, Lhere Artepe Aboriginal Corp addressed the changing situation of indigenous people in the future, and the impact of the changes on the Australian mineral sector. The participants focused on the reduction or elimination of adverse environmental impacts from mining and mineral processing.
Atherton, A.M. & Giurco, D. 2011, 'Campus sustainability: climate change, transport and paper reduction', International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 269-279.
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Purpose - This paper aims to detail the design of a campus climate change strategy, transport strategy and paper reduction strategy at the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia). Design/methodology/approach The approach to strategy development used desktop research and staff/student consultation to inform the development of objectives, targets and actions for each strategy. The strengths and weaknesses of the governance structures for strategy design and implementation are also discussed. Findings A selection of targets are given here, with further details of objectives and actions in the main text. Climate change: reduce emissions by 11 percent by 2012/2013, 30 percent by 2020. Transport: double the proportion of staff/student commuting trips by walking and cycling to 35 percent by 2011. Paper reduction: by 2011, decrease paper purchased by 20 percent and increasing recycled paper use to 30 percent. The momentum generated by the strategy development shows that it can play a significant role in creating a more sustainable university. Practical implications Practical guidance for universities and organisations undergoing organisational change for sustainability is given with a focus on: how to engage with staff and students to develop shared aspirations and reflect these in tangible objectives, targets and actions; and, how to evolve organisational structures to implement strategies and create a sustainable higher education institution. Originality/value The value of this work lies in the frank reflections on the processes used to engage stakeholders and develop the strategies as well as with the tangible targets and actions presented which will be of interest for other universities seeking to benchmark their own activities.
Lederwasch, A.J., Mason, L.M., Daly, J.G., Prior, T.D. & Giurco, D. 2011, 'A vision for mining and minerals: Applying causal layered analysis and art', Journal of Futures Studies, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 203-224.
This report provides an overview of the futures workshop, 'Vision 2040: Innovation in Mining and Minerals', which used art and causal layered analysis to develop a shared vision for Australia's minerals industry future. Vision 2040, facilitated by Prof. Sohail Inayatullah and researchers from the Institute for Sustainable Futures at the University of Technology, Sydney, forms part of the Commodity Futures stream in a broader program of research supported by the CSIRO's Minerals Down Under Flagship. The workshop provided mining stakeholders with an opportunity to explore how Australia's minerals industry can deliver longterm national benefit.
Behrisch, J.C., Ramirez Jr, M. & Giurco, D. 2011, 'Representation of ecodesign practice: International comparison of industrial design consultancies', Sustainability, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1778-1791.
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Ecodesign offers significant potential to reduce the environmental impacts of products. Whilst some integration of environmental considerations into design occurs in progressive companies when engineering the product, this only represents a small share of the possible design interventions to improve the environmental performance of products. For example, developing new product concepts to fulfill needs in a less environmentally harmful way and considering user related aspects offers a large, currently under-realized potential. This paper identifies industrial design (ID) consultancies as potential agents to tackle this issue on a strategic and operational basis. The extent to which this potential is currently applied was assessed by conducting a content analysis of websites of ID consultancies in Australia, China, and Germany. How ID consultancies represent their ecodesign practice is country-specific.
Giurco, D., Cohen, B., Langham, E. & Warnken, M. 2011, 'Backcasting energy futures using industrial ecology', Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 797-818.
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Backcasting has been widely used for developing energy futures. This paper explores the potential for using industrial ecology to guide the development of energy futures within a backcasting framework. Building on the backcasting work of Robinson [1], a seven step method is presented to embed industrial ecology principles within the development and assessment of future scenarios and transition paths toward them. The approach is applied to the case of backcasting regional energy futures in the Latrobe Valley, near Melbourne, Australia. This region has substantial brown coal deposits which are currently mined and used in coal-fired power stations to generate electricity. Bounded by a sustainability vision for the region in a carbon-constrained world, regional industrial ecologies in 2050 were backcast around three themes: bio-industries and renewables (no coal usage); electricity from coal with carbon capture and storage (low to high coal usage); and coal to products such as hydrogen, ammonia, diesel, methanol, plastics and char (demonstrating medium to high overall coal use relative to current levels). Potential environmental, technological, socio-political and economic impacts of each scenario across various life cycle stages were characterised. Results offer a platform for regional policy development to underpin deliberation on a preferred future by the community, industry and other stakeholders. Industrial ecology principles were found to be useful in backcasting for creatively articulating alternative futures featuring industrial symbiosis. However, enabling the approach to guide implementation of sustainable transition pathways requires further development and would benefit from integration within the Strategic Sustainable Development framework of Robèrt et al. [2].
Giurco, D., Boyle, T.M., White, S., Clarke, B. & Houlihan, P. 2011, 'The influence of declining perceptions of scarcity: Exploring a new paradigm of future demand management options', Water, vol. 38 (2011), no. 3 (May), pp. 68-71.
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The DM options assessed are summarised in Table 2. The analysis aimed to cover a diverse range of options and has already led to the successful establishment of an outdoor water saving program Ballarat Gardens Come Alive and Maryborough Gardens Come Alive with participation approaching 1,000 households. These programs encourage water effi ciency through monitoring rainfall to reduce over-watering, and by encouraging effi cient garden practices, including mulching.
Cooper, C. & Giurco, D. 2011, 'Mineral resources landscape: reconciling complexity, sustainability and technology', International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1-18.
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This paper explores the complexity of the resource development and sustainability problematique. The Mineral Resources Landscape presented in this paper links minerals production and consumption and connects social, ecological, technological, economic and governance domains across local, national and global scales. Using the framework to map current research shows an industry focus on 'resource availability' and developing new 'technology for processing' whilst ignoring the in use 'services and value' offered by the minerals. These overlooked areas are proposed as being integral to developing sustainable systems of Australian minerals production and consumption, across multiple scales and domains.
Mason, L.M., Mohr, S.H., Zeibots, M.E. & Giurco, D. 2011, 'Limits to cheap oil - impact on mining', The AusIMM Bulletin: Journal of the Australian institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 4, no. August 2011, pp. 40-42.
Corder, G.D., Giurco, D. & McLellan, B.C. 2011, 'Exploring the case for alternative energy technologies in the minerals industry', The AusIMM Bulletin: Journal of the Australiasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 4, no. August 2011, pp. 47-48.
Giurco, D., Bossilkov, A., Patterson, J.J. & Kazaglis, A. 2011, 'Developing industrial water reuse synergies in Port Melbourne: cost effectiveness, barriers and opportunities', Journal Of Cleaner Production, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 867-876.
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Urban water scarcity from ongoing drought and an increasing population are driving a range of water saving options to be explored in Melbourne (Australia). This paper assesses the cost effectiveness of five water treatment and industrial reuse options in the Fishermans Bend industrial area at Port Melbourne. In consultation with industrial stakeholders and the local water utility, the study design began by identifying potential water sources and sinks in the area. Treatment technologies for each option using a combination of membrane bioreactors (MBR) and in some cases reverse osmosis (RO) technologies were developed. In evaluating the potential for future implementation, the cost effectiveness ($/kiloLitre) was assessed relative to water supply augmentation and water demand management options available in Melbourne. Additionally, the opportunities and barriers for option implementation in Port Melbourne were contrasted with the Kwinana Industrial Area, Western Australia where many regional synergy projects have been undertaken. This research identifies that the future implementation of industrial ecology opportunities requires strong and ongoing stakeholder involvement as described in this paper.
Stewart, R.A., Willis, R., Giurco, D., Panuwatwanich, K. & Capati, B. 2010, 'Web-based knowledge management system: linking smart metering to the future of urban water planning', Australian Planner, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 66-74.
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The planning of cities and the planning of their water supplies are intertwined. This paper explores the potential role of smart metering for the future of water planning and management in Australian cities. Smart meters for electricity are being rolled out nationally, and while smart meters for water are not yet being implemented at such a scale, they have the capacity to deliver increasing data to planners and residents about patterns of water use. To translate these data to useful information, a Web-Based Knowledge Management System (WBKMS) is proposed that integrates smart metering, end-use water consumption data, wireless communication networks and information management systems in order to provide real-time information on how, when and where water is being consumed for the consumer and utility. Summary data from the system will also be of interest to architects, developers and planners, seeking to understand water consumption patterns across stratified urban samples. An overview of the challenges for developing the WBKMS and an associated research agenda to address current knowledge gaps concludes the paper.
Giurco, D., White, S. & Stewart, R.A. 2010, 'Smart metering and water end-use data: conservation benefits and privacy risks', Water, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 461-467.
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Smart metering technology for residential buildings is being trialed and rolled out by water utilities to assist with improved urban water management in a future affected by climate change. The technology can provide near real-time monitoring of where water is used in the home, disaggregated by end-use (shower, toilet, clothes washing, garden irrigation, etc.). This paper explores questions regarding the degree of information detail required to assist utilities in targeting demand management programs and informing customers of their usage patterns, whilst ensuring privacy concerns of residents are upheld.
Willis, R., Stewart, R.A., Panuwatwanich, K., Capati, B. & Giurco, D. 2009, 'Gold Coast Domestic Water End Use Study', Water, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 84-90.
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This paper presents the preliminary findings of the Gold Coast Watersaver End Use Project which was conducted in winter 2008, for 151 homes on the Gold Coast, Australia. Specifically, the paper includes a break down of water end use consumption data, compares this with results of previous national studies, and explores the degree of influence of household socioeconomic regions on end use. Two highly variable water end use distributions, namely shower and irrigation, were examined in detail, clustered and are discussed herein. The paper concludes with a brief description of the greater ongoing research program.
McLellan, B.C., Corder, G.D., Giurco, D. & Green, S. 2009, 'Incorporating sustainable development in the design of mineral processing operations - Review and analysis of current approaches', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 17, no. 16, pp. 1414-1425.
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This paper reviews the tools and methodologies used for incorporating sustainability considerations into the design of mineral processing operations. It was found that while there is a range of tools and methodologies that contribute to Design for Sustainability, there is no consistent, integrated approach to support the mineral industry in incorporating a greater level of sustainability into the design process. This paper identifies the required elements in such an approach and discusses the ways in which its development would progress the industry towards sustainability.
Giurco, D., Kazaglis, A. & Herriman, J. 2007, 'Our changing approach to urban water: local government', Local Government Reporter, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 66-69.
Giurco, D. & Petrie, J. 2007, 'Strategies for reducing the carbon footprint of copper: new technologies, more recycling or demand management?', Minerals Engineering, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 842-853.
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This paper develops an approach to designing preferred futures for entire metal cycles that deliver reduced carbon footprints.
Giurco, D., Stewart, M. & Petrie, J. 2006, 'Decision-making to support sustainability in the copper industry: technology selection', Chemical Technology, vol. September.

Other

Ellem, G., Giurco, D., Ward, J. & Mohr, S. 2015, 'Four ways to boost Australia's economy that can help the climate'.
Giurco, D. & Wardle, C. 2015, 'The resource revolution: Activating the transition'.
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Giurco, D. & Benn, S., 'Explainer: what is the circular economy?'.

Reports

Florin, N., Wynne, L.E. & Giurco, D. 2014, Hazardous substances in products: A report on international approaches.
Mohr, S.H., Fyfe, J. & Giurco, D. 2014, A Review of Data on Lead-Acid Batteries Entering Australia and Arising as Waste.
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Nickless, E., Bloodworth, A., Meinert, L., Giurco, D., Mohr, S. & Littleboy, A. International Union of Geological Sciences 2014, Resourcing Future Generations White Paper: Mineral Resources and Future Supply, pp. i-38, London.
White, S., Herriman, E., Giurco, D., Cordell, D., Gero, A., Mason, L., May, D., Mohr, S., Moore, D. & Asker, S. CRC CARE 2014, Landfill Futures: : National Guideline Document, no. CRC CARE Technical Report 30, Adelaide.
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This report looks at the past and present roles of landfills in Australian waste management and considers the requirements for a sustainable future. The research used a test case to apply an integrated resource planning model to waste. The results suggest that disposal to landfill may be an expensive and less preferred option compared to others, in many cases, but still have a role to play in specific contexts where the costs of other options are higher.
Mohr, S.H., Mudd, G.M., Mason, L.M., Prior, T.D. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS and Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University 2013, Coal: Production trends, sustainability issues and future prospects, pp. 1-48, Sydney.
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Mohr, S.H., Mudd, G.M., Mason, L.M. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS and the Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University 2013, Lithium: Production trends, sustainability issues and future prospects, pp. 1-59, Sydney.
Mudd, G.M., Weng, Z., Memary, R., Northey, S., Giurco, D., Mohr, S.H. & Mason, L.M. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS and the Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University 2013, Future greenhouse gas emissions from copper mining: Assessing clean energy scenarios, pp. 1-32, Sydney.
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Mason, L.M., Mikhailovich, N., Mudd, G.M., Sharpe, S.A. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS and Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University 2013, Advantage Australia: Resource Governance and Innovation for the Asian Century - Final Report, pp. 1-94, Sydney.
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Mason, L.M. & Giurco, D. National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility 2013, Climate change adaptation for Australian minerals industry professionals, pp. 1-69, Gold Coast.
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Mason, L.M., Unger, C., Lederwasch, A.J., Razian, H., Wynne, L.E. & Giurco, D. National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility 2013, Adapting to climate risks and extreme weather: a guide for mining and minerals industry professionals, Gold Coast.
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Abstract Extreme weather events in Australia over recent years have highlighted the costs for Australian mining and mineral processing operations of being under-prepared for adapting to climate risk. For example, the 2010/2011 Queensland floods closed or restricted production of about forty out of Queenslands fifty coal mines costing more than $2 billion in lost production. Whilst mining and mineral professionals have experience with risk management and managing workplace health and safety, changes to patterns of extreme weather events and future climate impacts are unpredictable. Responding to these challenges requires planning and preparation for events that many people have never experienced before. With increasing investor and public concern for the impact of such events, this guide is aimed at assisting a wide range of mining and mineral industry professionals to incorporate planning and management of extreme weather events and impacts from climate change into pre-development, development and construction, mining and processing operations and post-mining phases. The guide should be read in conjunction with the research final report which describes the research process for developing the guide and reflects on challenges and lessons for adaptation research from the project. The Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney (UTS) led the development of the guide with input from the Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, University of Queensland and a Steering Committee from the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgys Sustainability Committee and individual AusIMM members, who volunteered their time and experience. As the situation of every mining and mineral production operation is going to be different, this guide has been designed to provide general information about the nature of extreme weather events, and some specific examples of how unexpectedly severe flooding, storm, drought, high temperature and bushfire events have...
Giurco, D., Moore, D.D., Mason, L.M., Herriman, J., Boyle, T.M. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Integrated Resource Planning for Waste: Technical report, pp. 1-37, Sydney, Australia.
White, S., Herriman, J., Giurco, D., Cordell, D.J., Gero, A., Mason, L.M., May, D., Mohr, S.H. & Moore, D.D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Landfill Futures: Synthesis report, pp. 1-6, Sydney, Australia.
Memary, R., Giurco, D., Mudd, G.M., Mohr, S.H. & Weng, Z. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS and the Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University 2012, Copper case study: Australian resources, technology and future scenarios, pp. 1-48, Sydney.
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Mudd, G.M., Yellishetty, M., Mason, L.M., Mohr, S.H., Prior, T.D. & Giurco, D. Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University and the Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Iron resources and production: Technology, sustainability and future prospects, pp. 1-60, Melbourne.
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Mudd, G.M., Giurco, D., Mohr, S.H. & Mason, L.M. Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University and the Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Gold resources and production: Australia in a global context, pp. 1-60, Melbourne.
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Baumann, C., Asker, S.A., Giurco, D., Peterseim, J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Eco-industrial transition: A vision for economic and socio-ecological renewal at Swanbank, pp. 1-29, Sydney, Australia.
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Mukheibir, P. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2011, Understanding apparent water losses through non-registration of domestic meters: The relevance for non-revenue water and meter replacement policies, pp. 1-24, Sydney.
Behrisch, J.C., Ramierez, M. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2011, Ecodesign Report: results of a survey amongst Australian industrial design consultancies, Sydney, Australia.
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Mason, L.M., Lederwasch, A.J., Daly, J.G., Prior, T.D., Buckley, A., Hoath, A. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2011, Vision 2040: Mining, minerals and innovation - A vision for Australia's mineral future, pp. 1-28, Sydney.
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Mason, L.M., Lederwasch, A.J., Prior, T.D. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sutainable Futures, UTS 2011, Vision 2040: Mining, minerals and innovation. Consultation Paper May 2011, Sydney.
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Giurco, D., Prior, T.D., Mudd, G.M., Mason, L.M. & Behrisch, J.C. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS & Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University 2010, Peak Minerals in Australia: a review of changing impacts and benefits, Sydney, Australia.
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Giurco, D., Turner, A.J., Boyle, T.M. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2010, Central Highlands Water demand management - future options and strategies, pp. 1-38, Sydney, Australia.
Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D., Chong, J., Kazaglis, A. & White, S. Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) 2010, Guide to Demand Management and Integrated Resource Planning (update on original 2008 Guide), pp. 1-174, Sydney, Australia.
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This Guide lays out a way to undertake urban water planning, using a consistent framework, which creates benefits for the whole community. It was originally developed by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology Sydney for the Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) and has been updated with the support of the Australian Governments National Water Commission (NWC). The Guide is intended for both WSAA members and the broader Australian water industry
Giurco, D., Brennan, T. & Mason, L.M. Institute for Sustainable Futures, ISF 2010, Assessment of opportunities to develop a market for polypropylene textiles, Sydney.
Giurco, D. & Prior, T.D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2010, National Peak Minerals Forum: Summary and future directions, pp. 1-6, Sydney.
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Mohr, S.H., Mudd, G.M. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS and Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University 2010, Lithium resources and production: A critical global assessment, pp. 1-107, Sydney.
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Giurco, D., Evans, G., Cooper, C., Mason, L.M. & Franks, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS & Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining (Uni of Qld) 2009, Mineral futures discussion paper: Sustainability issues, challenges and opportunities., Sydney, Australia.
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Fyfe, J., Herriman, J., Blackburn, N., Asker, S.A. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2009, Designing the Duck River Waste Exchange Program, Sydney, Australia.
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Chong, J., Mason, L.M., Pillora, S.D. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures 2009, Briefing Paper - Product stewardship schemes in Asia: China and Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, pp. 1-22, Sydney, Australia.
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This document summarises the main features and outcomes of product stewardship schemes in Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and China. Information was obtained from English-language documents. An overview of the types of schemes, key drivers and lessons for Australia is presented in this summary section, followed by more detailed information tables for each country in subsequent sections.
Giurco, D., Carrard, N.R., McFallan, S., Nalbantoglu, M., Inman, M., Thornton, N.L. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2008, Residential end-use measurement guidebook: a guide to study design, sampling and technology, Sydney, Australia.
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Chong, J., Kazaglis, A. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney 2008, Cost-effectiveness analysis of WELS: the Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards scheme, pp. 1-91, Sydney, Australia.
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The Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards Scheme (WELS), introduced in July 2006, is a key program in the suite of options recently implemented by government agencies and water utilities to address water scarcity. WELS primarily influences water consumption by providing consumers with information about the water efficiency of all washing machines, dishwashers, toilets, urinals, taps and showers sold in Australia â thus enabling consumers to consider water efficiency as a factor in their purchase decisions. However, the WELS program is not without costs. Governments, suppliers, retailers and consumers of WELS-products potentially incur costs due to WELS activities and requirements. The Department of the Environment, Heritage, Water and the Arts, in its capacity as the WELS Regulator, commissioned the Institute of Sustainable Futures to analyse the cost-effectiveness of WELS in contributing to the overarching objective of water security, compared to other urban water management options. Consistent with the regulatory impact statement conducted in 2003, this analysis uses a time horizon of 2005-06 to 2020-21.
Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D., Kazaglis, A. & White, S. Water Services Association of Australia 2008, Guide to Demand Management, pp. 1-176, Sydney, Australia.
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Giurco, D., Turner, A.J. & Kazaglis, A. Institute for Sustainable Futures 2007, Barwon water strategy, pp. 1-73, Sydney.
Barwon Water seeks a more detailed understanding of its current water demand and the range of options, which can augment supply or conserve water across sectors (residential, commercial industrial and non-revenue water). This will inform its long term planning to 2055 via the Barwon Water Supply and Demand Strategy (WSDS) and the Victorian Government's Central Region Sustainable Water Strategy (CRSWS) which is administered by the Department of Sustainability and the Environment. This report develops sector-based forecasts of water demand for the Greater Geelong supply region. These forecasts indicate that in the absence of water conservation initiatives and new supply options, demand will exceed available supply in 2013. A range of water conservation and alternative supply options developed herein can ensure supply demand balance is met to 2055 and ensure specific water conservation targets in 2015 and 2020 are met. Options are ranked based on the total resource cost of the option (including costs to the utility, customer and government) and expressed as a levelised unit cost (namely dollars per kL of water that is saved or supplied by the option). The table below shows the costs and water saved by the least cost options needed to meet the 2015 target (6,971 MLa) and 2020 target (9,825 MLa) for water conservation which are based respectively on 25 percent and 30percent reductions against a mid 1990s baseline of 464 Lhd. Savings in 2030 are included for comparison as are cost-competitive supply options of Dewing Creek and Barwon Downs Stage 3 and Shell recycling which is committed.
Giurco, D., Langham, E. & Chong, J. Barwon Water 2007, Long-term water savings following restrictions: An analysis of the Greater Geelong supply region, Sydney.
Kazaglis, A., Giurco, D., Van Beers, D., Bossilkov, A., Reuter, M., Fagan, J., Grant, T. & Moore, T. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2007, Industrial ecology opportunities in Melbourne: literature review, Sydney, Australia.
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Riedy, C., White, S., Giurco, D. & Snelling, C.M. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2007, Sydney Water Corporation end use model review: Stage 3 report (research plan), Sydney.
White, S., Campbell, D., Giurco, D., Snelling, C.M., Kazaglis, A. & Fane, S.A. Metropolitan Water 2006, Review of the Metropolitan Water Plan: Final Report, pp. 1-94, Sydney, Australia.
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This report was commissioned by the NSW Cabinet Office to review the Metropolitan Water Plan 2004 (DIPNR, 2004a), and was undertaken by the Institute for Sustainable Futures at the University of Technology, Sydney and ACIL Tasman with technical advice from SMEC Australia. In February 2006, our interim review report (ISF, 2006) showed how the supply-demand balance in 2015 could be met with rain-fed supply and a suite of demand management initiatives, and how Sydneys water needs could be secured against the risk of severe drought by having the capacity to deploy groundwater and desalination.
Turner, A.J., Giurco, D. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures UTS 2006, Demand management implementation planning study, pp. 1-61, Sydney.
Central Highlands Water is required to reduce its water usage by 820 ML/a by 2015 in line with the targets for the Central Region Sustainable Water Strategy. This report reviews demand trends from the residential, commercial and concessional sectors along with non-revenue water usage to gain a historical understanding of water usage patterns. This covers both restricted and unrestricted periods. Together with population projections, this historical analysis provides a basis for initial projections of future demand on a sector basis. Additional detail has been included in the residential sector to understand demand for both single residential dwellings and flats/units as a separate category as their outdoor water usage is significantly less than for single residential dwellings. Options for reducing demand in the residential, commercial and concessional sectors were then developed and modelled, including the water savings, timing total resource costs (the total costs borne by CHW, Customers and Government) as well as who pays the costs for each option. Levelised unit cost (present value $/ present value kL of water saved or supplied) were used to rank the costs of options. It shows the total cost of the options to meet the targets and the breakdown by stakeholders and water saved by implementation year. An implementation plan, drawing on ISF experience in assisting other utilities to roll-out demand management programs was developed to outline the practical issues associated with staffing requirements, management strategies for each option, plus monitoring and evaluation strategies to ensure options are meeting savings targets. It is proposed that additional staff resources be dedicated to coordinating the implementation of the options. Option-specific implementation issues are detailed in the report.
Mitchell, C.A. & Giurco, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures 2006, Sustainable Water Management, pp. 1-31, Sydney.
Total water cycle management represents a significant shift away from our conventional centralised and disaggregated approach. Our first well-intended forays as an industry into this new realm, characterised as transitional, have tended to increase costs, and deliver mixed outcomes for environment and society. In some instances, overall environmental outcomes have improved. In others, we have traded off better outcomes in one sector for greater impacts in another. Similarly in the societal realm, in some instances we have continued to decrease the public health risks, but in others, for example some water recycling scenarios, where action is ahead of understanding and/or regulation, public health risks have been increased. The emerging approach to total water cycle management has the potential to tunnel through these barriers, and deliver improved environmental and societal outcomes at lower total cost. There are three principles that characterise the emerging era: ⢠Reduce water demand ⢠Match source with use ⢠Minimise impacts This report provides some details about why these principles are key to a sustainable future, what they are, and how they manifest in an emerging approach to water, sewage, and stormwater management. In particular, this report focuses on the emerging understanding in urban stormwater management. A revolution is underway in this field. Very recent research and field trials have demonstrated that it is not the load of pollutants to receiving water that matters, but rather the frequency of overland flow events that is the primary determinant of the ecological health of urban streams. So, the emerging stormwater management objective is to retain all small-moderate storms. This shift necessitates a fundamental shift in the nature of the interventions provided by stormwater management.
Giurco, D. Copper Development Centre 2004, Desktop study report: Building construction technology roadmap: Appendix B, pp. 1-6, Sydney, Australia.
Selected Peer-Assessed Projects