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Associate Professor Chris Burton


Christine has worked in cultural planning, public arts project management and arts consultancy for the past 12 years. She has developed business plans for performing arts and visual arts organisations, undertaken feasibility studies for arts capital development projects, undertaken cultural audits and strategic planning, evaluated and researched the impact of arts education, participation in the arts, public arts projects and for regional and local governments in Australia and Great Britain. She is currently resesearching motivations for visitation to cultural attractions and social, economic and cultural impact of museums

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Associate Dean (Education), The Dean's Unit
Associate Professor, Management Discipline Group
Core Member, CCS - Cosmopolitan Civil Societies
BA (Syd), GradDipLib (UNSW), GradDipGalMgt (UNSW), MA Art Admin (UNSW), Doctor of Philosophy
+61 2 9514 3646

Research Interests

museum management and audience development for the arts

Can supervise: Yes
Hazel Maxwell, PhD candidaye – panel supervisor
Peter Bryant, MA candidate – primary supervisor
Alexamder Grigori, MA candidate University of South Australia – supervisor.

cultural policy development; arts organisations and management; cultural planning, arts and cultural research


Veal, A.J. & Burton, C. 2015, Research Methods for Arts and Event Management.
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This book provides students and practising managers with the following: * Essential skills in designing their own qualitative and quantitative research studies that can be implemented in a real working environment * Guidance in ...


Ulrich, D., Burton, C.T., Chasteen, L., Watson, E., Scanlon, D., ross, L., Dow, D., Douglas, A., Warfield, T. & Vaidya, K. 2015, 'MBA for the Curious: Why Study an MBA? (The Truth about the MBA Programs, Scholarships and Career Success)' in MBA for the Curious: Why Study an MBA? (The Truth about the MBA Programs, Scholarships and Career Success), The Curious Academic Publishing; First edition (March 20, 2015), Amazon Digital Services, Inc..
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Burton, C. 2006, 'Museums' in Bartlett, R., Grafton, C. & Rolf, C. (eds), Encyclopedia of international sport studies, Routledge, London, UK.
McDonnell, I.G. & Burton, C. 2005, 'The marketing of Australian cultural tourist attractions: a case study from Sydney' in Sigala, M. & Leslie, D. (eds), International Cultural Tourism: management, implications and cases, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, pp. 16-25.
Burton, C. 2000, 'As time goes by: changes in time usage, perceived stress and leisure choices' in Burton, R., Lynch, C., Scott, W., Wilson, P. & Smith, P. (eds), Leisure and Change: implications for museums in the 21st century, Powerhouse Publishing, Sydney, Australia, pp. 21-35.


McDonnell, I.G. & Burton, C. 2008, 'International cultural tourism in Australia: A market analysis', Cultural and Event Tourism: Issues & Debates, International Tourism Conference, Akdeniz University, Alanya, Turkey, pp. 778-792.
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Burke, P.F., Burton, C., Wise, C., Louviere, J.J. & Huybers, T. 2007, 'Museum Visitors Care about Everything! Using Best-Worst Scaling for Strategic Focus', Proceedings of the 2007 ANZMAC Conference 3Rs: Reputation, Responsibility and Relevance, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Otago University, Dunedin, New Zealand, pp. 459-467.
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Museums face similar challenges to those encountered by managers of fast-moving consumer goods. For instance, both must determine what things (factors) attract consumers (visitors) to their products (museums). Several methodologies have been applied in this area to find out what matters to visitors. In general, these methods produce lengthy lists and do not discriminate between items in terms of relative positioning. In this paper, we explore the use of best-worst scaling (BWS) to reduce and to quantify factors in their order of impact or importance. BWS is simple to use, producing results that are easy to communicate to nontechnical audiences, fostering links between research and actionable implications. We use an example with museum visitors to provide insights into the applicability of this technique to the arts sector, its limitations and areas for further research.
Burton, C. & Griffin, J.M. 2006, 'Investigating social impacts of small museums in local settings: implications for policy making', ICCPR 2006: Fourth International Conference on Cultural Policy Research, International Conference on Cultural Policy Research, EDUCULT, Vienna, Austria, pp. 1-18.
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Burton, C., Louviere, J.J. & Young, L.C. 2004, 'Choosing museums: the application of discrete choice modelling in predicting increased visitor frequency.', Proceedings of the British Academy of Management Conference 2004, British Academy of Management Conference, British Academy of Management, St. Andrew, UK, pp. 1-16.
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Burton, C. 2004, 'Measuring the social impact of museums in their local communities.', British Academy of Management, Management Futures, British Academy of Management, St Andrews, UK.
Burton, C. 2004, 'Measuring social impact of museums in their local communities.', Fourth pillar of sustainability conference, Fourth Pillar of Sustainability, Cultural network Victoria, Melbourne, Australia.
Burton, C. 2003, 'Theoretical considerations for creating competitive advantage for museums', 7th International Conference on Arts and Cultural Management, AIMAC, Universitz Bocconi Milan, Italy, pp. 1-23.
Burton, C. 2003, 'Choosing museums: choice modelling as a tool for predicting visitor frequency', 6th ANZALS Biennial Conference: Leisure, Change and Diversity, --, Sydney.
Burton, C. 2002, 'Scoping the challenge - arts management in times of uncertainty', The New Wave: Entrepreneurship and the Arts, The New Wave: Entrepreneurship and the Arts, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-13.
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Journal articles

Maxwell, H., Foley, C., Taylor, T. & Burton, C. 2015, 'The development of female Muslim life-savers', SPORT MANAGEMENT REVIEW, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 139-151.
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Maxwell, H., Foley, C.T., Taylor, T.L. & Burton, C. 2013, 'Social Inclusion in Community Sport: A Case Study of Muslim Women in Australia', Journal of Sport Management, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 467-481.
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This paper considers how organizational practices facilitate and inhibit the social inclusion of Muslim women in a community sport setting. A case study of social inclusion practices in an Australian community sport organization (CSO) was built through interviews, focus groups, secondary data, and documentary evidence. Drawing on the work of Bailey (2005, 2008) the analysis employed a social inclusion framework comprised of spatial, functional, relational, and power dimensions. Findings indicated that there are a range of practices which facilitate social inclusion. Paradoxically, some of the practices that contributed to social inclusion at the club for Muslim women resulted in social exclusion for non-Muslim women. Examining each practice from multiple perspectives provided by the social inclusion framework allowed a thorough analysis to be made of the significance of each practice to the social inclusion of Muslim women at the club. Implications for social inclusion research and sport management practice are discussed
Burke, P.F., Burton, C., Huybers, T., Islam, T., Louviere, J.J. & Wise, C. 2010, 'The scale-adjusted latent class model: Application to museum visitation', Tourism Analysis, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147-165.
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Preferences of tourists and visitors are varied in a number of markets, making it difficult for managers to understand how underlying segments might respond to changes in service offerings. Market segments differ in preferences for specific features, as well as how consistently they make their choices. In this article, we illustrate recent developments in choice modeling that allows for simultaneously modeling feature preferences and consistency of choice. We use the Scale-Adjusted Latent Class Model (SALCM) to better understand choices in the context of a research project conducted in collaboration with six major Australian museums involving a sample of 3,685 museum visitors. We identify three preference classes of museum-goers that explain preferences for levels of26 museum attributes: Life Force (two thirds of visitors), Educated Thinkers, and Wealthy At-Homes. Our results indicate sensitivity to general entry prices, including preference for free entry or entry "by donation." Tours are preferred if smaller, lengthier, and conducted by paid museum staff. Not unexpectedly, the findings suggest that museums should cater for children, with some classes responding positively to providing supervised child areas. Most visitors prefer museums that are dynamic, offer new experiences, and regularly update permanent displays. However, the three classes identified have different overall experience preferences; for example, Educated Thinkers see museums as an educational opportunity, but Wealthy At-Homes prefer entertaining experiences. Incentives for return visits and cross-museum promotional offers are valued by the Life Force class, but have little effect on Educated Thinkers. The SALCM approach may be attractive to other areas of tourism analysis, especially where offerings contain many attributes and potential market segments are difficult to define and understand.
Burton, C., Louviere, J.J. & Young, L.C. 2009, 'Retaining the visitor, enhancing the experience: identifying attributes of choice in repeat museum visitation', International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 21-34.
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How people make choices in relation to cultural and leisure consumption has been explored from the viewpoint of motivation, lifestyle segmentation, and lifecycle. Little is known about the specific characteristics associated with choices to visit, re-visit, or not to visit a museum. Understanding characteristics of choice, developing incentives, bundled packages, and levels of pricing is an essential element in marketing strategies for museums operating in a competitive leisure marketplace. However, determining what really matters to cultural consumers is complex and methodologies to assist in unraveling such complexities are not easily identified. This study aimed to address ways in which people respond to specific incentives as influences in choosing museum visitation. The study was conducted in two major museums in Australia to determine how useful choice modeling is in identifying features that matter to cultural consumers. The results suggest that choice modeling has much to offer in relation to understanding the benefits people are seeking from a museum experience as well as offering strategic insight into potential collaborative ventures and re-combinations of existing museum products and services.
Burton, C. 2009, 'Creativity and the creative industries: some observations on tensions around building creative industries in Australia and New Zealand', Asia pacific Journal of Arts and Cultural Management, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 418-425.
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Suzette Major and others have identified a Bakhtian dialectic tension between culture and industry. Such a dialogue has been a trademark of culture and the arts, particularly in areas where commerce and culture seem to 'clash' or where policy in relation to government subsidy has subsided requiring more entrepreneurship of the arts. In Australia this tension has been particularly evident in the ongoing debate around the dichotomy of either cultivating a film industry or a film culture - as if you could only have one or the other, but is not restricted to this sector (Dermody and Jacka 1987; O'Regan 1996).
Burton, C. & Griffin, J.M. 2008, 'More than a museum? Understanding how small museums contribute to social capital in regional communities', Asia Pacific Journal of Arts and Cultural Management, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 314-332.
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The purpose of this research is to understand how small museums contribute to social capital in their community. The research uses three distinct case studies to distinguish differences and similarities. The article first discusses aspects of social impact and the arts. It then identifies a suitable social capital conceptual framework to underpin the empirical research reported in this article. The methodology is explained followed by analysis and discussion of the three case studies. Each case is examined using qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The qualitative component is used to understand key stakeholder perceptions of the museum. The quantitative component is used to understand how residents place value on their local museum. The research shows that the different nature of the locations results in variable museum impacts. However, bonding networks were more strongly evidenced than bridging networks in all three cases. It also suggests that residents place more trust in museums when the location is more demographically homogenous. Research using network analysis may further illustrate how museums may contribute to social capital in their localities.
Burton, C. 2007, 'How a museum dies: The case of new entry failure of a Sydney museum', Museum Management and Curatorship, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 109-129.
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This article reports on a case study of a failed new entrant Sydney museum that entered the museum market in 1991 and exited in 1997. In tracking the trajectory of the new entrant museum, and the relationship between managers and stakeholders, factors can be isolated that enhance or erode value creation, capture and exchange. The study suggests that the framework of value creation, capture and exchange can be established as a template for assessing stakeholder relationships in the case of new entry. This particular case also highlights the conflicts and complexities inherent in repositioning government dependent, public good institutions to more market driven enterprises.
Burton, C. & Scott, C. 2003, 'Museums: challenges for the 21st century', International Journal of Arts Management, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 56-68.
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Burton, C. 2003, 'Scoping the challenge: entrepreneurial arts management in times of uncertainty', The Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 185-195.
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The arts have always operated in an environment of uncertainty. The nature of that uncertainty in our present era revolves around more than the extent of artistic risk and audience attraction. My purpose in this article is to survey the challenges facing entrepreneurial arts managers in Australia. This will involve isolating and analyzing the uncertainties in recent Australian-government policy developments, the competitive nature of contemporary leisure consumption in a free-time marketplace, and the unsettling pattern of business restructuring and its implications for sponsorship
Burton, C. 2002, 'Choosing museums', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 1, pp. 6-7.

Non traditional outputs

Burton, C. 2003, 'Member, editorial board: "Asia-Pacific Journal of Arts and Cultural Management"'.