Pollack, J.B. & Algeo, C. 2015, 'The Contribution of Project Management and Change Management to Project Success', The Business & Management Review, The Academy of Business & Retail Management, pp. 22-30.
Project Management and Change Management are two management disciplines that contribute to the delivery of organizational changes. However, there is a lack of clarity about how these disciplines should work together, and evidence that there is some rivalry about which discipline should be managing organizational change projects. This research has analysed the responses of project managers and change managers to an online survey regarding each disciplines influence over factors that have been identified as critical to project success.
The results have been used to determine factors that were more typically influenced by each discipline. Significant differences of opinion about how these disciplines perceived the others contribution were also identified from the results, suggesting possible sources of conflict between the disciplines. These results were used to create a framework to determine project manager and change manager responsibility for aspects of the delivery of a project, based on where significant project risks are anticipated.
Algeo, C.T. 2014, 'Developing Professional Project Managers: The use of practice-oriented learning', INTED2014 Proceedings, IATED Academy, Valencia, Spain, pp. 4403-4411.
This paper will explore two post graduate subjects `Project Management Principles' and `Project Management Practicum'; identify uniquely aggregated material by combining theory with practice using `real-life projects involved with established clients from industry; and explain reflective, culturally diverse, team-oriented and collaborative learning environments. Subject-specific assessments are embedded to achieve Course Intended Learning Outcomes aligned to the required university Graduate Attributes. The Graduate Attributes that students develop in these subjects include: critical thinking and research skills; creativity and innovation; communications and interpersonal skills; attitudes and values, and practical and professional skills. The following criteria will be examined within these two project management subjects that students undertake as part of a Graduate Certificate or Masters of Project Management: 1.Approaches to teaching and learning and/or to teaching and learning support that influence, motivate and inspire students to learn 2.Development of curricula and resources that reflect a command of the field 3.Scholarly activities and service innovations that have influenced and enhanced learning and teaching. The paper will demonstrate how the two courses integrate and extend students' knowledge and skills, and also the student experience in managing dynamic intercultural relations.
Pollack, J.B. & Algeo, C.T. 2014, 'The Contribution of Project and Change Managers to Different Project Activities', PMI Research and Education Conference, Project Management Institute, Newtown Square, PA.
The project management and change management disciplines both contribute to the delivery of organizational change projects. However, evidence in the literature suggests conflict between these disciplines arising from a lack of consensus about how these disciplines should work together, which discipline should have overall ownership of the management of organizational change, and how specific activities should be divided between the disciplines.
This research has enquired into practitioners views of the contribution that project managers and change managers should make to specific project activities using an online survey. Practitioners responses were analyzed using a process of comparative ranking. From this process, an understanding was developed of how respondents perceived the involvement of project managers and change managers in the delivery of organizational change.
The analysis identified activities that clearly distinguished project management from change management. Activities were also identified that respondents commonly regarded as within the domain of both disciplines, suggesting activities that project and change managers would potentially need to jointly own. Areas of significant disagreement were also identified where there was a difference of opinion between the project and change managers who responded to the survey. Such areas are likely to be the sources of disciplinary conflict in the workplace, and this suggests areas where practitioners should take additional care in managing any disciplinary integration between project management and change management. This research will be of value to practitioners from either disciplinary background, providing assistance in identifying likely sources of conflict, and in developing an understanding of how both sides of this divide perceive the other.
Algeo, C.T. 2014, 'Using Reflection and Storytelling to Inform Evidence-Based Decisions: An action research study of Australian project managers.', Learning Across Boundaries: Exploring the variety of systemic theory and practice, International Society for the Systems Sciences, Hull, UK, pp. 1-185.
The purpose of this paper is to examine decision-making in project management, and the considerations which project managers need to take into account in order to make informed evidence-based decisions. The specific aim of this paper is to present an understanding of how project managers use experiences, recalled through reflection and facilitated by storytelling, to make decisions.
The paper provides an insight into how project managers may utilize decision-making approaches to accommodate a balance between factual observation, other evidence, a project managers recollection and reconstruction of facts, and facts imbedded within experiences. The drive to embed formal, structured approaches to decision-making is discussed against a background of unstructured and informal interpretation of experiences.
The research conducted by the author used an action research methodology to gather and analyze data through four interventions conducted with experienced project managers in Australia. The examination reveals that through reflecting on experiences relating to past projects, project managers make considered decisions. This approach to decision-making may be seen as paradoxical and interpreted as biased. Perhaps this is a valuable bias which may provide an opportunity to extend the premise of an evidence-based management approach where the aim is to reduce bias.
Algeo, C.T. 2014, 'Project Governance and Applied Reflection in Evolving Environments', International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, IATED Academy, Spain, pp. 1-7.
Rapidly changing global and local environments require appropriate governance structures to deliver project outcomes. The aim of this paper is to provide a reflective framework for project managers to proactively govern projects and will present a review of the literature on managing projects and the impact of reflection to improve control. A post graduate subject developed to teach project performance improvement through reflection will be reviewed. Research into how project managers in Australia use reflection to acquire and exchange knowledge will be presented. It will be argued that knowledge exchange is integral in understanding how to manage projects and that a reflective approach will provide a workable discipline in a rapidly evolving project environment.
Examining the global growth of project output reflects an increase in the demands that will be placed on project managers. This upward trajectory will impact the Australian project environment where the demand for skilled project managers will be greater than the predicted resource pool. The potential gap in available skills is complicated by several underlying factors based on the unique geography of Australia, where the location of the population differs from current and anticipated project work and project sector focus.
In this period of rapid growth, project managers need to understand corporate strategic direction, applied to the project and program context, using approaches that facilitate flexible practices. Increasing flexibility is enhanced through applying reflective theory-in-practice to meet the growing demands in complex and changing environments. Developing project managers from trained technicians into reflective practitioners using reflection-in-action has been used in a post graduate project management subject, and the authors research into observed reflective practices of project managers. This shift in consciousness creates an environment where project managers would more rapidly b...
Pollack, J.B. & Algeo, C.T. 2013, 'Who reports to whom? Perspectives on the reporting relationship between Project and Change Managers', EURAM 2013: Democratising Management, European Academy of Management, Istanbul, pp. 1-19.
Project Management and Change Management are two related disciplines that contribute to the delivery of organisational change. These disciplines are based on distinct and separate bodies of knowledge, with resultant differences in their perspectives on how organisational change should be managed and who should be accountable for its delivery. The academic literature suggests that there is conflict between these disciplines, with respect to who should be managing organisational change. However, there is little in the literature that provides clear direction on what the reporting relationship between these roles should be. This research enquires into practitioners perspectives on different reporting structures to understand the kinds of relationships that are perceived to work in practice.
Algeo, C.T. 2013, 'The Researcher-Participant Relationship in Action Research: A Case Study Involving Australian Project Managers', ICERI2013 Proceedings, International Association of Technology, Education and Development (IATED), Seville, Spain, pp. 6042-6049.
The leading question which will be explored in this paper is how does an action researcher determine what is required from their informants to meet the research brief, and once identified and engaged, how to develop appropriate relationships to ensure the quality of the research outcomes. This question will be explored through examining a recent action research project which was aimed at identifying how project managers in Australia share knowledge while managing projects. The way in which knowledge is acquired and exchanged when managing projects was undertaken using a four-staged action research cycle that involved regular interventions in the project manager's workplace. The interventions involved the researcher conducting one-on-one convergent interviews followed by individual observation days. During these interventions the role of the research informant evolved from being an informant to taking on the role of a research partner. This evolution is evident as the research informants were invited to participate in a final intervention. This intervention was framed as a Focus Group meeting where a review was undertaken into how a tool developed by the researcher to facilitate knowledge exchange was implemented by the research partners. Throughout the action research cycles the research informant was required to complete a reflective journal to capture lessons that were learnt during the research. One of the outcomes of this paper will be an increased awareness of the relationship between a researcher and their informants, and how this role may evolve as demonstrated through an action research project.
Algeo, C.T. 2013, 'Designing Research to Understand Knowledge', IRNOP 2013: Innovative Aproaches in Project Management Research 11th edition, BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway, pp. 1-14.
This paper will present an action research study that investigated how project managers in Australia acquired and exchanged knowledge. Literature covering knowledge acquisition, knowledge exchange, the knowledge environment, and knowledge drivers, laid the foundations for the research, which included interviews and in situ observations. The collection of data occurred through four sequential `interventions with six project managers during three action research cycles. The cycles examined the existing situation; the implementation of a change, and the evaluation of implementing that change. In addition, three `spin off cycles were utilised to validate the research approach with an external reference group. The data indicated that the project managers acquired their knowledge through practical experiences which were integrated with their formal training in an informal way. The exchange of knowledge appeared to be predominantly impersonal and formal, and the project managers valued tasks more so than relationships when managing projects.
Algeo, C.T. 2012, 'Learning In a Social Context to Develop Reflective Practitioners', EDULEARN12 Conference Proceedings, International Association of Technology, Education and Development (IATED), Burjassot (Valencia), Spain, pp. 5782-5791.
Organisations that use project managers to deliver strategy rely on their skills learnt through formalised education, exposure to professional organisations and on-the-job experiences. To deliver the required outcomes, the project manager draws on this knowledge to manage the project through various stages to completion. Taking time to embed knowledge learnt from delivering a project is often overlooked in the race to complete the project. An example of a social learning situation will be explored to provide a framework for project managers to become proficient performers through reflection-in-action. The learning situation is based on a post graduate project management subject at an Australian university where students are exposed to multi-faceted social contexts. The aim of this approach is for the students to develop problem solving skills that can be transferred to the workplace through reflective self-directed learning. Underpinning this example is a UK research study undertaken in 2006, referred to as the Re-thinking Project Management study. This study identified the concerns of project management practitioners and how they need to develop from trained to reflective practitioners. To develop into reflective practitioners the impact of the social learning environment will be investigated using an actual educational setting and a review of the supporting literature. A description of the essentials of reflective practice will be explored through the work of Schn and earlier by Dewey. These essentials include a common language, systems to manage problems, sense-making theories and roles that describe tasks.
Algeo, C.T. 2012, 'Embedding Project Knowledge through Reflective Practice', Project Management Institute Research and Education Conference Proceedings, Project Management Institute, Inc., Newtown Square, PA, USA, pp. 1-6.
The role of a lecturer in embedding project management knowledge is to appropriately apply the pedagogical process. Two issues need to be addressed in this process: the nature of the knowledge that underpins project management as an academic subject, and the appropriate curriculum design. Project managers collaborate in a social context and can further embed their knowledge with individual reflection. The exploration of how individuals behave under certain circumstances can illuminate future pathways not previously considered. This collaborative opportunity process is often ignored in practice in the quest to deliver outcomes in the changing and busy project environment. A pivotal research study into the practice of project management found project managers need to develop from trained to reflective practitioners an evolution that can be enhanced and accelerated. The objective of a new subject in an Australian project management master's degree aims to create a framework to develop reflective project managers.
Antoniades, H. & Algeo, C.T. 2012, 'A Comparative Analysis of Continuing Professional Development for Professionals within the Built Environment', EDULEARN12 Conference Proceedings, International Association of Technology, Education and Development (IATED), Burjassot (Valencia), Spain, pp. 1-10.
Life-long learning is critical to the development and commitment of all professions. This ensures the maintenance and proficiency of the professional to competently carry out their duties and maintain consumer protection and accountability. Foundation courses in education provide knowledge and skills which rapidly date and the introduction of continuing professional development (CPD) provides a gap between formal education and practice through professional socialisation. The introduction of CPD also raises questions with regards to the relevant and important topics, content and delivery of the educational syllabus. The built environment profession encompasses construction, project management, property agency, valuation, engineers and architects. Within Australia, each state and territory has a range of regulatory bodies and professional associations to monitor and enforce compliance and licensing relating to educational requirements for CPD. This research paper examines and evaluates if the aims and purpose of compulsory CPD have been met for the professional within the built environment. Three professions, construction, project management, and property agency are selected for the purpose of this comparative analysis. The research identifies various issues between the regulatory bodies, professional associations and the professional with regards to CPD and discusses the intrinsic differences between these professions. Statistical and descriptive data relating to CPD is also provided which supports the argument presented in this paper that the purpose and objectives of the compulsory CPD have not been achieved entirely. The paper concludes with recommendations to the current system for the selected professions within the built environment.
Algeo, C.T. 2012, 'Action Research in Project Management: An Examination of Australian Project Managers.', ICERI 2012 Proceedings, International Association of Technology, Education and Development (IATED), Madrid, Spain, pp. 5857-5867.
This paper will present a methodology used to investigate how project managers in Australia exchange knowledge while managing projects. The personal drivers, the workplace environment, and tools and techniques used to facilitate this knowledge exchange process were explored based on a literature review and through action research. An action research methodology was selected to study project managers in a social setting. Action research is defined as an 'emergent methodology [where] method and data and interpretation and action develop simultaneously, and from cycle to cycle'. The research sample included multiple project managers with a minimum of ten years project management experience who were employed full time as project managers in Australia. The project managers worked on projects across a variety of industries and held either a formal qualification or a recognised professional certificate in project management. The sample size was based on work undertaken by Kotter in the late 1990s when observing how managers and leaders worked. The research method included convergent interviews, in situ observations and collaboration with the project managers to reflect on how they exchanged knowledge. This form of data collection included three 'interventions' where meetings with the project managers occurred and the consequences were reflected upon before a re-planning process took place. The interventions were designed to understand the personal and workplace context in which the project managers exchanged knowledge and the tools and techniques used in this process. To ensure validity and a level of rigour in the research method, quality strategies were adopted which included the formation of an external reference group. This group included representatives from project management industry associations, academia and practitioners that were either experienced in project management or the academic rigour required for research. Through using action research to underst...
Algeo, C.T. 2011, 'Do You See What I See: A Project Mananger's Knowledge Nightmare', 8th Annual Project Management Australia Conference, PMOz, Brisbane, pp. 1-9.
To deliver a project for a client, a project manager will be required to adapt to change from time to time by finding, retrieving and processing knowledge. It is of value to an organisation to facilitate this process of knowledge exchange to ensure that they in turn can deliver on their agreed strategy. This paper will focus on knowledge transfer, firstly by retrieving the knowledge context through the lens of the accepted theories of knowledge management.This will include an examination into how knowledge is created. This creation process will require a review into the motivation and learning styles which will assist in developing a deeper understanding of how a project manager transfers knowledge. To determine if the environment has an impact on the capacity of the project manger to transfer knowledge, a review will be undertaken into the physical and virtual spaces where projects are managed. Through an examination of these environments, indicators can be identified that may enhance or detract from the ability of the project manager to transfer knowledge. An understanding of these surroundings will provide a framework of the optimum environment for a project manager to transfer knowledge.
Algeo, C.T. 2010, 'Project Field Studies: sense making on-the-job', Project Management Institute (PMI) Global Congress Asia Pacific 2010, Project Management Institute, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-7.
This paper describes the practice of learning through field study placement the art and science of managing a project. How project managers learn outside the walls of a lecture room will be explore using two current project management subjects being taught at the University of Technology, Sydney. One subject is an elective in an undergraduate construction degree and the other is taught to second year Masters Degree students. The role of the supervisor and student will be reviewed against the concept of internships and coaching which are used as tools to assist in the apprentice's learning journey. When undertaking the role of a field educator, the supervisor needs to approach the transfer of theory into practice by developing a language and behavioural guidelines that support the agreed learning outcomes. Contracts need to be developed and agreed so as all parties understand their responsibilities and liabilities when managing this dynamic learning environment. This is not dissimilar to what a client or program manager may expect of a project manger delivering agreed outcomes. Leading the approach to this form of learning is the practice of field work. Understanding the approach to developing competency and the impact of cultural differences provides a multi-levelled dynamic where parallels can be drawn against practising project managers. Ongoing partnerships to continue the iterative approach to learning on-th-job provides the apprentice project manager with a support network of mentors or 'masters' to assist in the transfer of knowledge.
Algeo, C.T. 2009, 'Gender Diversity in Non-Traditional Industries - Fact or Fiction?', 'Modernisation in Project Management: Flexibility, Risk, Integration and Sustainability': Proceedings of the 2009 AIPM Project Management Co, Australian Instiute of Project Management, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-8.
This paper will explore gender diversity through the representation of women in several non-traditional industries in Australia. The construction, project management and academic sectors have been selected as they are perceived to be disciplines that are dominated by men. Through identifying what research has been undertaken and the programs that have been instigated through industry associations, an agenda for addressing gender diversity can be established. A review of the political environment in which these non-traditional sectors operate provides a framework to understand the policies and laws that guide gender diversity in Australia. The Federal Government are conducting a review into the Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Act 1999 (the EOWW Act) and the Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency (EOWA). Through providing inclusive reforms, men and women will have the opportunity to work in a fair and equitable society where gender is not an issue.
Algeo, C.T. 2009, 'Learning How to Manage Projects: exploring the situational context', 6th Annual Project Management Australia Conference, PMOZ, Australia, pp. 1-13.
This paper presents an account of how project management practitioners learn, how they determine what they want to learn and suggests some future directions for their knowledge journey. Two similar teaching approaches will be discussed that are currently used at undergraduate and post graduate level in an Australian University. The approaches used to embed the formal concepts taught in class include field work and reflective practice. This will provide a view of the formal structure in which learning takes place and the informal way that explicit knowledge is converted to tacit knowledge. A formative research study into project management research directions undertaken in 2003 provides a framework for the knowledge required by practitioners to further the discipline of project management
Owen, J., Algeo, C.T. & Sense, A. 2009, 'The Landscape of Australian Project Management Research', IRNOP Conference Proceedings, IRNOP, Berlin, pp. 1-21.
Abstract This paper presents and analyses findings from the first comprehensive survey of project management research currently being undertaken in Australia. It will narrate the landscape of Australian project management research and in particular, will profile the typical Australian project management researcher, the research topics pursued and the range of methodologies employed. The paper will also illustrate how new project management research and researcher development is being supported in Australia with suggestions of ways to sustain and further develop these generative aspects of the project management discipline. These findings will be compared to the research agenda outcomes of the 2003 Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) funded project on Rethinking Project Management. Consequently, this paper will contribute to the debates raised in publications developed from that research revolving around project complexity, social process, value creation, project conceptualization and practitioner development. Moreover, as this paper offers one indicative national perspective on project management research activities, it may contribute to international discourse on the shaping of future project management research agendas and on industry or industry representative bodies pragmatic support for project management research worldwide.
Algeo, C.T. 2008, 'Governing Projects Using Flexible Formal Systems (FFS)', AIPM National Conference, Australian Insitute of Project Management, Canberra Australia, pp. 1-7.
Algeo, C.T. & Stefani, W. 2008, 'Managing Project Managers - an exercise in Parenting', IPMA World Congress Proceedings, International Project Management Association, Rome, Italy, pp. 1-11.
Algeo, C.T. 2008, 'Project Management as a Profession - are we there yet?', 5th Annual Project Management Conference, PMOZ, Melbourne Australia, pp. 1-9.
Algeo, C.T. 2008, 'Collaboration Amongst Practitioners, Associations and Academia: a case study in practice', AUBEA 2008 Proceedings, AUBEA School of the Built Environment, Auckland New Zealand, pp. 93-98.
Algeo, C.T. 2014, 'Exploring Project Knowledge Acquisition and Exchange Through Action Research', Project Management Journal, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 46-56.
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This paper presents a research methodology used to develop a novel framework for an investigation into how project managers acquire and exchange knowledge. The qualitative study was conducted with six experienced project managers based in Australia. Adopting and augmenting an action research methodology, the data were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. Data collection occurred through four sequential interventions that aligned to three action research cycles. Three additional spin-off cycles were utilized to ensure quality and validity of the research approach with an external reference group. The implications of this research approach are presented for application in future research.
Pollack, J.B. & Algeo, C. 2014, 'A comparison of Project Manager and Change Manager involvement in organisational change project activities and stages', Journal of Modern Project Management, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 8-17.
Project Managers and Change Managers both contribute to the planning and execution of organisational change projects. However, it is not clear how these disciplines should work together to deliver these projects. This research examined how Project Managers and Change Managers regard the contribution of both disciplines to different project stages and activities. Activities that uncontentiously fit within the domain of one discipline or the other were identified, allowing for the development of an activity-based comparative identity for these disciplines. Also identified were the activities and stages that were the subject of significant disagreement between the disciplines. Such activities are the likely sources of conflict between the disciplines, both in terms of abstract disciplinary boundary and workplace responsibility division. This research will be of value to Project Managers and Change Managers, by helping to identify potential areas of conflict, and developing a greater understanding of how both disciplines regard the other.
Pollack, J. & Algeo, C. 2014, 'Perspectives on the Formal Authority Between Project Managers and Change Managers', Project Management Journal, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 27-43.
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Project management and change management both contribute to the management and delivery of changes to organizations; however, they are based on distinct bodies of knowledge, and practitioners of these disciplines have disparate views on how change should be managed. There is a lack of consensus about how these disciplines should work together to deliver organizational change projects which may result in conflict. This research delves into practitioners perspectives on formal authority, the reporting relationship between these disciplines, and reveals the fundamental differences in how practitioners of these disciplines view the practice of organizational change.
Hatcher, C., Linger, H., Owen, J. & Algeo, C.T. 2013, 'The challenges of managing complexity in projects: An Australian perspective', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1069-1071.
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The contribution to new knowledge is the identification of an Australian perspective of themes and research issues that dominate the project management sector. The editorial provides a geo-economic perspective of local and international impacts across a range of industries where projects are managed. The capacity for Australian project managers to deliver an $AUS 921 billion pipeline of existing and potential major capital projects is limited. These limitations were explored at a research forum where active researchers collaborated to establish a research agenda. The Australian perspective of the research agenda included the broad themes of understanding the interplay of project, community, globalisation and professionalization in an emergent economy. These themes reflect the need to improve the delivery of large and complex projects, which will require project leadership, cultural change and skill development strategies. These themes were addressed in the papers submitted for the special issue which were drawn together in the editorial with reference to the engaged scholarship approach of the research forum.
Sense, A., Owen, J. & Algeo, C.T. 2011, 'Profiling the context and opportunities for Australian project management research', International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 105-117.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the context, the current issues and the opportunities for project management (PM) research within Australia. The paper contributes to researcher and industry practitioner knowledge and debates on supporting and promoting the development of national PM research agendas. Design/methodology/approach: This is a research paper which draws on and interprets empirical data generated from a comprehensive national survey of Australian PM researchers. Findings: The paper first profiles the current landscape of Australian PM research. Thereafter, it explores the future opportunities/risks for PM research in this country, as perceived by the researcher community. Research limitations/implications: This research was limited to the collection of data from PM researchers across Australia (80 percent response rate to the survey tool). Clearly, this study was confined to one country and to one category of respondent. Practical implications: This paper will make contributions to national and international debates and analysis on current research trajectories and future opportunities in the PM field and thereby also aid comparative knowledge development within the researcher community. Originality/value: This paper represents the first comprehensive national PM researcher study undertaken in Australia. It provides a compelling national insight into the current state of PM research as perceived by PM researchers and illustrates issues concerning their research contexts, their links to industry partners and perceptions of industry and industry representative body engagement in PM research activity.