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Dr Brad Murray

Biography

Brad Murray has research and teaching interests in ecology, evolution and biodiversity conservation. The central theme of his work is how species abundance, distribution and diversity vary across space and through time in relation to life history, phylogeny and environmental changes brought about by human activities. A complete list of Brad's scientific publications can be found at PublicationsList. He is currently an Associate Editor with the journal NeoBiota which has a focus on biological invasions.

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Senior Lecturer, School of the Environment
BSc (Hons) (Syd), PhD (Macquarie)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 4075
Room
CB07.06.25

Research Interests

Brad's ecology lab works primarily with terrestrial plants and animals, often exploring flora-fauna interactions. The lab's research involves field work, laboratory and glasshouse experiments, as well as the desktop compilation and analysis of ecological datasets. The lab has specialist expertise in experimental design and statistical analysis.

Current research is centred on fire ecology, invasion ecology and macroecology. Information on past research projects can be gleaned from the list of previous student projects below (and Brad’s PublicationsList), with previous projects in discipline areas including urban ecology, wildlife ecology, ecosystem valuation, ecotoxicology, the ecology of groundwater-dependent ecosystems, restoration ecology, the comparative ecology of rarity and the dietary ecology of desert rodents.

Current members of the lab

Dr Leigh Martin (Research Associate)

Mr Matt Hingee (PhD Student)

Mr Dan Krix (Honours Student)

Ms Madeline Ross (Honours Student)

Mr Alex Burton (Honours Student)

Previous members of the lab

2013 Rebecca Lay (Honours) The Ecology of the Noisy Miner in an Urban Environment

2012 Emily Strautins (Honours) Habitat Selection by Frogs in a Peri-Urban Environment: Do Frogs Avoid Weeds?  

2012 Ellen Mannix (Honours) Comparative Patterns of Habitat Use by Bird Assemblages in an Urban Environment
 
2012 Megan Phillips (PhD) Plant Life History and the Naturalisation to Invasion Transition: The Exotic Flora of Australia
 
2012 Leigh Martin (PhD) Impacts of Invasive Exotic Plants on Reptile and Amphibian Assemblages
 
2012 Tara Konarzewski (PhD) Clinal Variation in Life-History Traits of the Invasive Plant Species Echium plantagineum L.

2010 Kien Nguyen (Honours) Impacts of Invasive African Olive on Leaf-Litter Invertebrate Assemblages
 
2010 Lyndle Hardstaff (Honours) Relationships Between Leaf Flammability and Leaf Traits in Native and Exotic Species of Dry Sclerophyll Forest

2009 Damian Licari (PhD) Long-Term Changes in Grassland, Woodland and Forest Vegetation of South-Eastern Australia: Impacts of Land-Use Change

2008 Tara Vaughan (Honours) Relating Interspecific Variation in Seed Mass to Seedling Growth Under Climate Change
 
2008 Carla Harris (PhD) Invasion Success of Exotic Vines in Australia: The Importance of Life-History, Introduction-History and Ecological Attributes
 
2008 Andrew Baker (PhD) The Dynamics of Litterfall in Eucalypt Woodland Surrounding Pine Plantations

2007 Tessa Robson (Honours) The Effects of Pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) Plantations on Leaf-Litter Invertebrates

2006 Noni Dowsett (Honours) Distribution and Abundance of Mammals in Vegetation Invaded by Lantana camara
 
2006 Andrew Cantlay (Honours) Bird Communities Within Heath and Woodland Vegetation Invaded by Lantana camara

2004 Andrew Baker (Honours) Ecosystem Responses to Pinus radiata Invasion

2003 Mark Hamilton (Honours) The Abundance, Distribution and Life History of Exotic Plant Species in Royal National Park

Can supervise: Yes

Current Teaching

Subject Coordinator, 91154 Ecology (second-year subject)

Subject Coordinator, 91309 Biodiversity Conservation (third-year subject)

Supervisor of Honours students in Environmental Sciences

Chapters

Godfree, R.C. & Murray, B.R. 2014, 'Invasive species: Plants' in Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, Vol. 4, Elsevier, San Diego, pp. 66-77.
Stohlgren, T., Pysek, P., Kartesz, J., Nishino, M., Pauchard, A., Winter, M., Pino, J., Richardson, D.M., Wilson, J., Murray, B., Phillips, M., Celesti-Grapow, L. & Graham, J. 2013, 'Globalization Effects on Common Plant Species' in Simon Levin (ed), Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Elsevier Inc., Waltham, MA, USA, pp. 700-706.
The trade of goods by humans has bridged the continents, in effect restoring the old supercontinent of Pangaea. In the past century, humans have been responsible for an exponential increase in plant migrations, moving plant species around the globe for food, fuel, forage, horticulture, landscaping, and medicines. Trade within and among continents is breaking geographic barriers and providing long-range dispersal for seeds and propagules at unprecedented rates (Richardson et al., 2000; Wilson et al., 2009). Here, the authors provide a brief review of the globalization effects on common plant species and homogenization of the worlds plant communities.
Booth, D.J. & Murray, B. 2008, 'Coexistence' in Jrgensen, S.E. & Fath, B.D. (eds), Encyclopedia of Ecology, Five-Volume Set, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 664-668.
Murray, B., Dickman, C.R., Robson, T.C., Haythornthwaite, A., Cantlay, A.J., Dowsett, N.S. & Hills, N. 2007, 'Effects of exotic plants in native vegetation on species richness and abundance of birds.' in Lunney, D. (ed), Pest or guest : the zoology of overabundance, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, N.S.W, pp. 216-221.
We reviewed published, quantitative studies examining the effects of exotic plants in native vegetation on the species richness and abundance of birds and mammals. We asked whether the incursion of exotic plants into native vegetation has led to consistent declines, increases or no changes in bird and mammal species richness and abundance. Bird species richness and abundance tended not to be lower in sites with exotic plants (exotic sites) compared with sites without exotic plants (native sites). However, there are some reported cases of declines in richness, and declines and increases in abundance of birds in exotic sites. While there is not enough evidence to generate broad patterns in relation to species richness of mammals in exotic sites, abundances of individual mammal species demonstrated idiosyncratic responses (either increases, decreases, or no changes) to the incursion of exotic plants. Any differences observed in species richness and abundance of birds and mammals between exotic and native sites are probably due to habitat modifications by exotic plants resulting in changes to vegetation that is important for foraging, protection, and reproduction of the vertebrates. Importantly, our review found no published, quantitative evidence that the incursion of exotic plants into native vegetation leads to the over-abundance of any bird or mammal species. Nevertheless, the results of our review must be viewed as preliminary findings: there is still much to be done to untangle the complex ecological effects of exotic plants on birds and mammals in native vegetation.
Dickman, C.R. & Murray, B. 2006, 'Species interactions: complex effects' in Attiwell, P. & Wilson, B. (eds), Ecology: An Australian Perspective, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, Australia, pp. 317-334.
Interactions within ecological communities usually involve many species and pose intriguing challenges for ecologists who wish to map and disentangle them. To simplify this task we often assume that the interactions do not change in strength or direction and that the identities of the key species remain the same. Species can be 'pigeon-holed' into convenient categories such as 'pollinator', 'competitor', 'pest' or even 'redundant' using these assumptions. This makes programs of conservation or pest management easier to implement, but is also ignores an emerging body of evidence that interactions between species vary between situations, places and times. In this chapter we will explore the complexity of effects that arise from changes in tereactions between species. We also consider how such effects may be modelled and predicted,a nd illustrate how ecological insight can be used to guide management decisions.
Thrall, P.H., Burdon, J.J. & Murray, B. 2000, 'The metapopulation paradigm: a fragmented view of conservation biology' in Young, A.G. & Clarke, G.M. (eds), Genetics, Demography and Viaability of Fragmented Populations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,United Kingdom, pp. 75-95.
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In the past, single-population approaches have dominated ecology and evolutionary biology. However, populations are not isolated either in time or space, but are connected by among-population processes such as migration and gene flow.While this concept is not new, until recently, there have beenrelatively few studies that have explicitly investigated the effects od spatial structure on demographic and genetic processes in the context of conservation. The metapopulation framework explicitly recognises and provides a conceptual tool for dealing with the interactions of within - (e.g. birth, death, competition) and among-population processes (e.g. dispersal, gene flow, colonisation and extinction). The ever-growing diversity of empirical and theoretical studies that demonstrate the importance of spatial structure in determining ecological and evolutionary trajectories also indicates that long-term conservation programmes need to focus on regional rather than local within-population persistence. In this regard, it is important to realise that ultimately all populations are ephemeral, and therefore colonisation processes must also be preserved. Clearly, not all species whose populations have undergone fragmentation fit the definition of a metapopulation. Nevertheless, a metapopulation approach to conservation biology is likely to provide a useful tool for developing management strategies as it addresses genetic, species and community effects of fragmentation in a single framework, therby making explicit questions regarding extinction, population connectedness, species behavioural patterns and the survival of coevolved systems. In essence, a metapopulation perspective ensures a process oriented, scale-appropriate approach to conservation that focuses attention on among-population processes critical for persistence of many natural systems.

Conferences

Yunusa, I.A., Eamus, D., De Silva, D.L., Murray, B., Burchett, M., Skilbeck, G. & Heidrich, C. 2005, 'Prospects for coal-ash in the management of Australian soils', World of Coal Ash Proceedings, Coal ash Association and the University of Kentucky's Centre for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, USA, p. CD ROM.
Harris, C.J., Torpy, F.R. & Murray, B. 2005, 'Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization Of Plants In Low Nutrient Soils: Are Soil Attributes Important?', Ecological Society of Australia Conference.

Journal articles

Gribben, P.E., I'Ons, S., Phillips, N.E., Geange, S.W., Wright, J.T. & Murray, B.R. 2013, 'Biogeographic comparisons of the traits and abundance of an invasive crab throughout its native and invasive ranges', BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1877-1885.
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Martin, L.J. & Murray, B. 2013, 'A preliminary assessment of the response of a native reptile assemblage to spot-spraying invasive Bitou Bush with glyphosate herbicide', Ecological Management & Restoration, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 59-62.
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During recent work examining the effects of Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp.rotundata) invasion on native reptile assemblages in coastal heathland vegetation in Eastern Australia, unplanned spot-spraying of glyphosate occurred at some of our
Murray, B.R., Hardstaff, L.K. & Phillips, M.L. 2013, 'Differences in Leaf Flammability, Leaf Traits and Flammability-Trait Relationships between Native and Exotic Plant Species of Dry Sclerophyll Forest', PLOS ONE, vol. 8, no. 11.
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Phillips, M.L. & Murray, B.R. 2012, 'Invasiveness in exotic plant species is linked to high seed survival in the soil', EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY RESEARCH, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 83-94.
Murray, B. & Phillips, M.L. 2012, 'Temporal introduction patterns of invasive alien plant species to Australia', NeoBiota, vol. 13, pp. 1-14.
We examined temporal introduction patterns of 132 invasive alien plant species (IAPS) to Australia since European colonisation in 1770. Introductions of IAPS were high during 18101820 (10 species), 1840 1880 (51 species, 38 of these between 1840 and 1860) and 19301940 (9 species). Conspicuously few introductions occurred during 10-year periods directly preceding each introduction peak. Peaks during early European settlement (18101820) and human range expansion across the continent (1840-1860) both coincided with considerable growth in Australias human population. We suggest that population growth during these times increased the likelihood of introduced plant species becoming invasive as a result of increased colonization and propagule pressure. Deliberate introductions of IAPS (104 species) far outnumbered accidental introductions (28 species) and were particularly prominent during early settlement. Cosmopolitan IAPS (25 species) and those native solely to South America (53 species), Africa (27 species) and Asia (19 species) have been introduced deliberately and accidentally to Australia across a broad period of time. A small number of IAPS, native solely to Europe (5 species) and North America (2 species), were all introduced to Australia prior to 1880. These contrasting findings for native range suggest some role for habitat matching, with similar environmental conditions in Australia potentially driving the proliferation of IAPS native to southern-hemisphere regions.
Baker, A.C. & Murray, B.R. 2012, 'Seasonal intrusion of litterfall from non-native pine plantations into surrounding native woodland: Implications for management of an invasive plantation species', FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, vol. 277, pp. 25-37.
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Lloyd, H.B., Murray, B.R. & Gribben, P.E. 2012, 'Trait and abundance patterns in two marine molluscs: the influence of abiotic conditions operating across multiple spatial scales', MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES, vol. 463, pp. 205-214.
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Konarzewski, T.K., Murray, B.R. & Godfree, R.C. 2012, 'Rapid Development of Adaptive, Climate-Driven Clinal Variation in Seed Mass in the Invasive Annual Forb Echium plantagineum L.', PLOS ONE, vol. 7, no. 12.
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Konarzewski, T.K., Murray, B.R. & Godfree, R.C. 2012, 'Rapid development of adaptive, climate-driven clinal variation in seed mass in the invasive annual Forb Echium plantagineum L.', PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 12, p. e49000.
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We examined adaptive clinal variation in seed mass among populations of an invasive annual species, Echium plantagineum, in response to climatic selection. We collected seeds from 34 field populations from a 1,000 km long temperature and rainfall gradient across the species' introduced range in south-eastern Australia. Seeds were germinated, grown to reproductive age under common glasshouse conditions, and progeny seeds were harvested and weighed. Analyses showed that seed mass was significantly related to climatic factors, with populations sourced from hotter, more arid sites producing heavier seeds than populations from cooler and wetter sites. Seed mass was not related to edaphic factors. We also found that seed mass was significantly related to both longitude and latitude with each degree of longitude west and latitude north increasing seed mass by around 2.5% and 4% on average. There was little evidence that within-population or between-population variation in seed mass varied in a systematic manner across the study region. Our findings provide compelling evidence for development of a strong cline in seed mass across the geographic range of a widespread and highly successful invasive annual forb. Since large seed mass is known to provide reproductive assurance for plants in arid environments, our results support the hypothesis that the fitness and range potential of invasive species can increase as a result of genetic divergence of populations along broad climatic gradients. In E. plantagineum population-level differentiation has occurred in 150 years or less, indicating that the adaptation process can be rapid.
Murray, B.R. 2012, 'Book review: Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology: The Legacy of Charles Elton', Austral Ecology: a journal of ecology in the Southern Hemisphere, vol. 37, p. e43.
Simberloff, D., Alexander, J., Allendorf, F., Aronson, J., Antunes, P.M., Bacher, S., Bardgett, R., Bertolino, S., Bishop, M., Blackburn, T.M., Blakeslee, A., Blumenthal, D., Bortolus, A., Buckley, R., Buckley, Y., Byers, J., Callaway, R.M., Campbell, F., Campbell, K., Campbell, M., Carlton, J.T., Cassey, P., Catford, J., Celesti-Grapow, L., Chapman, J.C., Clark, P., Clewell, A., Canning Clode, J., Chang, A., Chytry, M., Clout, M., Cohen, A., Cowan, P., Cowie, R.H., Crall, A.W., Crooks, J., Deveney, M., Dixon, K., Dobbs, F.C., Cameron Duffy, D., Duncan, R., Ehrlich, P., Eldredge, L., Evenhuis, N., Fausch, K.D., Feldhaar, H., Firn, J., Fowler, A., Galil, B., Garcia-Berthou, E., Geller, J., Genovesi, P., Gerber, E., Gherardi, F., Gollasch, S., Gordon, D., Graham, J., Gribben, P.E., Griffen, B., Grosholz, E.D., Hewitt, C., Hierro, J.L., Hulme, P., Hutchings, P., Jarosik, V., Johnson, C., Johnson, L., Johnston, E.L., Jones, C.G., Keller, R., King, C.M., Knols, B.G., Kollmann, J., Kompas, T., Kotanen, P.M., Kowarik, I., Khn, I., Kumschick, S., Leung, B., Liebhold, A., MacIsaac, H., Mack, R., McCullough, D.G., McDonald, R., Merritt, D.M., Meyerson, L., Minchin, D., Mooney, H.A., Morisette, J.T., Moyle, P., Mller-Schrer, H., Murray, B., Nehring, S., Nelson, W., Nentwig, W., Novak, S.J., Occhipinti, A., Ojaveer, H., Osborne, B., Ostfeld, R.S., Parker, J., Pederson, J., Pergl, J., Phillips, M., Pysek, P., Rejmanek, M., Ricciardi, A., Ricotta, C., Richardson, D.M., Rilov, G., Ritchie, E., Robertson, P.A., Roman, J., Ruiz, G.M., Schaefer, H., Schaffelke, B., Schierenbeck, K.A., Schmitz, D.C., Schwindt, E., Seeb, J., David Smith, L., Smith, G.F., Stohlgren, T., Strayer, D.L., Strong, D., Sutherland, W.J., Therriault, T., Thuiller, W., Torchin, M., van der Putten, W., Vila, M., Von Holle, B., Wallentinus, I., Wardle, D., Williamson, M., Wilson, J., Winter, M., Wolfe, L.M., Wright, J., Wonham, M. & Zabin, C. 2011, 'Non-natives: 141 scientists object', Nature, vol. 475, no. 7354, pp. 1-2.
We the undersigned feel that in advocating a change in the environmental management of introduced species (Nature 474, 153154; 2011), Mark Davis and colleagues assail two straw men.
Stohlgren, T.J., Pysek, P., Kartesz, J., Nishino, M., Pauchard, A., Winter, M., Pino, J., Richardson, D.M., Wilson, J.R.U., Murray, B.R., Phillips, M.L., Ming-yang, L., Celesti-Grapow, L. & Font, X. 2011, 'Widespread plant species: natives versus aliens in our changing world', BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1931-1944.
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Kuhn, I., Kowarik, I., Kollmann, J., Starfinger, U., Bacher, S., Blackburn, T.M., Bustamante, R.O., Celesti-Grapow, L., Chytry, M., Colautti, R.I., Essl, F., Foxcroft, L.C., Garcia-Berthou, E., Gollasch, S., Hierro, J.L., Hufbauer, R.A., Hulme, P., Jarosik, V., Jeschke, J.M., Karrer, G., Mack, R., Molofsky, J., Murray, B., Nentwig, W., Osborne, B., Pysek, P., Rabitsch, W., Rejmanek, M., Roques, A., Shaw, R., Sol, D., Van Kleunen, M., Vila, M., von der Lippe, M., Wolfe, L.M. & Penev, L. 2011, 'Open minded and open access: introducing NeoBiota, a new peer-reviewed journal of biological invasions', NeoBiota, vol. 9, pp. 1-11.
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The Editorial presents the focus, scope, policies, and the inaugural issue of NeoBiota, a new open access peer-reviewed journal of biological invasions. The new journal NeoBiota is a continuation of the former NEOBIOTA publication series. The journal will deal with all aspects of invasion biology and impose no restrictions on manuscript size neither on use of color. NeoBiota implies an XML-based editorial workflow and several cutting-edge innovations in publishing and dissemination, such as semantic markup of and enhancements to published texts, data publication, and extensive cross-linking within the journal and to external sources.
Martin, L.J. & Murray, B.R. 2011, 'A predictive framework and review of the ecological impacts of exotic plant invasions on reptiles and amphibians', BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 407-419.
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Simberloff, D., Alexander, J., Allendorf, F., Aronson, J., Antunes, P.M., Bacher, S., Bardgett, R., Bertolino, S., Bishop, M., Blackburn, T.M., Blakeslee, A., Blumenthal, D., Bortolus, A., Buckley, R., Buckley, Y., Byers, J., Callaway, R.M., Campbell, F., Campbell, K., Campbell, M., Carlton, J.T., Cassey, P., Catford, J., Celesti-Grapow, L., Chapman, J., Clark, P., Clewell, A., Clode, J.C., Chang, A., Chytry, M., Clout, M., Cohen, A., Cowan, P., Cowie, R.H., Crall, A.W., Crooks, J., Deveney, M., Dixon, K., Dobbs, F.C., Duffy, D.C., Duncan, R., Ehrlich, P.R., Eldredge, L., Evenhuis, N., Fausch, K.D., Feldhaar, H., Firn, J., Fowler, A., Galil, B., Garcia-Berthou, E., Geller, J., Genovesi, P., Gerber, E., Gherardi, F., Gollasch, S., Gordon, D., Graham, J., Gribben, P., Griffen, B., Grosholz, E.D., Hewitt, C., Hierro, J.L., Hulme, P., Hutchings, P., Jarosik, V., Jeschke, J.M., Johnson, C., Johnson, L., Johnston, E.L., Jones, C.G., Keller, R., King, C.M., Knols, B.G.J., Kollmann, J., Kompas, T., Kotanen, P.M., Kowarik, I., Kuehn, I., Kumschick, S., Leung, B., Liebhold, A., MacIsaac, H., Mack, R., McCullough, D.G., McDonald, R., Merritt, D.M., Meyerson, L., Minchin, D., Mooney, H.A., Morisette, J.T., Moyle, P., Heinz, M.-.S., Murray, B.R., Nehring, S., Nelson, W., Nentwig, W., Novak, S.J., Occhipinti, A., Ojaveer, H., Osborne, B., Ostfeld, R.S., Parker, J., Pederson, J., Pergl, J., Phillips, M.L., Pysek, P., Rejmanek, M., Ricciardi, A., Ricotta, C., Richardson, D., Rilov, G., Ritchie, E., Robertson, P.A., Roman, J., Ruiz, G., Schaefer, H., Schaffelke, B., Schierenbeck, K.A., Schmitz, D.C., Schwindt, E., Seeb, J., Smith, L.D., Smith, G.F., Stohlgren, T., Strayer, D.L., Strong, D., Sutherland, W.J., Therriault, T., Thuiller, W., Torchin, M., van der Putten, W.H., Vila, M., Von Holle, B., Wallentinus, I., Wardle, D., Williamson, M., Wilson, J., Winter, M., Wolfe, L.M., Wright, J., Wonham, M. & Zabin, C. 2011, 'Non-natives: 141 scientists object', NATURE, vol. 475, no. 7354, pp. 36-36.
Martin, L.J. & Murray, B.R. 2011, 'A comparison of short-term marking methods for small frogs using a model species, the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii)', HERPETOLOGICAL JOURNAL, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 271-273.
Murray, B.R. & Phillips, M.L. 2010, 'Investment in seed dispersal structures is linked to invasiveness in exotic plant species of south-eastern Australia', BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 2265-2275.
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Manoharan, V., Yunusa, I.A.M., Loganathan, P., Lawrie, R., Skilbeck, C.G., Burchett, M.D., Murray, B.R. & Eamus, D. 2010, 'Assessments of Class F fly ashes for amelioration of soil acidity and their influence on growth and uptake of Mo and Se by canola', Fuel, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 3498-3504.
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Coal fly ash can be used to ameliorate productivity constraints in agricultural soils, but their efficacy still remains highly variable. To ascertain the capacity of Class F fly ashes to modify pH of acidic soils, and their effects on the yield and uptake of molybdenum (Mo) and selenium (Se) by canola (Brassica napus L.), we applied two acidic and two alkaline Class F ashes at rates equivalent to 0, 12, 36, and 108 Mg/ha to the top layer (0-10 cm) of 100 cm long intact cores of acidic sandy clay and clay loam soils. Only the alkaline ash which had the highest calcium carbonate equivalent (2.43%) increased the pH of the top 10 cm of the sandy clay soil. However, this ash was also highly saline and when applied at ?36 Mg/ha it increased the electrical conductivity in the top soil layer. Increases in soil pH as a result of alkaline ash addition also elevated concentrations of Se in the plant shoot. The ashes with high concentrations of Mo and Se generally increased uptake of these elements in the plant shoot and/or seed. When these ashes were applied at 108 Mg/ha they increased the concentrations of these elements in the treated topsoil. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Manoharan, V., Yunusa, I.A.M., Loganathan, P., Lawrie, R., Murray, B.R., Skilbeck, C.G. & Eamus, D. 2010, 'Boron contents and solubility in Australian fly ashes and its uptake by canola (Brassica napus L.) from the ash-amended soils', Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 480-487.
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Phytotoxicity due to excessive boron (B) uptake by plants impedes routine agronomic utilisation of coal fly ash. We assessed 11 fly ashes (pH 3.1410.77) having total B content (Bt) of 12136mg/kg, of which 2030% was hot water soluble (Bs) in the acidic ashes (pH 5) and 510% in the alkaline ashes, for their potential to supply B to plants and their risk associated with phytotoxicity. We found the Bs/Bt to be negatively correlated (R2?0.63, N?11) with ash pH. We conducted two pot trials in which canola was grown in soils amended with fly ash. In the first trial, an alkaline fly ash (Bt 66mg/kg) was incorporated at 5 rates of up to 625Mg/ha into the top 50mm of 2 acidic soils in 0.30-m-long intact cores, and sown with canola. Boron concentration in leaves at flowering reached the phytotoxic threshold, and both plant growth and seed yield were reduced, only at 625Mg/ha. In the second trial, 4 fly ashes (pH 3.2910.77, Bt 12127mg/kg) were incorporated at 4 rates of up to 108Mg/ha into the top 0.10m of 2 acidic soils in 1.0-m-long intact cores and then sown with canola. Ashes with highest Bt, when applied at 108Mg/ha, increased B concentration in the topsoil only. Of the 2 ashes with the highest B t, only that which produced low soil pH and applied at 108Mg/ha increased B concentration in the shoot, but was still below phytotoxic threshold. The results suggest that B derived from these ashes may not cause phytotoxicity and excessive soil B accumulation if the ashes are applied at modest rates (36Mg/ha) to the topsoil layers. 2010 CSIRO.
Phillips, M.L., Murray, B.R., Leishman, M.R. & Ingram, R. 2010, 'The naturalization to invasion transition: Are there introduction-history correlates of invasiveness in exotic plants of Australia?', AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 695-703.
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Baker, A.C. & Murray, B.R. 2010, 'Relationships between leaf-litter traits and the emergence and early growth of invasive Pinus radiata seedlings', WEED RESEARCH, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 586-596.
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Nevill, J.C., Hancock, P., Murray, B., Ponder, W.F., Humphreys, W.F., Phillips, M. & Groom, P.K. 2010, 'Groundwater-dependent ecosystems and the dangers of groundwater overdraft: a review and an Australian perspective', Pacific Conservation Biology, vol. 16, pp. 187-208.
In many parts of the world, access to groundwater is needed for domestic, agricultural and industrial uses, and global groundwater exploitation continues to increase. The significance of groundwater in maintaining the health of rivers, streams, wetlands and associated vegetation is often underestimated or ignored, resulting in a lack of scrutiny of groundwater policy and management. It is essential that management of groundwater resources considers the needs of natural ecosystems, including subterranean. We review the limited Australian literature on the ecological impacts of groundwater overdraft and place Australian information within an international context, focusing on lentic, lotic, stygobitic and hyporheic communities as well as riparian and phreatophytic vegetation, and some coastal marine ecosystems. Groundwater overdraft, defined as abstracting groundwater at a rate which prejudices ecosystem or anthropocentric values, can substantially impact natural communities which depend, exclusively or seasonally, on groundwater. Overdraft damage is often underestimated, is sometimes irreversible, and may occur over time scales at variance to those used by water management agencies in modelling, planning and regulation. Given the dangers of groundwater overdraft, we discuss policy implications in the light of the precautionary principle, and make recommendations aimed at promoting the conservation of groundwater-dependent ecosystems within a sustainable use context.
Phillips, M.L., Murray, B.R., Pysek, P., Pergl, J., Jarosik, V., Chytry, M. & Kuehn, I. 2010, 'Plant species of the Central European flora as aliens in Australia', PRESLIA, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 465-482.
Wang, Y., Li, Y., Wu, Z. & Murray, B.R. 2009, 'Insular shifts and trade-offs in life-history traits in pond frogs in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China', Journal of Zoology, vol. 278, no. 1, pp. 65-73.
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Island and mainland populations of animal species often differ strikingly in life-history traits such as clutch size, egg size, total reproductive effort and body size. However, despite widespread recognition of insular shifts in these life-history traits in birds, mammals and reptiles, there have been no reports of such life-history shifts in amphibians. Furthermore, most studies have focused on one specific life-history trait without explicit consideration of coordinated evolution among these intimately linked life-history traits, and thus the relationships among these traits are poorly studied. Here we provide the first evidence of insular shifts and trade-offs in a coordinated suite of life-history traits for an amphibian species, the pond frog Rana nigromaculata. Life-history data were collected from eight islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago and neighboring mainland China. We found consistent, significant shifts in all life-history traits between mainland and island populations. Island populations had smaller clutch sizes, larger egg sizes, larger female body size and invested less in total reproductive effort than mainland populations. Significant negative relationships were found between egg size and clutch size and between egg size and total reproductive effort among frog populations after controlling for the effects of body size. Therefore, decreased reproductive effort and clutch size, larger egg size and body size in pond frogs on islands were selected through trade-offs as an overall life-history strategy. Our findings contribute to the formation of a broad, repeatable ecological generality for insular shifts in life-history traits across a range of terrestrial vertebrate taxa. 2009 The Zoological Society of London.
Cadotte, M.W., Hamilton, M.A. & Murray, B.R. 2009, 'Phylogenetic relatedness and plant invader success across two spatial scales', DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 481-488.
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Wallach, A.D., Murray, B.R. & O'Neill, A.J. 2009, 'Can threatened species survive where the top predator is absent?', BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 43-52.
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Robson, T.C., Baker, A.C. & Murray, B.R. 2009, 'Differences in leaf-litter invertebrate assemblages between radiata pine plantations and neighbouring native eucalypt woodland', AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 368-376.
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Moles, A.T., Wright, I.J., Pitman, A.J., Murray, B.R. & Westoby, M. 2009, 'Is there a latitudinal gradient in seed production?', ECOGRAPHY, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 78-82.
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Zhang, F., Li, Y., Guo, Z. & Murray, B.R. 2009, 'Climate warming and reproduction in Chinese alligators', Animal Conservation, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 128-137.
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The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is a critically endangered species endemic to China, and one of the most endangered crocodilian species in the world. Like many other reptiles, important aspects of alligator biology such as foraging, timing of hibernation, breeding and the sex ratio of offspring are all affected by temperature variation. We examined the effects of long-term temperature change on oviposition dates and clutch sizes of the Chinese alligator in a semi-natural facility in southern China. Our study focused on two captive generations including an old breeding generation captured from the wild and a generation composed of their F1 offspring. Median oviposition date shifted to earlier in the year and mean clutch size was larger for both generations as the monthly mean air temperature in April increased over the 19 years of data collection. We observed a mean advance in oviposition date of 10days for the old breeding generation from 1987 to 2005 and 8 days for both generations from 1991 to 2005. Correspondingly, clutch sizes for the two generations also increased during this period. There were no differences in median oviposition dates and clutch sizes between the two generations from 1991 to 2005. Our results suggest that Chinese alligators have responded to increasing global temperatures. Our findings also suggest that recent increasing global temperatures have the potential to have a substantial effect on Chinese alligator populations in the wild, thus prompting an urgent need for field monitoring of the effects of global warming on this endangered alligator species. Journal compilation 2009 The Zoological Society of London.
Murray, B., Baker, A.C. & Robson, T.C. 2009, 'Impacts of the replacement of native woodland with exotic pine plantations on leaf-litter invertebrate assemblages: a test of a novel framework', International Journal of Ecology, vol. 2009, no. 49035, pp. 1-6.
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We present an empirical comparison of invertebrate community sturcture between aereras of undisturbed native eucalypt woodland and areas that have been cleared and replaced with plantations of exotic radiata pine (Pinus radiata). Implementation of a novel conceptual framework revealed that both insect (in autumn) and arachnid (in winter) assemblages demonstrated inhibition in response to the pine plantations.
Hills, N., Hose, G.C., Cantlay, A.J. & Murray, B.R. 2008, 'Cave invertebrate assemblages differ between native and exotic leaf litter', AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 271-277.
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Yunusa, I.A.M., Manoharan, V., DeSilva, D.L., Eamus, D., Murray, B.R. & Nissanka, S.P. 2008, 'Growth and elemental accumulation by canola on soil amended with coal fly ash', Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 1263-1270.
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To explore the agronomic potential of an Australian coal fly ash, we conducted two glasshouse experiments in which we measured chlorophyll fluorescence, CO2 assimilation (A), transpiration, stomacal conductance, biomass accumulation, seed yield, and elemental uptake for canola (Brassica napus) grown on soil amended with an alkaline fly ash. In Experiment 1, application of up to 25 Mg/ha of fly ash increased A and plant weight early in the season before flowering and seed yield by up to 21%. However, at larger rates of ash application A, plant growth, chlorophyll concentration, and yield were all reduced. Increases in early vigor and seed yield were associated with enhanced uptake of phosphorus (P) by the plants treated with fly ash. Fly ash application did not influence accumulation of B, Cu, Mo, or Zn in the stems at any stage of plant growth or in the seed at harvest, except Mo concentration, which was elevated in the seed. Accumulation of these elements was mostly in the leaves, where concentrations of Cu and Mo increased with any amount of ash applied while that of B occurred only with ash applied at 625 Mg/ha. In Experiment 2, fly ash applied at 500 Mg/ha and mixed into die whole 30 cm soil core was detrimental to growth and yield of canola, compared with restricting mixing to 5 or 15 cm depth. In contrast, application of ash at 250 Mg/ha with increasing depth of mixing increased A and seed yield. We concluded that fly ash applied at not more than 25 Mg/ha and mixed into the top 10 to 15 cm of soil is sufficient to obtain yield benefits. Copyright 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.
Harris, C.J., Murray, B.R., Hose, G.C. & Hamilton, M.A. 2007, 'Introduction history and invasion success in exotic vines introduced to Australia', DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 467-475.
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Baker, A.C., Murray, B.R. & Hose, G.C. 2007, 'Relating pine-litter intrusion to plant-community structure in native eucalypt woodland adjacent to Pinus radiata (Pinaceae) plantations', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 521-532.
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Yunusa, I.A.M., Eamus, D., DeSilva, D.L., Murray, B.R., Burchett, M.D., Skilbeck, G.C. & Heidrich, C. 2006, 'Fly-ash: An exploitable resource for management of Australian agricultural soils', Fuel, vol. 85, no. 16 SPEC. ISS., pp. 2337-2344.
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Agricultural soils in Australia have inherent limitations of structural and nutritional nature that pose major constraints to crop productivity. These soils are still productive due to intensive management that involves routine treatments with lime and gypsum at significant costs both to the farmer and the environment. Production costs associated with these inputs average about 30% of the total cost of soil treatment. Furthermore, reserves of gypsum are under pressure. There is therefore an opportunity for the more than 13 million tonnes of coal combustion products (CCPs) produced annually by coal-fired power stations to be utilised in the management of agricultural soils. At present, about 70% of the ash is emplaced within landfills. In this paper we briefly describe the main constraints of major agricultural soils that could be ameliorated with fly-ash. We used a model to estimate that application of fine (<20 ?m) fly-ash to the top 0.15 m coarse textured (sandy) soil would reduce hydraulic conductivity by 25% and so improve water-holding capacity. The same treatment of fine textured clayey soil with coarse (>20 ?m) fly-ash would increase conductivity by up to 20%. We cite examples of studies that have shown beneficial use of coal-ash for crop production, including our ongoing glasshouse study in which fly-ash was found to increase early growth vigour and seed yield by 20% for canola (Brassica napus). There are several issues, including costs and regulation, and knowledge-gaps that need to be addressed before adoption of CCP for routine soil management. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Z., Li, Y. & Murray, B.R. 2006, 'Insular shifts in body size of rice frogs in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China', Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 1071-1080.
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1. Differences in body size between mainland and island populations have been reported for reptiles, birds and mammals. Despite widespread recognition of insular shifts in body size in these taxa, there have been no reports of such body size shifts in amphibians. 2. We provide the first evidence of an insular shift in body size for an amphibian species, the rice frog Rana limnocharis. We found significant increases in body size of rice frogs on most sampled islands in the Zhoushan archipelago when compared with neighbouring mainland China. 3. Large body size in rice frogs on islands was significantly related to increased population density, in both breeding and non-breeding seasons. Increases in rice frog density were significantly related to higher resource availability on islands. Increased resource availability on islands has led to higher carrying capacities, which has subsequently facilitated higher densities and individual growth rates, resulting in larger body size in rice frogs. We also suggest that large body size has evolved on islands, as larger individuals are competitively superior under conditions of harsh intraspecific competition at high densities. 4. Increases in body size in rice frogs were not related to several factors that have been implicated previously in insular shifts in body size in other taxa. We found no significant relationships between body size of rice frogs and prey size, number of larger or smaller frog species, island area or distance of islands from the mainland. 5. Our findings contribute to the formation of a broad, repeatable ecological generality for insular shifts in body size across a range of terrestrial vertebrate taxa, and provide support for recent theoretical work concerning the importance of resource availability for insular shifts in body size. 2006 The Authors.
Murray, B.R., Hose, G.C., Eamus, D. & Licari, D. 2006, 'Valuation of groundwater-dependent ecosystems: A functional methodology incorporating ecosystem services', Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 221-229.
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Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) are ecosystems that must have access to groundwater to maintain their ecological structure and function. Rapidly expanding numbers of humans are placing increased demands on groundwater for consumption, industry and agriculture. These demands alter groundwater regimes of GDEs that have evolved over millennia, resulting in the degradation of ecosystem health. As a consequence, the goods and services (ecosystem services) that GDEs provide for humans, which include food production and water purification, are at serious risk of being lost. Effective management of GDEs and their ecosystem services requires prioritisation of the most valuable ecosystems, given that increasing human demands and limited time and money preclude complete protection of all GDEs. Here, we provide an eight-step method for the valuation and initial prioritisation of GDEs. The proposed methodology improves on previous, primarily subjective methods for the valuation of GDEs by employing both economic valuation of the ecosystem services provided by GDEs, and ecological valuation of significant environmental attributes of GDEs. We apply the eight-step method to a hypothetical case study in order to demonstrate its applicability to a catchment containing a range of GDEs of different sizes, each possessing its own suite of threatened taxa. The major benefit of the valuation methodology presented here is that it can be used at three levels of complexity: (1) a full-desktop study, (2) a semi-desktop study requiring stakeholder consultation, and (3) a full field-based study, according to the time and money available for initial prioritisation efforts. CSIRO 2006.
Cadotte, M.W., Murray, B.R. & Lovett-Doust, J. 2006, 'Ecological patterns and biological invasions: Using regional species inventories in macroecology', BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 809-821.
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Hose, G.C., Murray, B.R., Park, M.L., Kelaher, B.P. & Figueira, W.F. 2006, 'A meta-analysis comparing the toxicity of sediments in the laboratory and in situ', ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1148-1152.
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Eamus, D., Froend, R., Loomes, R., Hose, G. & Murray, B. 2006, 'A functional methodology for determining the groundwater regime needed to maintain the health of groundwater-dependent vegetation', Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 97-114.
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In the past, the phrase 'environmental allocations of water' has most often been taken to mean allocation of water to rivers. However, it is now accepted that groundwater-dependent ecosystems are an important feature of Australian landscapes and require an allocation of water to maintain their persistence in the landscape. However, moving from this theoretical realisation to the provision and implementation of a field-based management regime is extremely difficult. The following four fundamental questions are identified as being central to the effective management of groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs): (1) How do we identify GDEs in the field; put another way, which species or species assemblages or habitats are reliant on a supply of groundwater for their persistence in the landscape; (2) what groundwater regime is required to ensure the persistence of a GDE; (3) how can managers of natural resources (principally water and habitats), with limited time, money and other resources, successfully manage GDEs; and (4) what measures of ecosystem function can be monitored to ensure that management is effective? This paper explicitly addresses these questions and provides a step-by-step theoretical and practical framework for providing answers. In particular, this paper provides an introduction to some of the relevant literature and from this, presents a synthesis, presented in the form of a functional methodology for managing groundwater dependent ecosystems. CSIRO 2006.
Baker, A.C., Hose, G.C. & Murray, B.R. 2006, 'Vegetation responses to Pinus radiata (D. Don) invasion: A multivariate analysis using principal response curves', PROCEEDINGS OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, vol. 127, pp. 191-197.
Cadotte, M.W., Murray, B.R. & Lovett-Doust, J. 2006, 'Evolutionary and ecological influences of plant invader success in the flora of Ontario', ECOSCIENCE, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 388-395.
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Murray, B.R. & Hose, G.C. 2005, 'The interspecific range size-body size relationship in Australian frogs', GLOBAL ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 339-345.
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Murray, B.R. & Hose, G.C. 2005, 'Life-history and ecological correlates of decline and extinction in the endemic Australian frog fauna', AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 564-571.
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Murray, B.R., Kelaher, B.P., Hose, G.C., Figueira, W.F. & Leishman, M.R. 2005, 'A meta-analysis of the interspecific relationship between seed size and plant abundance within local communities', OIKOS, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 191-194.
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Hose, G.C., Gordon, G., McCullough, F.E., Pulver, N. & Murray, B.R. 2005, 'Spatial and rainfall related patterns of bacterial contamination in Sydney Harbour estuary.', J Water Health, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 349-358.
Water quality in recreational areas in Sydney Harbour, Australia, was analysed first to identify spatial patterns in faecal coliform and enterococci densities, and then to determine the relationship between bacterial densities and catchment rainfall. Non-metric multidimensional scaling separated sites closest to the mouth of the harbour from those further up the harbour's west and north-west arms. Sites closest to the harbour mouth generally had lower frequencies of high bacterial densities that exceeded median water quality guideline values. We attribute this to greater tidal flushing at sites closer to the harbour mouth. Eight site groups were identified within the harbour. Within each group, multiple regression analyses indicated rainfall accounted for between 15 and 66% of the variability in the bacterial densities. Variation in bacterial densities explained by rainfall was lower for sites closer to the harbour mouth where tidal flushing is greatest. Thus, our findings indicate that simple rainfall-based regression models are appropriate for predicting bacterial concentrations when flushing at a site is limited. More complex models incorporating a suite of environmental variables may improve the ability to predict bacterial concentrations at well-flushed sites, but even then, their predictive ability may be low.
Eamus, D., Macinnis-Ng, C.M.O., Hose, G.C., Zeppel, M.J.B., Taylor, D.T. & Murray, B.R. 2005, 'Ecosystem services: An ecophysiological examination', Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 1-19.
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This review aims to discuss ecosystem services, provide illustrative case studies at catchment and local scales and present future research needs. This review discusses the following: (1) Ecosystem services (ES) are those goods and services that are provided by or are attributes of ecosystems that benefit humans. Examples of ES include the timber derived from a forest, the prevention of soil and coastal erosion by vegetation and the amelioration of dryland salinity through prevention of rises in the water table by trees. The provision of ES globally is in decline because of a lack of awareness of the total economic value of ES in the public, policy and political fora. (2) Providing a scientific understanding of the relationships among ecosystem structure, function and provision of ES, plus determining actual economic value of ES, are the central challenges to environmental scientists (including triple-bottom-line economists). (3) Some ES are widely dispersed throughout many different ecosystems. Carbon accumulation in trees and the contribution of biodiversity to ES provision are two examples of highly dispersed attributes common to many ecosystems. In contrast, other ES are best considered within the context of a single defined ecosystem (although they may occur in other ecosystems too). Mangroves as 'nursery' sites for juvenile fish is one example. (4) Examples of catchment-scale and local-scale provision of ES are discussed, along with future research issues for the nexus between ES and environmental sciences. CSIRO 2005.
Hamilton, M.A., Murray, B.R., Cadotte, M.W., Hose, G.C., Baker, A.C., Harris, C.J. & Licari, D. 2005, 'Life-history correlates of plant invasiveness at regional and continental scales', ECOLOGY LETTERS, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1066-1074.
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Pohlman, C.L., Nicotra, A.B. & Murray, B.R. 2005, 'Geographic range size, seedling ecophysiology and phenotypic plasticity in Australian Acacia species', JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 341-351.
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Murray, B.R. & Lepschi, B.J. 2004, 'Are locally rare species abundant elsewhere in their geographical range?', AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 287-293.
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McPherson, S., Eamus, D. & Murray, B.R. 2004, 'Seasonal impacts on leaf attributes of several tree species growing in three diverse ecosystems of south-eastern Australia', Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 293-301.
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Patterns of leaf attributes were examined for six woody species growing in a eucalypt woodland, a mangrove, or a heathland in coastal New South Wales, Australia, during winter and summer. It was found that the rate of assimilation per unit leaf dry mass (Amass) of the mangrove species was largest, woodland species exhibiting an intermediate rate and heathland species the smallest values of Amass. Mean habitat Amass did not change from winter to summer in the woodland or mangrove species but increased significantly in the heathland species. Average specific leaf area (SLA) was largest for the mangrove species and smallest for the heathland species, with woodland species showing intermediate values. SLA of all species within a habitat did not change from winter to summer. Mean foliar nitrogen content (Nmass) of the mangrove species was highest, intermediate for woodland species and lowest for heathland species. Nmass was significantly related to Amass in both summer and winter and the individual slopes for this relationship in the summer and winter differed. In contrast, a common slope was fitted to the relationship between SLA and A mass for the two seasons. A common slope between seasons was also shown for the relationship between SLA and Nmass. There was no significant difference in slope elevation between summer and winter for the SLA v. Nmass relationship. Trends within relationships among leaf attributes were the same as those found for a wide range of plant species worldwide, but the absolute values were lower than those found elsewhere. Therefore, the 'global relationships' in terms of trends (positive or negative) that have been determined overseas apply in Australia but the elevation of the slope and the magnitude of the slope are reduced (Amass v. N mass) or increased (Amass v. SLA and Nmass v. SLA) compared with global trends.
Hose, G.C., Murray, B.R. & Eamus, D. 2004, 'Water quality guidelines to protect groundwater-dependent ecosystems', Ecological Management and Restoration, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 78-80.
Zeppel, M.J.B., Murray, B.R., Barton, C. & Eamus, D. 2004, 'Seasonal responses of xylem sap velocity to VPD and solar radiation during drought in a stand of native trees in temperate Australia', Functional Plant Biology, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 461-470.
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Xylem sap velocity of two dominant tree species, Eucalyptus crebra F. Muell. and Callitris glaucophylla J. Thompson & L.A.S. Johnson, in a native remnant forest of eastern Australia was measured in winter and summer during a prolonged (> 12 months) and extensive drought. The influence of vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and solar radiation levels on the velocity of sap was determined. Pronounced hysteresis in sap velocity was observed in both species as a function of VPD and solar radiation. However, the rotation of the hysteresis curve was clockwise for the response of sap velocity to VPD but anti-clockwise in the response of sap velocity to radiation levels. A possible reason for this difference is discussed. The degree of hysteresis (area bounded by the curve) was larger for the VPD response than the response to solar radiation and also varied with season. A simple linear model was able to predict sap velocity from knowledge of VPD and solar radiation in winter and summer. The consistent presence of hysteresis in the response to sap velocity to VPD and solar radiation suggests that large temporal and spatial models of vegetation water use may require some provision for the different responses of sap velocity, and hence water use, to VPD and solar radiation, between morning and afternoon and between seasons.
Murray, B.R., Brown, A.H.D., Dickman, C.R. & Crowther, M.S. 2004, 'Geographical gradients in seed mass in relation to climate', JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 379-388.
Hose, G.C., Murray, B. & Eamus, D. 2004, 'Water quality guidelines to protect groundwater-dependent ecosystems', Ecological Management & Restoration, vol. 5, pp. 78-80.
Murray, B. 2003, 'Reproductive characteristics of Road-verge and Reserve-interior populations of Exocarpos cupressiformis Labill (Santalaceae)', The Victorian Naturalist, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 10-14.
Murray, B.R., Zeppel, M.J.B., Hose, G.C. & Eamus, D. 2003, 'Groundwater-dependent ecosystems in Australia: It's more than just water for rivers', Ecological Management and Restoration, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 110-113.
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Murray, B.R. & Leishman, M.R. 2003, 'On the relationship between seed mass and species abundance in plant communities', OIKOS, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 643-645.
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Zeppel, M.J.B., Murray, B.R. & Eamus, D. 2003, 'The potential impact of dryland salinity on the threatened flora and fauna of New South Wales', Ecological Management and Restoration, vol. 4, no. SUPPL..
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We used digital map overlays in a geographical information system (GIS) to quantify the potential impact of dryland salinity on the threatened flora and fauna of New South Wales (NSW). Geographical areas of conservation priority were identified based on richness of threatened species with distribution records overlapping dryland salinity. Two alternative schemes - Interim Biogeographical Regionalization for Australia (regions) and catchment boundaries (catchments) - were used to subdivide NSW. Sydney Basin, North Coast and South-western Slopes regions - and Hunter, Sydney, Macquarie, Murrumbidgee and Lachlan catchments - were identified as priority areas with more than 10 salinity-overlap species present. Five threatened plant species were identified as priority species due to more than half of their known distributions overlapping areas of dryland salinity. Threatened animal species of most concern had 10-50% of their records overlapping areas of dryland salinity. Our findings demonstrate that landscape exposure to dryland salinity should be used in conjunction with total richness of threatened species for prioritizing conservation of geographical areas with respect to the potential impact of dryland salinity on threatened species.
Murray, B.R., Brown, A.H.D. & Grace, J.P. 2003, 'Geographic gradients in seed size among and within perennial Australian Glycine species', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 47-56.
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Murray, B.R., Thrall, P.H. & Lepschi, B.J. 2002, 'Relating species rarity to life history in plants of eastern Australia', EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY RESEARCH, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 937-950.
Murray, B.R., Thrall, P.H., Gill, A.M. & Nicotra, A.B. 2002, 'How plant life-history and ecological traits relate to species rarity and commonness at varying spatial scales', AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 291-310.
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Murray, B. 2002, 'Book review: Introduction to Plant Population Biology', New Phytologist, vol. 155, pp. 201-202.
Murray, B., Thrall, P.H. & Woods, M.J. 2001, 'Acacia Species and Rhizobial Interactions: Implications for Restoration of Native Vegetation', Ecological Management & Restoration, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 213-219.
Thrall, P.H., Murray, B., Watkin, E.L., Woods, M.J., Baker, K., Burdon, J.J. & Brockwell, J. 2001, 'Bacterial partnerships enhance the value of native legumes in rehabilitation of degraded agricultural lands', Ecological Management & Restoration, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 233-235.
A consequence of the generally low nutrient levels of Australian soils is that relationships between plants and their microbial symbionts (mycorrhizal fungi as weJl as nitrogen-fixing bacteria) have particular significanc:e for conservation management, sustainable agriculture, and eco~ystem rehabilitation. Shrubby legumes in the Fabaceae (e.g. Acacia, Oaviesia, Oil/wynia, Oxylobium, Hovea and Pultenaea) constitute a major group of plants that form nitrogen- fixing (N2-fixin@) partnerships with root-nodule bacteria (species of rhizobia). These taxa are found throughout Australia, and are frequently a dominant part of undisturbed ecosystems, both in terms of abundance as well as overall biomass.
Leishman, M.R. & Murray, B.R. 2001, 'The relationship between seed size and abundance in plant communities: model predictions and observed patterns', OIKOS, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 151-161.
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Falster, D.S., Murray, B.R. & Lepschi, B.J. 2001, 'Linking abundance, occupancy and spatial structure: an empirical test of a neutral model in an open-forest woody plant community in eastern Australia', JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 317-323.
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Murray, B.R. & Gill, A.M. 2001, 'A comparative study of interspecific variation in fruit size among Australian eucalypts', ECOGRAPHY, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 651-658.
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Thrall, P.H., Murray, B., Watkin, E.L., Woods, M.J., Baker, K., Burdon, J.J. & Brockwell, J. 2001, 'Bacterial partnerships enhance the value of native legumes in rehabilitation of degraded agricultural lands', Ecological Management & Restoration, vol. 2, pp. 233-235.
A consequence of the generally low nutrient levels of Australian soils is that relationships between plants and their microbial symbionts (mycorrhizal fungi as well as nitrogen-fixing bacteria) have particular significance for conservation management, sustainable agriculture, and ecosystem rehabilitation. Shrubby legumes in the Fabaceae (e.g. Acacia, Daviesia, Dillwynia, Oxylobium, Hovea and Pultenaea) constitute a major group of plants that form nitrogen- fixing (N2-fixing) partnerships with root-nodule bacteria (species of rhizobia). These taxa are found throughout Australia, and are frequently a dominant part of undisturbed ecosystems, both in terms of abundance as well as overall biomass.
Murray, B.R. & Westoby, M. 2000, 'Properties of species in the tail of rank-abundance curves: The potential for increase in abundance', EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY RESEARCH, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 583-592.
Murray, B.R. & Dickman, C.R. 2000, 'Relationships between body size and geographical range size among Australian mammals: has human impact distorted macroecological patterns?', ECOGRAPHY, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 92-100.
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Murray, B.R., Dickman, C.R., Watts, C.H.S. & Morton, S.R. 1999, 'The dietary ecology of Australian desert rodents (vol 26, pg 421, 1998)', WILDLIFE RESEARCH, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 857-858.
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Murray, B.R., Rice, B.L., Keith, D.A., Myerscough, P.J., Howell, J., Floyd, A.G., Mills, K. & Westoby, M. 1999, 'Species in the tail of rank-abundance curves', ECOLOGY, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 1806-1816.
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Murray, B.R., Dickman, C.R., Watts, C.H.S. & Morton, S.R. 1999, 'The dietary ecology of Australian desert rodents', WILDLIFE RESEARCH, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 421-437.
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Murray, B.R. 1998, 'Density-dependent germination and the role of seed leachate', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 411-418.
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Murray, B.R., Fonseca, C.R. & Westoby, M. 1998, 'The macroecology of Australian frogs', JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 567-579.
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Murray, B.R. & Dickman, C.R. 1997, 'Factors affecting selection of native seeds in two species of Australian desert rodents', JOURNAL OF ARID ENVIRONMENTS, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 517-525.
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Murray, B., Hume, I. & Dickman, C.R. 1995, 'Digestive tract characteristics of the spinifex hopping-mouse, Notomys alexis and the sandy inland mouse, Pseudomys hermannsburgensis in relation to diet', Australian Mammalogy, vol. 18, pp. 93-97.
MURRAY, B.R. & DICKMAN, C.R. 1994, 'FOOD PREFERENCES AND SEED SELECTION IN 2 SPECIES OF AUSTRALIAN DESERT RODENTS', WILDLIFE RESEARCH, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 647-655.
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MURRAY, B.R. & DICKMAN, C.R. 1994, 'GRANIVORY AND MICROHABITAT USE IN AUSTRALIAN DESERT RODENTS - ARE SEEDS IMPORTANT', OECOLOGIA, vol. 99, no. 3-4, pp. 216-225.
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Reports

Yunusa, I.A., Veeragathipillai, M., Burchett, M., Eamus, D. & Skilbeck, G. Not applicable 2008, Utilisation of Coal Ash in Horticultural and Agricultural Ecosystems, pp. 1-111, Sydney, Australia.