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Associate Professor Bert Bongers

Biography

Dr. Bert Bongers leads the Interactivation Studio in the Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building to support the design and research of interactivating objects and spaces.

Bert has a mixed background in technology, human sciences and the arts, developed through education as well as practice. In his PhD thesis he combined insights and experiences gained from musical instrument design, interactive architecture, video performances and interface development for multimedia systems to establish frameworks and an ecological approach for interaction between people and technology.

He has set up media labs in Amsterdam, Barcelona and Maastricht and lectured on interaction at various universities and schools. He has taught Masters programs such as Industrial Design, Cognitive Systems, Interactive Media and User-System Interaction at Eindhoven, Barcelona and Delft.
His audiovisual installations and performances have been presented at the Powerhouse Museum, DAB Lab gallery and Smart Light Sydney, Metronom Gallery and the Mercat de les Flores In Barcelona, and STEIM and other venues in Amsterdam.

Image of Bert Bongers
Associate Professor, School of Design
Visiting Fellow, School of Design
Core Member, Asia-Pacific Centre for Complex Real Property Rights
BSc, MSc, PhD
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 8087
Can supervise: Yes

Books

Bongers, B. 2006, Interactivation - Towards an e-cology of people, our technological environment, and the arts., Lulu Publishers, Amsterdam.
PhD Thesis, Free University of Amsterdam, NL
Bongers, B. 2004, Interaction with our electronic environment: an e-cological approach to physical interface design, Hogeschool van Utrecht, Faculty of Journalism and Communication, Ultrecht, the Netherlands.

Chapters

Bongers, A.J., Smith, S., Donker, V., Pickrell, M., Hall, R. & Lie, S. 2014, 'Interactive Infrastructures: Physical Rehabilitation Modules for Pervasive Healthcare Technology' in Holzinger, A., Ziefle, M. & Röcker, C. (eds), Pervasive Health – State of the Art and Beyond, Springer Verlag, London, pp. 229-254.
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Traditional physical rehabilitation techniques are based mainly on mechanical structures and passive materials. This has certain limitations, which can be overcome by applying interactive technologies. As a team of designers, technologists and medical researchers and practitioners, we have developed an interactive sensor floor tile system and several other modules for rehabilitation exercises, as part of an interactive infrastructure to support rehabilitation. Since 2009, the team has advanced its understanding of rehabilitation practices and problems, and designed prototypes, interventions and demonstrators in order to gain feedback on our approach. We have identified as the three critical issues affecting rehabilitation motivation, customisation, andindependence. The system that we have developed is founded on the current mechanical practices, of improvisational nature, and creative use of existing materials and techniques, expanding from this way of working by applying new interactive digital technologies and 3D instant manufacturing techniques. We have developed a number of modules for the system, and a physical programming technique which aims to blend in with current practices. Two sets of sensor floor modules are in use in hospitals and we are reporting in this chapter the first positive effects the system has on the rehabilitation of stroke patients.
Bongers, B. 2012, 'Multimodal Interaction in Protospace 1.0' in Oosterhuis, K.E.A. (ed), Hyperbody - First Decade of Interactive Architecture, Jap Sam Books, Heijningen, NL, pp. 533-548.
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The article is abut the first stages of the protospace development in the old building of the Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, and focus on the new interaction styles and interfaces infrastructures we designed. I have been involved in the development of protospace from its start in 2003, as a freelance researcher and developer. Since September 2003, the protospace 1.1 phase was about installing several sensors in the space, such as photocells, switch mats and motion detectors. This has largely been carried out by Dieter Vandoren and other researchers of Hyperbody. In 2004 we started the protospace 1.2 phase and developed a camera-based movement tracking system, with audio feedback and speech recognition. In this phase the concept of a separate 'interaction computer' was introduced, which handles all interaction with the players, and communicates with the Virtools computers. The following phase, protospace 1.3, implemented a number of new technologies, to be applied in the case study. protospace 1.4 is a case study, in which the technologies developed in the previous phases are to be applied, and which is described elsewhere.
Bongers, B. 2012, 'Expressive Musical Interface Design' in Brown Andrew, R. (ed), Sound Musicianship: Understanding the Crafts of Music, Cambridge Scholars Publishers, Newcastle upon Tyne, pp. 189-201.
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This chapter focuses on the interface - the part of the instrument that facilitates interaction between a player and sound generating systems. It describes some background to musical instrument design, outlines the PIDS design framework, and then details a case study of the design and development of new electronic controllers for the jam2jam music system. In traditional musical instruments, the sound source and interface are integrated, but these two parts are often separate in electronic instruments. With the introduction of the MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) protocol in the mid-1980s, this separation of interface and sound source was further facilitated. At present, the OSC (Open Sound Control) protocol is widespread and allows a higher bandwidth and greater precision of control parameters. However, due to this separation, the natural connection a player used to have with the sound source is lost. The interface has to be designed to allow all forms of interaction necessary for successfully supporting musical expressivity. This is try in general for electronic systems, as studied in the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Electronic musical instruments are devices that require extreme sensitivity and connection between player and process. This chapter shows some examples of the reciprocal relationship between HCI and musical instrument design, and how this relationship can mediate musicianship skills.
Bongers, B. & Smith, S. 2011, 'Interactivating Rehabilitation through Active Multimodal Feedback and Guidance' in Rocker, C. & Ziefle, M. (eds), Smart Healthcare Applications and Services: Developments and Practices, IGI-Global, Hershey, PA, USA, pp. 236-260.
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This chapter outlines a Human-Computer Interaction inspired approach to rehabilitation of neurological damage (e.g. spinal cord injury) that employs novel, computer guided multimodal feedback in the form of video games or generation of musical content. The authors report an initial exploratory phase of a project aimed at gaining insight into the development of spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation tools. This exploration included observation of a number of patient interactions in their current rehabilitation routines; the development of initial prototype proposals; and finally through to the development of rapid prototypes which can be used in rehabilitation settings. This initial phase has yielded an understanding of the issues surrounding the development of novel technologies for rehabilitation that will direct further research in the area of rehabilitation engineering. Through the integration of novel methods, in particular the use of interactive physical devices, to the rehabilitation of SCI patients, larger scale research into efficacy of the devices we are developing can be undertaken. These developments may eventually beneficially impact upon the instruments used, the training methods applied and the rehabilitation routines undertaken for individuals living with neurological damage.
Bongers, B. & Van der Veer, G.C. 2009, 'HCI and Design Research Education' in Kotze, P., Wong, W., Jorge, J., Dix, A. & Silva, P.A. (eds), Creativity and HCI: from Experience to Design Education, Springer, UK, pp. 97-112.
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This paper describes the latest insights in HCI education inspired and informed by the creative disciplines, how education is implemented, and how it could be fed back into the artistic fields. It contains examples, contrasts different methods, and discusses and concludes the findings for HCI education in general. A course on HCI is described which is supported by a creative approach, related to art, architecture and music. Experiences are described in of HCI tools and insights such as structured design methods, interaction frameworks and interface design heuristics relevant to the arts fields.

Conferences

Bongers, A. & Heffer, C. 2015, 'Pattern Stations - Extending textile materials through tangible interaction', TEI 2015 - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction, TEI 2015: 9th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, Stanford University, pp. 405-406.
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Pattern Stations is a collaborative project between textile designer and artist Cecilia Heffer and interface designer and interaction researcher Bert Bongers. The interactive installations create patterns, extending the textile patterns through sensors, cameras and computation. The tangible patterns installation is developed specifically for the TEI conference, and aims to give the audience an experience of manipulation of physical objects and materials.
Pickrell, M., Bongers, A. & van den Hoven, E. 2015, 'Understanding persuasion and motivation in interactive stroke rehabilitation: A physiotherapists' perspective on patient motivation', Persuasive Technology - LNCS, 10th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, Springer, Chicago, USA, pp. 15-26.
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For the research reported in this paper ethnographic research methodologies were used to explore patient motivation, feedback and the use of interactive technologies in the ward. We have conducted in-depth interviews with physiotherapists, who work closely with stroke patients to help them regain movement and function. From this research, a set of design guidelines have been developed which can be applied in the design of interactive rehabilitation equipment.
Bongers, A.J. 2015, 'Interactive infrastructures - Towards a language for distributed interfaces', Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction, 9th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction, ACM, USA, pp. 481-484.
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An interactive infrastructure allows people to have access to the parameters of an interactive environment in real time, potentially leading to an increased productivity, decrease of energy and material consumption, and generally greater satisfaction and experience. However, there is a need for a universal communication language between the elements of such an infrastructure and the real world. A language that can connect the Internet of Things, media contents, and people. The workshop will bring together a number of participants from the field of Tangible and Embedded Interaction, who have ideas, insights and experience in developing communication languages. Rather than a symposium or mini-conference format, the format for the day is that of a working group consisting experts and contributors. This working group will establish the groundwork for the interactive infrastructures language.
Pickrell, M., Bongers, B. & van den Hoven, E. 2015, 'Understanding persuasion and motivation in interactive stroke rehabilitation: A physiotherapists' perspective on patient motivation', Persuasive Technology - LNCS, 10th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, Springer, Chicago, USA, pp. 15-26.
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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. For the research reported in this paper ethnographic research methodologies were used to explore patient motivation, feedback and the use of interactive technologies in the ward. We have conducted in-depth interviews with physiotherapists, who work closely with stroke patients to help them regain movement and function. From this research, a set of design guidelines have been developed which can be applied in the design of interactive rehabilitation equipment.
Donker, V., Markopoulos, P. & Bongers, A. 2015, 'REHAP Balance Tiles: A modular system supporting balance rehabilitation', Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, 9th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, ICST, Istanbul, pp. 201-208.
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This paper describes the design, development, implementation and user evaluation of an interactive modular tile system, aimed to support balance rehabilitation of patients recovering from a stroke. The REHAP Balance Tiles system is an innovative tool, which has been developed in close collaboration with therapists and patients in stroke units of health rehabilitation institutes in Sydney, Australia and Eindhoven, the Netherlands. The system was designed to allow therapists to tailor exercises for each patient by changing the physical configuration of tiles. We report a user evaluation in a rehabilitation clinic, which lasted five weeks. Results indicate that the tiles can fulfill their envisioned purpose. They are received well by therapists, meeting requirements for ease of use, motivational feedback, modularity and flexibility.
Feltham, F.G., Loke, L., van den Hoven, E., Hannam, J. & Bongers, B. 2014, 'The Slow Floor: Increasing creative agency while walking on an interactive surface', Proceedings of the 8th International conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction, International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction, ACM, Munich, Germany, pp. 105-112.
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Walking is a physical activity that most people do on a daily basis. It is often characterized as a utilitarian means of locomotion; our basic, habitual mode of getting around from place to place. Walking can also be considered a creative and expressive act, with the potential for inspiring the design of interactive surfaces to support and mediate these aesthetic aspects. We draw on understandings of walking from a range of perspectives including biomechanics, ecological perception, anthropology and dance to inform the design and evaluation of an interactive surface. This surface, the Slow Floor, is intended to encourage a reflective engagement with the act of walking. We present the design and initial user evaluation of the Slow Floor, a pressure sensitive sound-generating surface, with a group of Butoh dancers performing a slow walk. The evaluation reveals a unique creative agency when walking on the Slow Floor compared to the internal focus on awareness when slow walking without the interactive surface. This creative agency provides new knowledge on the role interactive surfaces can play in developing awareness of movement and internal felt experience contributing to the discussion around somatics and HCI.
Bongers, A.J., Smith, S., Donker, V. & Pickrell, M. 2014, 'Interactive Rehabilitation Tiles', http://www.tei-conf.org/14/wips_list.php, Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction (TEI), ACM, Munich, Germany.
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Traditional physical rehabilitation techniques are based mainly on mechanical structures and passive materials. This has certain limitations, which can be overcome by applying interactive technologies. As a team of designers, technologists and medical researchers and practitioners, we have developed an interactive sensor floor tile system for rehabilitation exercises, as part of an interactive infrastructure to support rehabilitation for stroke patients. Since 2009, the team has advanced its understanding of rehabilitation practices and problems, and designed prototypes, interventions and demonstrators in order to gain feedback on our approach. We have identified as the three critical factors affecting rehabilitation motivation, customisation, and independence. The system that we have developed is founded on the current mechanical practices, of improv¬isational nature, and creative use of existing materials and techniques, expanding from this way of working by applying new interactive digital technologies and 3D instant manufacturing techniques. Two sets of sensor floor modules are in use in hospitals and we are reporting in this paper the first positive effects the system has on the patients' rehabilitation.
Bongers, B. 2013, 'Traces - 'reading' the environment', Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Electronic Art, ISEA International Symposium on the Electronic Arts, ISEA International, the Australian Network for Art & Technology and the University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-4.
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This paper looks particularly at informal and implicit sources of information in our environment, how we can read this kind of information, and how the information has come about. The paper focuses on implicit information and `reading the environment, with examples from practice, and presenting an art project that investigates this notion through an interactive video installation. This installation, called `Traces', presented interactive videos and photographs of two types of human-made traces, revealing past behaviours and/or intentions. It took for instance the skidmarks of cars on roads as input for a process of video manipulation and a recorded sonification.
Lie, S., Liu, D. & Bongers, B. 2012, 'A cooperative approach to the design of an Operator Control Unit for a semi-autonomous grit-blasting robot', Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation (ACRA) 2012, Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation 2012, Australian Robotics and Automation Association (ARAA), Wellington, New Zealand, pp. 1-7.
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Due to the diverse range of applications that robots cover today, Human Robot Interaction interface design has become an equally diverse area. This diverse area is characterised by the different types of end users that make use of the robots. For robots to be useful to end users their needs have to be well understoodby the robotics development teams. One approach that facilitates understanding the end users needs is Cooperative Design. This paper presents the results of a study that took a Cooperative Design approach to the design and development of a robotic Operator Control Unit. The results presented here demonstrate that end users involved in the cooperative design approach thought it added important value to the design outcome, that they enjoyed the process and that it helped build interpersonal relationships within the development team.
Mueller, F., Walmink, W., Toprak, C., Bongers, B., Graether, E. & van, D.H.E. 2012, 'Hanging off a Bar', Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2012 Extended Abstracts (CHI EA 2012), CHI 2012, ACM, Austin, TX, USA, pp. 1055-1058.
Exertion Games involve physical effort and as a result can facilitate physical health benefits. We present Hanging off a Bar, an action hero-inspired Exertion Game in which players hang off an exercise bar over a virtual river for as long as possible. Initial observations from three events with audiences ranging from the general public to expert game designers suggest that Hanging off a Bar can be engaging for players and facilitate intense exertion within seconds. Furthermore, we collected suggestions for what game elements players believe could entice them to increase their physical effort investment. These suggestions, combined with Hanging off a Bar as research vehicle due to the easy measurement of exertion through hanging time, enable future explorations into the relationship between digital game elements and physical exertion, guiding designers on how to support exertion in digital games.
Bongers, B. & Mery Keitel, A.S. 2011, 'Interactive Kaleidoscope: Audience Participation Study', Proceedings of the 23rd Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference (OzCHI 2011), OzCHI 2011, ACM, ANU, Canberra, pp. 58-61.
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This paper presents a physical user interface design approach based on interactive art pieces. A range of interactive video installations have been developed by the first author and presented at festivals and exhibitions, enabling audiences to co-create images of kaleidoscopic patterns and textures through movement and tangible interaction. The focus of this paper is the reporting of a semi-structured study in a museum context, addressing the three research questions of whether people are drawn into the installation, whether the interaction is clear, and to what extent the participants become engaged. The findings reveal that audiences are attracted and that the levels of engagement are satisfactory in the context of children exploring the museum. We propose five stages of interaction reflecting the engagement.
Bongers, B. & Smith, S.T. 2010, 'Interactivated rehabilitation device', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Conference of the Computer-Human Interaction Special Interest Group of Australia on Computer-Human Interaction, ACM Digital Library, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 410-411.
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The demo presents a system and interface for a reaching task for physical rehabilitation therapies, enhanced with multimodal interaction. The interface is a handheld device which can be manipulated by the patient, guiding and tracking their movements dur
Chen, Y.A., Bongers, B. & Iedema, R.A. 2009, 'Visual Melodies - Interactive Installation for Creating a Relaxing Environment in a Healthcare Setting', Proceedings of the OZCHI 2009, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM CHISIG, Melbourne, pp. 361-364.
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Overview of research and design of the Visual Melodies installation for hospital waiting rooms.
Bongers, B. 2009, 'Audience Movements and Spatial Interaction', Spatial phrases: proceedings from the SEAM Symposium 2009, SEAM 2009 Spatial Phrases, SEAM, Sydney, pp. 13-45.
Bongers, B. & Mery Keitel, A.S. 2008, 'Interactivated Reading Table', Proceedings of the Conference of the Computer-Human Interaction Special Interest Group (CHISIG) of Australia on Computer-Human Interaction, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, CHISIG, Cairns, Australia, pp. 1-2.
A mixed media reading table has been developed and presented to the public on various occasions. The aim is to create an integrated experience for the users, bringing together traditional media (such as books) with new media (such as video). The table uses RFID technology to link the physical objects to the media content. The project is submitted as a demo for the conference.
Bongers, B. & Harris, Y. 2002, 'A Structured Instrument Design Approach: The Video-Organ', New Insturments for Musical Expressions, New Instruments for Musical Expression NIME-02, Media Lab, Dublin, Ireland, pp. 86-91.
Bongers, B. 2002, 'Interactivating Spaces', Systems Research in the Arts: Music, Environmental Design & the Choreography of Space, International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, IIAS, International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research and Cybernetics, Baden-Baden, Germany, pp. 1-6.
Environments are described that are a combination of physical space and computer systems that interact with the people in it, through sensors and actuators. The terms and notions involved in multimodal interactions are described, focusing on the level of physical interaction, and relevant technologies are briefly described. The notion of Interactivated Spaces is illustrated by projects the author was (or still is) involved in, categorised in large scale instruments, future houses, interactive architecture and interactive installations. The final section argues that a successful Interactive Space actually can have elements of all these categories.
Tanaka, A. & Bongers, B. 2001, 'Global String - A Musical Instrument for Hybrid Space', Cast01 Conference on Communication of Art, Science and Technology, CAST 01, FhG-ZPS, Schloss Birlinghoven, Germany, pp. 177-181.
Creative and technical considerations in building a musical instrument to traverse acoustical space and network space. Conceiving a musical instrument for heterogeneous space and democratic use requires implementation of diverse modes and techniques satisfying needs of tactile local presence, and tangible telepresence. The result is an artistic project destined for multi-site gallery installation and performance. It is a musical instrument that exists in the mixed realities of acoustical space and network space.

Journal articles

Heijboer, M., van den Hoven, E., Bongers, B. & Bakker, S. 2016, 'Facilitating peripheral interaction: design and evaluation of peripheral interaction for a gesture-based lighting control with multimodal feedback', PERSONAL AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1-22.
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van den Berg, M., Sherrington, C., Killington, M., Smith, S., Bongers, B., Hassett, L. & Crotty, M. 2015, 'Video and computer-based interactive exercises are safe and improve task-specific balance in geriatric and neurological rehabilitation: A randomised trial', Journal of Physiotherapy.
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© 2015.Question: Does adding video/computer-based interactive exercises to inpatient geriatric and neurological rehabilitation improve mobility outcomes? Is it feasible and safe? Design: Randomised trial. Participants: Fifty-eight rehabilitation inpatients. Intervention: Physiotherapist-prescribed, tailored, video/computer-based interactive exercises for 1 hour on weekdays, mainly involving stepping and weight-shifting exercises. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was the Short Physical Performance Battery (0 to 3) at 2 weeks. Secondary outcomes were: Maximal Balance Range (mm); Step Test (step count); Rivermead Mobility Index (0 to 15); activity levels; Activity Measure for Post Acute Care Basic Mobility (18 to 72) and Daily Activity (15 to 60); Falls Efficacy Scale (10 to 40), ED5D utility score (0 to 1); Reintegration to Normal Living Index (0 to 100); System Usability Scale (0 to 100) and Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (0 to 126). Safety was determined from adverse events during intervention. Results: At 2 weeks the between-group difference in the primary outcome (0.1, 95% CI -0.2 to 0.3) was not statistically significant. The intervention group performed significantly better than usual care for Maximal Balance Range (38. mm difference after baseline adjustment, 95% CI 6 to 69). Other secondary outcomes were not statistically significant. Fifty-eight (55%) of the eligible patients agreed to participate, 25/29 (86%) completed the intervention and 10 (39%) attended > 70% of sessions, with a mean of 5.6 sessions (SD 3.3) attended and overall average duration of 4.5. hours (SD 3.1). Average scores were 62 (SD 21) for the System Usability Scale and 62 (SD 8) for the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. There were no adverse events. Conclusion: The addition of video/computer-based interactive exercises to usual rehabilitation is a safe and feasible way to increase exercise dose, but is not suitable for all. Adding the exercises to usual rehabilitation resulted ...
Bongers, B., Eggen, B. & Oosterhuis, K. 2014, 'Interactive Infrastructures—Distributed Interfaces for the Built Environment', Next Generation Building, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 101-112.
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An interactive infrastructure allows users to have access to the parameters of a building in real time, potentially leading to an increased productivity, lowering of energy and material consumption, and generally greater user satisfaction and experience. The aims of this research are to investigate and design new ways for interacting with the infrastructure of buildings, and to research and develop the basis for an interactive infrastructure communication language which enables the distributed elements of the infrastructure to communicate with each other and with the users. The effectiveness of infrastructure in buildings can be significantly improved with this approach.
Bongers, B. 2013, 'Anthropomorphic Resonances: On The Relationship Between Computer Interfaces And The Human Form And Motion', Interacting With Computers, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 117-132.
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This article places the notion of organic user interfaces in a historical context of developments in architecture, art and design, and illustrates the organic design of several recent projects. These examples are drawn from the authors own practice, in musical instrument design, video interfaces and installations, liquid architecture, interactive textiles and 3D printed individually shaped user interfaces. The reciprocal relationship between the human form and function and interface design is discussed, in the historical context of aesthetic and practical responses to technological developments, through the concept of anthropomorphic resonances. The approach proposed and illustrated through the examples aims to shape the (passive as well as the dynamic) shape of the organic user interface to establish these resonances. The use of active feedback and haptic presentation is presented as a way of creating a dynamic organic shape.
Bongers, B. 2012, 'Interactive video projections as augmented environments', International Journal of Arts and Technology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 17-52.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the work presented in this paper is to investigate and demonstrate the potential for sensitive, physical and spatial interaction, bringing together the electronic and physical environments in an ecological approach. Through the research and design processes in the authorâs studio such electronic ecologies as spatial audiovisual environments are developed, in which the audience co-creates the final result through their body movements. An open design approach is applied, the audience participates in the development process at any stage. The paper presents a media framework to place interactivity and time-based material in a context. Several recent pieces are described, interactive video environments such as Trainflow and Facets, including a presentation of technical factors. The paper has a section on mapping and other design considerations, and audience feedback and experiences. The final section of this paper concludes with a discussion and reflection on the process and outcomes, and it presents future directions.
Bongers, B. 2012, 'The Projector as Instrument', Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 65-75.
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The projects presented in this paper address two issues. The first issue is about the act of interactivism of liberating the projector, and the subsequent design considerations of taking a certain technology out of its intended context, and the issue of breaking out of the 'frame'. The second issue is about how video material through personal projection becomes a human output modality, potentially enabling a new and exciting form of audiovisual expression. This restores the balance of the enormous amount of images (still and moving) we take from out environment, but rarely give back. To address this asymmetry, the Videowalker project has been developed, as an instrument and an idea. It aims to address the urban space and the natural environment with audiovisual mate- rial, responding and reflecting on the context. Through the project the trend of portable projectors is anticipated, with the explicit aim to investigate how this technology can be used as an expressive human output modality. This means that a strong emphasis in the development and design processes is put on the interface as well as the audience experience. The paper describes the background of the project and its approaches, and experiences and reflections on a range of instantiations/performances with the instru- ment in Spain, The Netherlands and Australia since 2003. The technology of the set-up is described in enough detail to enable others to replicate the system. Related projects are described and compared, and the notion of Videowalk is placed in an artistic historic context. From the experiments and events a number of issues have come up, and identified as the most important design parameters to research were the shape of the projection and the nature of the audiovisual content
Bongers, B. 2007, 'Electronic Musical Instruments: Experiences of a New Luthier', Leonardo Music Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 9-16.
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The author reflects on his experiences as a designer of new electronic musical instruments, which have led to further insights and applications in other domains such as video performance, architectural design and knowledge applied in the general field of human-computer interaction.
Bongers, B. & Van der Veer, G.C. 2007, 'Towards a Multimodal Interaction Space: categorisation and application', Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 609-619.
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Based on many experiences of developing interactive systems by the authors, a framework for the description and analysis of interaction has been developed. The dimensions of this multimodal interaction space have been identified as sensory modalities, modes and levels of interaction. To illustrate and validate this framework, development of multimodal interaction styles is carried out and interactions in the real world are studied, going from theory to practice and back again. The paper describes the framework and two recent projects, one in the field of interactive architecture and another in the field of multimodal HCI research. Both projects use multiple modalities for interaction, particularly movement based interaction styles.
Markopoulos, P., Bongers, B., Van Alphen, E., Dekker, J., van dijk, W., Messemaker, S., van Poppel, J., van Vlist, B., Volman, D. & van Wanrooij, G. 2006, 'The PhotoMirror Appliance: Affective Awareness in the Hallway', Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 10, no. 2-3, pp. 128-135.
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This paper presents the design of PhotoMirror an intra-home communication appliance for supporting informal, lightweight communication and awareness between home inhabitants. The PhotoMirror captures and displays images of trivial daily events and rituals reflecting the commotion and activities of home inhabitants.
Harris, Y. & Bongers, B. 2002, 'Palpable Pixels: A method for the development of Virtual Textures', Organised Sound, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 239-246.
In contemporary music and arts practices the previously distinct roles of author, composer and performer have become increasingly conflated, catalysed by the use of computer technology. Newly combined roles of composer and performer that are assumed by one or more people or computer systems are identified and described, as well as actions including preparation, organisation and presentation. In this paper the interface is described as an interactivated space to encompass both the intimate scale of a performer manipulating the materials through an on-body interface, and the larger in-space interface where the work is shared with the performers and audience. Two examples of projects the authors are involved in are described, which form the basis for further discussion. The two interfaces that manifest themselves in the processes, the instrument and the score are discussed in more detail with a focus on their changed appearance and role.
Bongers, A.J. 2000, 'Interaction in multimedia art', KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS, vol. 13, no. 7-8, pp. 479-485.
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Bongers, B. 1998, 'An Interview With Sensorband', Computer Music Journal, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 13-24.
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Bongers, A.J. 1998, 'Tactual display of sound properties in electronic musical instruments', DISPLAYS, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 129-133.
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Non traditional outputs

Bongers, B., 'Musica a Metronom', Metronom.
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Festival of 9 concerts over 5 days with 14 artists. Video (DVD) and catalogue entry (pp. 20-21) of Metronom Gallery yearbook 2001/2002 ISBN 8460799166
Bongers, B., 'Trainflow', Trainflow, DAB Lab, N/A.
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Interactive Video Installation
Bongers, B., 'Facets', Art Light, University of Technology, Sydney, UTS Tower.
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Facets is an interactive video installation exploring interfaces between people and technological environment. Kaleidoscopic video images are projected on a 36 sqm. screen placed in the space, linking the player's area inside the building to the outside. The images are directly influenced by the players' motions and actions using interface elements placed near the screen, and in a more subtle manner by motions and flows ofpeopJe in and around the Tower building. The images are patterns, textures and lines taken from landscapes and (underwater) sea scapes, placed in the context of the built environment. The dialogue between nature and urban landscapes is further emphasised by the translucence of the screen, linking the internal space of the UTS Tower with the green outside. The placement of the installation enables many lines of sight from around the Foyer areas. Art Light was an exhibition at UTS as part of the Sydney Smart Light festival, 26 May - 14 June 2009, curated by Michael Day.
Heffer, C. & Bongers, B., 'Interlace', LoveLace, Powerhouse Museum, Powerhouse Museum.
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Bongers, B., 'Facets of Expanded Architecture: Interactivating the CarriageWorks Building', Expanded Architecture: avant-garde film + expanded cinema + architecture, Broken Dimanche Press, CarriageWorks, sydney.
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Heffer, C. & Bongers, A., 'Pattern Stations', Embracing Innovation Volume 4, ACT Craft Canberra, ACT Craft Canberra.
Pattern Stations is a collaboration between textile designer Cecilia Heffer and Associate Professor Bert Bongers. It seeks to extend our perception to lace pattern and textural space. New ways of generating pattern are explored through the interaction between analogue and digital technologies. It will be shown at Craft ACT, as part of Science Week
Bongers, A.J., Neill & McKinnon, 'Sand Beats', Waterways, Central Park, Sydney.
Sand Beats is an Interactive 3-channel audiovisual installation with microscope inputs and sensors. It is using real time microscopic images of kinetically animated sand. The installation explores the material qualities of sand, and levels of pollution related to sand, using samples taken from various locations around Sydney Harbour. The sand material is animated through movement, and controlled by audience activities, through sensors in the space. The animated microscopic images are projected in real time through a wall sized video projection.
Bongers, A.J. & Heffer, C., 'Tangible Interactive Lace - Pattern Station #2', Arts Exhibition of the 9th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction (TEI), Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, Stanford University, CA.
The piece presented a novel exploration of physical and tangible materials (fabric, driftwood, rocks) as part of an interactive installation. Furthermore it was an exploration in three-dimensional space, expanding the flat 2D nature of the standard video screen into a sculptural entity. The spatial element and the link with nature was effectuated through multiple projections, one of which was visible on a screen on the window, linking the inside space to the outside space.

Other

Pickrell, M., Bongers, B. & van den Hoven, E. 2014, 'Stroke rehabilitation: Using interactive equipment, understanding physical therapy feedback's usefulness', pp. 31-31.
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