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Dr Ahmed Al-Ani

Image of Ahmed Al-Ani
Senior Lecturer, School of Elec, Mech and Mechatronic Systems
Core Member, Centre for Health Technologies
Associate Member, GEVI Research Strength
BSc (UT Baghdad), MPhil (QAU), PhD (QUT)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 2420
Room
CB11.09.117

Research Interests

Biomedical signal processing; and pattern classification

Can supervise: Yes

Chapters

Al-Ani, A. & Atiya, A. 2010, 'Pattern Classification using a Penalised Likelihood Method' in Schwenker, F. & El Gayar, N. (eds), Artificial Neural Networks in Pattern Recognition. Fourth IAPR TC3 Workshop., Springer, Germany, pp. 1-12.
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Penalized likelihood is a well-known theoretically justified approach that has recently attracted attention by the machine learning society. The objective function of the Penalized likelihood consists of the log likelihood of the data minus some term penalizing non-smooth solutions. Subsequently, maximizing this objective function would lead to some sort of trade-off between the faithfulness and the smoothness of the fit. There has been a lot of research to utilize penalized likelihood in regression, however, it is still to be thoroughly investigated in the pattern classification domain. We propose to use a penalty term based on the Knearest neighbors and an iterative approach to estimate the posterior probabilities. In addition, instead of fixing the value of K for all pattern, we developed a variable K approach, where the number of neighbors can vary from one sample to another. The chosen value of K for a given testing sample is influenced by the K values of its surrounding training samples as well as the most successful K value of all training samples. Comparison with a number of well-known classification methods proved the potential of the proposed method.
Khushaba, R.N., Al-Ani, A. & Al-Jumaily, A. 2010, 'Swarm Based Fuzzy Discriminant Analysis for Multifunction Prosthesis Control', pp. 197-206.
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Khushaba, R.N., Al-Ani, A. & Al-Jumaily, A. 2009, 'Feature Subset Selection Using Differential Evolution', pp. 103-110.
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Khushaba, R.N., Al-Ani, A., Al-Jumaily, A. & Nguyen, H.T. 2008, 'A hybrid nonlinear-discriminant analysis feature projection technique', pp. 544-550.
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Feature set dimensionality reduction via Discriminant Analysis (DA) is one of the most sought after approaches in many applications. In this paper, a novel nonlinear DA technique is presented based on a hybrid of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and the Uncorrelated Linear Discriminant Analysis (ULDA). Although dimensionality reduction via ULDA can present a set of statistically uncorrelated features, but similar to the existing DA's it assumes that the original data set is linearly separable, which is not the case with most real world problems. In order to overcome this problem, a one layer feed-forward ANN trained with a Differential Evolution (DE) optimization technique is combined with ULDA to implement a nonlinear feature projection technique. This combination acts as nonlinear discriminant analysis. The proposed approach is validated on a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) problem and compared with other techniques. © 2008 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Conferences

Al-Dmour, H., Ali, N. & Al-Ani, A. 2015, 'An Efficient Hybrid Steganography Method Based on Edge Adaptive and Tree Based Parity Check', 21st International Conference on MultiMedia Modelling, MMM 2015, Sydney, Australia.
Al-Dmour, H.T. & Al-Ani, A.H.M.E.D. 2015, 'Quality Optimized Medical Image Steganography Based on Edge Detection and Hamming Code', International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, New York, USA, pp. 1486-1489.
A Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is a technology designed to store and transmit digitized medical images over a public network for certain uses. One of the main concerns relating to most of the existing systems is that little attention has been paid to the security and protection of patients' information. Accordingly, there has been an increased interest in recent years to enhance the confidentiality of patients' information. This paper introduces a high imperceptibility digital steganography method that hides Electronic Patient Records (EPR) into a medical image without modifying its important part. This method utilizes edge detection to identify and embed secret data in sharp regions of the image, as the human visual system (HVS) is less sensitive to changes in high contrast areas of images, compared to their smooth areas. Moreover, a Hamming code that embeds 3 secret message bits into 4 bits of the cover image is utilized as this will help in enhancing the quality of the produced images. We hide EPR into the Region of Non-Interest (RONI) to protect the decision area i.e., Region of Interest (ROI), which is essential for the diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is proven through the well-known of imperceptibility measure of Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) when considering different message length.
Al-Ani, A. & Mesbah, M. 2014, 'Fuzzy Rule-Based Alertness State Classification Based On The Optimization Of EEG Rhythm/Channel Combinations', The 11th IASTED International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (BioMed 2014), Zurich, Switzerland.
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This paper presents a method to automatically select the optimal EEG rhythm/channel combination capable of classifying the different human alertness states. We considered four alertness states, namely 'engaged', 'calm', 'drowsy', and 'asleep'. Energies associated with the conventional EEG rhythms, delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma, extracted from overlapping segments of the different EEG channels were used as features. We followed a two-stage process, where in the first stage the optimal brain regions are identified, represented by a set of EEG channels are identified. In the second stage, a fuzzy rule-based alertness classification system (FRBACS) is developed to select the optimal EEG rhythms from the previously selected EEG channels. The IF-THEN rules used in FRBACS are constructed using a novel bi-level differential evolution (DE) based search algorithm. Unlike most of the existing classification methods, the proposed classification approach reveals easy to interpret rules that describe each of the alertness states.
Tareef, A., Al-Ani, A., Nguyen, H. & Chung, Y.Y. 2014, 'A novel tamper detection-recovery and watermarking system for medical image authentication and EPR hiding.', Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, United States, pp. 5554-5557.
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Recently, the literature has witnessed an increasing interest in the study of medical image watermarking and recovery techniques. In this article, a novel image tamper localization and recovery technique for medical image authentication is proposed. The sparse coding of the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) and the reshaped region of Interest (ROI) is embedded in the transform domain of the Region of Non-Interest (RONI). The first part of the sparse coded watermark is use for saving the patient information along with the image, whereas the second part is used for authentication purpose. When the watermarked image is tampered during transmission between hospitals and medical clinics, the embedded sparse coded ROI can be extracted to recover the tampered image. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique in term of tamper correction capability, robustness to attacks, and imperceptibility.
Al-Dmour, H., Al-Ani, A. & Nguyen, H. 2014, 'An efficient steganography method for hiding patient confidential information.', Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, United States, pp. 222-225.
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This paper deals with the important issue of security and confidentiality of patient information when exchanging or storing medical images. Steganography has recently been viewed as an alternative or complement to cryptography, as existing cryptographic systems are not perfect due to their vulnerability to certain types of attack. We propose in this paper a new steganography algorithm for hiding patient confidential information. It utilizes Pixel Value Differencing (PVD) to identify contrast regions in the image and a Hamming code that embeds 3 secret message bits into 4 bits of the cover image. In order to preserve the content of the region of interest (ROI), the embedding is only performed using the Region of Non-Interest (RONI).
Aljaafreh, A. & Al-Ani, A. 2014, 'Conceptualizing initial trust in internet banking services: A pilot study', Information Systems Development: Transforming Organisations and Society Through Information Systems - Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Information Systems Development, ISD 2014, pp. 50-57.
The adoption rate of Internet banking services (IBS) is considered to be relatively high in the developed countries; which is not the case for developing countries. The lack of trust plays a vital role in discouraging users from adopting IBS. Therefore, initial trust could be the starting point of making customers comfortable processing their banking transactions online. This study aims to propose a conceptual model of initial trust in IBS in developing countries. The proposed model integrates its constructs from: the trust literature, diffusion of innovation theory (DoI), and Hofstede's national culture theory. This paper also aims to develop and validate a research instrument in order to examine the proposed model. We conducted a pilot study in Jordan, which is one of the developing countries, and refined the model and its instrument based on the obtained results.
Al-Dmour, H., Al-Ani, A. & Nguyen, H. 2014, 'An efficient steganography method for hiding patient confidential information', IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference (EMBC), Chicago, USA.
Tareef, A., Al-Ani, A., Nguyen, H. & Chung, Y.Y. 2014, 'A novel tamper detection-recovery and watermarking system for medical image authentication and EPR hiding', IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference (EMBC), Chicago, USA.
Ali, M., Al-Ani, A., Eamus, A., Tan, D. & Rochester, I. 2014, 'Detection of Nitrogen Status in Cotton using an Image Processing Approach', 25th International Scientific - Experts Congress On Agriculture and Food Industry, e?me-?zmir/Turkey.
Aljaafreh, A.O., Gill, A.Q., Al-Ani, A., Al-adaileh, R.M. & Alzoubi, Y.I. 2013, 'Factors Influencing Customer's Initial Trust of Internet Banking Services in the Jordanian Context', 22nd IBIMA Conference, The 22nd IBIMA conference on Creating Global Competitive Economies: 2020 Vision Planning & Implementation, IBIM, Rome, Italy, pp. 281-288.
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Internet banking services (IBS) offer many benefits to customers and banks. IBS have widely adopted and used in developed countries, however IBS adoption in developing countries such as Jordan is still low. Lack of customer trust is considered as the most important impediment to the use of IBS in developing countries. The aim of this study is to investigate and identify the factors that influence customers initial trust of IBS in the Jordanian context. This paper adopts the qualitative literature survey approach and reports two main categories: Human category and Information Technology category. Human category includes: personality- based trust, cognition-based trust (Reputation), Institutional-based trust (structural assurance), social factors (culture) and supporting factors (relative advantages). Information Technology category includes: website factors (security, privacy, and general online experiences)). We argue that these factors can be useful for organisations in understanding and addressing customers initial trust about IBS in the Jordanian context.
Ali, M.M., Al-Ani, A., Eamus, D. & Tan, D.K. 2013, 'An Algorithm Based on the RGB Colour Model to Estimate Plant Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Contents', 2013 International Conference on Sustainable Environment and Agriculture, 2013 International Conference on Sustainable Environment and Agriculture, International Association of Computer Science & Information Technology Press, Abu Dhabi, UAE, pp. 52-56.
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Leaf colour gives a good indication of chlorophyll (Ch) and nitrogen (N)status in plants. In this paper we developed a new, easy to use and non-destructive diagnostic approach to detect plantCh and N levels using an image processing technique developed using the RGB (Red, Green and Blue) colour model. The experiment was conducted on tomato (Tommy Toy) in field with three N treatments (0, 60 and 140 kg N / ha), where leaf images were collected using a handheld scanner. The new algorithm achieves superior correlation with the value of Ch and N, measured in laboratory, compared with the existing non-destructive methods of SPAD 502 and Dark green Colour Index (DGCI ).
Rabie, A., Al-Ani, A., Van Dun, B. & Dillon, H. 2013, 'Detection of alertness states using electroencephalogram and cortical auditory evoked potential responses', International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER, pp. 1433-1436.
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In this paper, we focus on identifying the alertness state of subjects undergoing the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) hearing test. A supervised classification approach is adopted, where subjects were advised to indicate their alertness states in specified time instances. Two sets of features are considered here to represent the recorded data. The first is based on the wavelet transform of the background EEG, while the second is obtained from the peaks of the CAEP responses. The rational behind using the second feature set is to evaluate the relationship between CAEP responses and alertness levels. Obtained results suggest that the CAEP-based features are very comparable, in terms of classification accuracy, to the well-established wavelet-based features of EEG signals (79% compared to 80%). The findings of this paper will contribute towards a better understanding of CAEP responses at the different alertness states. © 2013 IEEE.
Al-Ani, A. & Khushaba, R.N. 2012, 'A Population Based Feature Subset Selection Algorithm Guided by Fuzzy Feature Dependency', ADVANCED MACHINE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS, pp. 430-438.
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Ali, M., Al-Ani, A., Eamus, D. & Tan, D. 2012, 'Leaf Nitrogen Determination using Handheld Meters', 16th Australian Agronomy Conference 2012, Armidale, NSW.
Alsukker, A.S. & Al-Ani, A. 2011, 'An Enhanced Neural Network Ensemble for Automatic Sleep Scoring', International Conference on Communications and Information Technology (ICCIT 2011), International Conference on Communications and Information Technology (ICCIT 2011), IEEE Xplore, Aqaba, Jordan, pp. 126-129.
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Improving the diversity of Neural Network Ensembles (NNE) plays an important role in creating robust classification systems in many fields. Several methods have been proposed in the literature to create such diversity using different sets of classifiers or using different portions of training/feature sets. Neural networks are often used as base classifiers in multiple classifier systems as they adapt easily to small changes in the training data, therefore creating diversity that is necessary to make the ensemble work. This paper presents a novel algorithm based on generating a set of classifiers such that each one of them is biased towards one of the target classes. This will improve the ensemble diversity and hence its performance. Results on sleep data sets show that the proposed method is able to outperform the traditional fusion algorithms of bagging and boosting.
AlSukker, A., Khushaba, R. & Al-Ani, A. 2010, 'Optimizing the k-NN metric weights using differential evolution', MCIT'2010: International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Information Technology, pp. 89-92.
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Traditional k-NN classifier poses many limitations including that it does not take into account each class distribution, importance of each feature, contribution of each neighbor, and the number ofinstances for each class. A Differential evolution (DE) optimization technique is utilized to enhance the performance of k-NN through optimizing the metric weights of features, neighbors and classes. Several datasets are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed DE based metrics and to compare it to some k-NN variants from the literature. Practical experiments indicate that in most cases, incorporating DE in k-NN classification can provide more accurate performance. ©2010 IEEE.
Khushaba, R.N., Elliott, R., AlSukker, A., Al-Ani, A. & McKinley, S. 2010, 'Orthogonal locality sensitive fuzzy discriminant analysis in sleep-stage scoring', Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognition, pp. 165-168.
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Sleep-stage scoring plays an important role in analyzing the sleep patterns of people. Studies have revealed that Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients do not usually get enough quality sleep, and hence, analyzing their sleep patterns is of increased importance. Due to the fact that sleep data are usually collected from a number of Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electromyogram (EMG) and Electrooculography (EOG) channels, the feature set size can become large, which may affect the development of on-line scoring systems. Hence, a dimensionality reduction step is needed. One of the powerful dimensionality reduction approaches is based on the concept of Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Unlike existing variants of LDA, this paper presents a new method that considers the fuzzy nature of input measurements while preserving their local structure. Practical results indicate the significance of preserving the local structure of sleep data, which is achieved by the proposed method, and hence attaining superior results to other dimensionality reduction methods. © 2010 IEEE.
AlSukker, A., Khushaba, R.N. & Al-Ani, A. 2010, 'Enhancing the diversity of genetic algorithm for improved feature selection', Conference Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, pp. 1325-1331.
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Genetic algorithm (GA) is one of the most widely used population-based evolutionary search algorithms. One of the challenging optimization problems in which GA has been extensively applied is feature selection. It aims at finding an optimal small size subset of features from the original large feature set. It has been found that the main limitation of the traditional GA-based feature selection is that it tends to get trapped in local minima, a problem known as premature convergence. A number of implementations are presented in the literature to overcome this problem based on fitness scaling, genetic operator modification, boosting genetic population diversity, etc. This paper presents a new modified genetic algorithm based on enhanced population diversity, parents' selection and improved genetic operators. Practical results indicate the significance of the proposed GA variant in comparison to many other algorithms from the literature on different datasets. ©2010 IEEE.
Alsukker, A.S., Al-Ani, A. & Atiya, A. 2009, 'A Modified K-Nearest Neighbor Classifier to Deal with Unbalanced Classes', International Conference on Neural Computation (ICNC 2009), International Conference on Neural Computation, INSTICC - Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication, Madeira, Portugal, pp. 408-413.
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We present in this paper a simple, yet valuable improvement to the traditional k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) classifier. It aims at addressing the issue of unbalanced classes by maximizing the class-wise classification accuracy. The proposed classifier also gives the option of favoring a particular class through evaluating a small set of fuzzy rules. When tested on a number of UCI datasets, the proposed algorithm managed to achieve a uniformly good performance.
Khushaba, R.N., Al-Ani, A., AlSukker, A. & Al-Jumaily, A. 2008, 'A Combined Ant Colony and Differential Evolution Feature Selection Algorithm', ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION AND SWARM INTELLIGENCE, PROCEEDINGS, pp. 1-12.
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Khushaba, R.N., Al-Ani, A. & Al-Jumaily, A. 2008, 'Differential Evolution based feature subset selection', Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognition.
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In this paper, a novel feature selection algorithm based on Differential Evolution (DE) optimization technique is presented. The new algorithm, called DEFS, modifies the DE which is a real-valued optimizer, to suit the problem of feature selection. The proposed DEFS highly reduces the computational costs while at the same time proving to present powerful performance. The DEFS technique is applied to a brain-computer-interface (BCI) application and compared with other dimensionality reduction techniques. The practical results indicate the significance of the proposed algorithm in terms of solutions optimality, memory requirement, and computational cost. © 2008 IEEE.
Khushaba, R.N., Al-Jumaily, A. & Al-Ani, A. 2008, 'Fuzzy discriminant analysis based feature projection in myoelectric control.', Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference, pp. 5049-5052.
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The myoelectric signal (MES) from human muscles is usually utilized as an input to the controller of a multifunction prosthetic hand. In such a system, a pattern recognition approach is usually employed to discriminate between the MES from different classes. Since the MES is recorded using multi channels, the feature vector size can become very large. In order to reduce the computational cost and enhance the generalization capability of the classifier, a dimensionality reduction method is needed to identify an informative moderate size feature set. This paper proposes a novel feature projection technique based on a combination of Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Fuzzy Logic. The new method, called FLDA, assigns different membership degrees to the data points thus reducing the effect of overlapping points in the discrimination process. Furthermore, the concept of Mutual Information (MI) is introduced in the fuzzy memberships in order to assign weights to the features (attributes) according to their contribution to the discrimination process. The FLDA method is tested on a seven classes MES dataset and compared with other feature projection techniques proving its superiority.
Khushaba, R.N., Alsukker, A., Al-Ani, A. & Al-Jumaily, A. 2008, 'Enhanced feature selection algorithm using ant Colony Optimization and fuzzy memberships', Proceedings of the 6th IASTED International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, BioMED 2008, pp. 34-39.
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Feature selection is an indispensable pre-processing step when mining huge datasets that can significantly improve the overall system performance. This paper presents a novel feature selection method that utilizes both the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and fuzzy memberships. The algorithm estimates the local importance of subsets of features, i.e., their pheromone intensities by utilizing fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering technique. In order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, a comparison with another powerful ACO based feature selection algorithm that utilizes the Mutual Information (MI) concept is presented. The method is tested on two biosignals driven applications: Brain Computer Interface (BCI), and prosthetic devices control with myoelectric signals (MES). A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier is used to measure the performance of the selected subsets in both applications. Practical experiments prove that the new algorithm can be as accurate as the original method with MI, but with a significant reduction in computational cost, especially when dealing with huge datasets.
Khushaba, R.N., Al-Ani, A. & Al-Jumaily, A. 2008, 'Swarm Intelligence In Myoelectric Control: Particle Swarm Based Dimensionality Reduction', 6th IASTED International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (BioMED 2008), IASTED International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, IASTED, Austria, pp. 601-694.
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The myoelectric signals (MES) from human muscles have been utilized in many applications such as prosthesis control. The identification of various MES temporal structures is used to control the movement of prosthetic devices by utilizing a pattern recognition approach. Recent advances in this field have shown that there are a number of factors limiting the clinical availability of such systems. Several control strategies have been proposed but deficiencies still exist with most of those strategies especially with the Dimensionality Reduction (DR) part. This paper proposes using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm with the concept of Mutual Information (MI) to produce a novel hybrid feature selection algorithm. The new algorithm, called PSOMIFS, is utilized as a DR tool in myoelectric control problems. The PSOMIFS will be compared with other techniques to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method. Accurate results are acquired using only a small subset of the original feature set producing a classification accuracy of 99% across a problem of ten classes based on tests done on six subjects MES datasets.
Khushaba, R.N., Khushaba, R.N., Alsukker, A., Al-Ani, A. & Al-Jumaily, A. 2008, 'Intelligent artificial ants based feature extraction from wavelet packet coefficients for biomedical signal classification', 2008 3rd International Symposium on Communications, Control, and Signal Processing, ISCCSP 2008, pp. 1366-1371.
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In this paper, a new feature extraction method utilizing ant colony optimization in the selection of wavelet packet transform (WPT) best basis is presented and adopted in classifying biomedical signals. The new algorithm, termed Intelligent Artificial Ants (IAA), searches the wavelet packet tree for subsets of features that best interact together to produce high classification accuracies. While traversing the WPT tree, the IAA takes into account existing correlation between features thus avoiding information redundancy. The IAA method is a mixture of filter and wrapper approaches in feature subset selection. The pheromone that the ants lay down is updated by means of an estimation of the information contents of a single feature or feature subset. The significance of the subsets selected by the ants is measured using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The IAA method is tested on one of the most important biosignal driven applications, which is the Brain Computer Interface (BCI) problem with 56 EEG channels. Practical results indicate the significance of the proposed method achieving a maximum accuracy of 83%. ©2008 IEEE.
Khushaba, R.N., Al-Ani, A. & Al-Jumaily, A. 2008, 'Swarm intelligence in myoelectric control: Particle Swarm based Dimensionality Reduction', Proceedings of the 6th IASTED International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, BioMED 2008, pp. 40-45.
The myoelectric signals (MES) from human muscles have been utilized in many applications such as prosthesis control. The identification of various MES temporal structures is used to control the movement of prosthetic devices by utilizing a pattern recognition approach. Recent advances in this field have shown that there are a number of factors limiting the clinical availability of such systems. Several control strategies have been proposed but deficiencies still exist with most of those strategies especially with the Dimensionality Reduction (DR) part. This paper proposes using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm with the concept of Mutual Information (MI) to produce a novel hybrid feature selection algorithm. The new algorithm, called PSOMIFS, is utilized as a DR tool in myoelectric control problems. The PSOMIFS will be compared with other techniques to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method. Accurate results are acquired using only a small subset of the original feature set producing a classification accuracy of 99% across a problem of ten classes based on tests done on six subjects MES datasets.
Khushaba, R.N., Al-Jumaily, A. & Al-Ani, A. 2008, 'Fuzzy discriminant analysis based feature projection in myoelectric control', Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS'08 - "Personalized Healthcare through Technology", pp. 5049-5052.
The myoelectric signal (MES) from human muscles is usually utilized as an input to the controller of a multifunction prosthetic hand. In such a system, a pattern recognition approach is usually employed to discriminate between the MES from different classes. Since the MES is recorded using multi channels, the feature vector size can become very large. In order to reduce the computational cost and enhance the generalization capability of the classifier, a dimensionality reduction method is needed to identify an informative moderate size feature set. This paper proposes a novel feature projection technique based on a combination of Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Fuzzy Logic. The new method, called FLDA, assigns different membership degrees to the data points thus reducing the effect of overlapping points in the discrimination process. Furthermore, the concept of Mutual Information (MI) is introduced in the fuzzy memberships in order to assign weights to the features (attributes) according to their contribution to the discrimination process. The FLDA method is tested on a seven classes MES dataset and compared with other feature projection techniques proving its superiority. © 2008 IEEE.
Darvishi, S. & Al-Ani, A. 2007, 'Brain-computer interface analysis using continuous wavelet transform and adaptive neuro-fuzzy classifier.', Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference, pp. 3220-3223.
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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of imaginary left and right hand movements, an application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). We propose here to use an Adaptive Neuron-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) as the classification algorithm. ANFIS has an advantage over many classification algorithms in that it provides a set of parameters and linguistic rules that can be useful in interpreting the relationship between extracted features. The continuous wavelet transform will be used to extract highly representative features from selected scales. The performance of ANFIS will be compared with the well-known support vector machine classifier.
Khushaba, R.N., Al-Jumaily, A. & Al-Ani, A. 2007, 'Novel feature extraction method based on fuzzy entropy and wavelet packet transform for myoelectric control', ISCIT 2007 - 2007 International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies Proceedings, pp. 352-357.
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In this paper, a novel feature extraction method based on the utilization of wavelet packet transform (WPT) and the concept of fuzzy entropy is presented. The method acts in steps, were in the first step the WPT is employed to generate a wavelet decomposition tree from which many features are extracted. In the second step, a new algorithm to compute the fuzzy entropy is developed and adopted as a measure of information content to judge on features suitability in classification, by setting a threshold and removing the features that fall under a certain threshold. In the third step, principle component analysis (PCA) is employed to reduce the dimensionality of the generated feature set. As an application, the new algorithm is employed in multifunction myoelectric control problem to prove its efficiency. Accurate results (99% accuracy) are acquired from using only a small subset of the original feature set generated by the wavelet tree. The obtained results indicate that the generated features are of maximum relevance and with minimum degree of redundancy. © 2007 IEEE.
Khushaba, R.N., Al-Ani, A. & Al-Jumaily, A. 2007, 'Swarm intelligence based dimensionality reduction for myoelectric control', Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, ISSNIP, pp. 577-582.
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Recent approaches in multifunction myoelectrically controlled prosthetic devices revealed that dimensionality reduction plays a significant role in the overall system performance. In this paper, a new feature selection method is developed based on a mixture of particle swarm optimization (PSO) method and the concept of mutual information (MI). The new method, termed PSO-MI, is adopted as a dimensionality reduction tool for myoelectric control. The PSO-MI employs the MI measure to aid in controlling the movements of particles in the solution space, thus forming a kind of a hybrid filter-wrapper method. The new PSO-MI is able to account for the interaction property between the features in the selected subset, thus producing high classification accuracies. A dataset of transient myoelectric signal (MES) consisting of six classes of hand grasp is utilized to test the performance of the proposed method. It is proved that the PSO-MI outperforms other methods adopted for dimensionality reduction in myoelectric control achieving 95.5% of classification accuracy across six classes problem. © 2007 IEEE.
Darvishi, S. & Al-Ani, A. 2007, 'Brain-computer interface analysis using continuous wavelet transform and adaptive neuro-fuzzy classifier', Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings, pp. 3220-3223.
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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of imaginary left and right hand movements, an application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). We propose here to use an Adaptive Neuron-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) as the classification algorithm. ANFIS has an advantage over many classification algorithms in that it provides a set of parameters and linguistic rules that can be useful in interpreting the relationship between extracted features. The continuous wavelet transform will be used to extract highly representative features from selected scales. The performance of ANFIS will be compared with the well-known support vector machine classifier. © 2007 IEEE.
Al-Ani, A. & Al-Sukker, A. 2006, 'Effect of feature and channel selection on EEG classification', Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings, pp. 2171-2174.
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In this paper, we evaluate the significance of feature and channel selection on EEG classification. The selection process is performed by searching the feature/channel space using genetic algorithm, and evaluating the importance of subsets using a linear support vector machine classifier. Three approaches have been considered: (i) selecting a subset of features that will be used to represent a specified set of channels, (ii) selecting channels that are each represented by a specified set of features, and (iii) selecting individual features from different channels. When applied to a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) problem, results indicate that improvement in classification accuracy can be achieved by considering the correct combination of channels and features. © 2006 IEEE.
Alsukker, A. & Al-Ani, A. 2006, 'Evaluation of feature selection methods for improved EEG classification', ICBPE 2006 - Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, pp. 146-151.
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this paper compares several methods for feature selection used in EEG classification. Sequential, heuristics and population-based search methods are compared according to their efficiency and computational cost. A support vector machine classifier has been used to compare accuracies. Effect of the size of feature space has been explored by changing the total number of variables between 27 and 168. Experiments have been conducted to select channels as well as to select individual features from different channels. © 2006 Research Publishing Services.
Al-Ani, A. 2006, 'Channell and Feature Classifier Fusion in EEG Analysis', Proceedings of the 3rd Cairo International Biomedical Engineering Conference (CIBEC06), IEEE, Cairo, Egypt, p. CV1.4.
Al-Ani, A. 2005, 'An Ant Colony Optimization Based Approach for Feature Selection', AIML 2005 Proceedings, ICGT International Conference on Artifical Intelligence and Machine Learning, The International Congress for Global Science and Technology (ICGST), Cairo, Egypt, pp. 1-6.
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This paper presents a new feature subset selection algorithm based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). ACO is a metaheuristic inspired by the behaviour of real ants in their search for the shortest paths to food sources. It looks for optimal solutions by utilizing distributed computing, local heuristics and previous knowledge. We modified the ACO algorithm so that it can be used to search for the best subsets of features. A new pheromone trail update formula is presented, and the various parameters that lead to better convergence are tested. Results on speech classification problem show that the proposed algorithm achieves better performance than both greedy and genetic algorithm based feature selection methods.

Journal articles

Tareef, A. & Al-Ani, A. 2015, 'A highly secure oblivious sparse coding-based watermarking system for ownership verification', Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 2224-2233.
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Aljaafreh, A., Al-Ani, A., Aladaileh, R. & Aljaafreh, R. 2015, 'Initial trust in internet banking service in Jordan: Modeling and instrument validation', Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 68-81.
© 2005 - 2015 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved. As with many other e-services, the adoption rate of Internet banking services (IBS) in developing countries is relatively low compared to developed countries. It is well-established that customer's trust plays an important role in adopting new technologies, and hence, initial trust could be the first issue that needs to be investigated when studying the adoption of online banking. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a research instrument empirically, and then use it to examine a proposed conceptual model of initial trust for IBS in developing countries. The model's constructs are integrated from the trust literature, diffusion of innovation theory (DoI), and the Hofstede's culture theory. This paper also aims to develop and validate a research instrument to examine the research model. We conducted a pilot study in Jordan, one of the developing countries in the Middle East. A survey was carried out, and a total of 75 responses were gathered in the study. The collected data was analyzed using IBM SPSS 22.0. Results of the pilot study are used to validate the instrument and to refine the proposed model. The validated and refined instrument will be used to examine the model in the intended primary study.
AlJaafreh, A., Al-adaileh, R., Gill, A., Al-Ani, A. & Alzoubi, Y. 2014, 'A Review of Literature of Initial Trust in E-Services: The Case of Internet Banking Services in Jordanian Context', Journal of Electronic Banking Systems, vol. 2014, pp. 1-10.
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Al-Ani, A., Alsukker, A. & Khushaba, R.N. 2013, 'Feature subset selection using differential evolution and a wheel based search strategy', SWARM AND EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION, vol. 9, pp. 15-26.
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Al-Ani, A., Mesbah, M., van Dun, B. & Dillon, H. 2013, 'Fuzzy Logic-Based Automatic Alertness State Classification Using Multi-channel EEG Data', Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8226, no. 1, pp. 176-183.
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This paper represents an attempt to automatically classify alertness state using information extracted from multi-channel EEG. To reduce the amount of data and improve the performance, a channel selection method based on support vector machine (SVM) classifier has been performed. The features used for the EEG channel selection process and subsequently for alertness classification represent the energy values of the five EEG rhythms; namely d, ?, a, and ?. In order to identify the feature/channel combination that leads to the best alertness state classification performance, we used a fuzzy rule-based classification system (FRBCS) that utilizes differential evolution in constructing the rules. The results obtained using the FRBCS were found to be comparable to those of SVM but with the added advantage of revealing the rhythm/channel combination associated with each alertness state.
Al-Ani, A., Talaat, A.S., Atiya, A.F., Mokhtar, S.A. & Fayek, M. 2012, 'Multiclass Penalized Likelihood Pattern Classification Algorithm', Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7665, pp. 141-148.
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Penalized likelihood is a general approach whereby an objective function is defined, consisting of the log likelihood of the data minus some term penalizing non-smooth solutions. Subsequently, this objective function is maximized, yielding a solution that achieves some sort of trade-off between the faithfulness and the smoothness of the fit. In this paper we extend the penalized likelihood classification that we proposed in earlier work to the multi class case. The algorithms are based on using a penalty term based on the K-nearest neighbors and the likelihood of the training patterns classifications. The algorithms are simple to implement, and result in a performance competitive with leading classifiers.
Gargiulo, G., Shephard, R., Tapson, J., Mcewan, A., Bifulco, P., Cesarelli, M., Jin, C., Al-Ani, A., Wang, N. & Van Schaik, A. 2012, 'Pregnancy Detection And Monitoring In Cattle Via Combined Foetus Electrocardiogram And Phonocardiogram Signal Processing', BMC Veterinary Research, vol. 8, no. NA, pp. 1-10.
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Background: Pregnancy testing in cattle is commonly invasive requiring manual rectal palpation of the reproductive tract that presents risks to the operator and pregnancy. Alternative non-invasive tests have been developed but have not gained popularity
Al-Ani, A., Rabie, A., van Dun, B. & Dillon, H. 2012, 'Analysis of Alertness Status of Subjects Undergoing the Cortical Auditory Evoked Potential Hearing Test', Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7663, pp. 92-99.
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In this paper, we analyze the EEG rhythms of subjects undergoing the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) hearing test. Investigation of the importance of the different EEG rhythms in terms of their capability in differentiating between the different alertness states when considering 64 channel EEG montage is conducted. This is followed by considering subsets that contain 2, 3, 4 as well as all 5 EEG rhythms. Finally, a feature subset selection method based on differential evolution (DE) that has particularly been proposed to deal with multi-channel signals is used to search for the best subset of EEG rhythms for the various channels.
Ali, M.M., Al-Ani, A., Eamus, D. & Tan, D.K. 2012, 'A New Image-Processing-Based Technique for Measuring Leaf Dimensions', American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1588-1594.
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We propose in this paper a new method for measuring a number of leaf dimension parameters including height, width, average width, perimeter and area. A digital scanner is utilized to acquire leaf images, which unlike digital cameras, requires no calibration in terms of size and angle of the acquired images. Edge detection, filtering and thresholding algorithms are applied to identify the leaf section of the image against the background. Forty leaves that differ in shape and size were used to validate the estimated parameters against the true values and parameters produced by the popular Li-Cor 3100. Data indicated that the proposed method achieved a constantly high accuracy
Ali, M.M., Al-Ani, A., Eamus, D. & Tan, D.K. 2012, 'A New Image Processing Based Technique to Determine Chlorophyll in Plants', American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1323-1328.
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Leaf colour is usually used as a guide for assessments of nutrient status and plant health. We propose a new inexpensive, hand-held and easy-to-use technique for the detection of chlorophyll content and foliar nitrogen content in plants based on leaf colour. This method provides a rapid analysis and data storage at minimal cost and does not require any technical or laboratory skills. Most of the existing methods that examined relationships between chlorophyll status and leaf colour were developed for particular species. These methods acquire leaf images using digital cameras, which can be sensitive to lighting conditions (colour, angle, flux density) and hence, require proper calibration. Our method analyses leaf colour images obtained from a digital scanner that requires minimal calibration compared as it has its one light source and the angle and distance between light and leaf are constant. Our new algorithm produced superior correlations with the true value of foliar chlorophyll content measured in the laboratory compared with existing non-destructive methods when applied to three different species (lettuce, broccoli and tomato).
Khushaba, R.N., Al-Ani, A. & Al-Jumaily, A. 2011, 'Feature subset selection using differential evolution and a statistical repair mechanism', EXPERT SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 11515-11526.
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Khushaba, R.N., Al-Ani, A. & Al-Jumaily, A. 2011, 'Swarmed Discriminant Analysis for Multifunction Prosthesis Control', International Journal of Engineering and Natural Sciences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 27-34.
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One of the approaches enabling people with amputated limbs to establish some sort of interface with the real world includes the utilization of the myoelectric signal (MES) from the remaining muscles of those limbs. The MES can be used as a control input to a multifunction prosthetic device. In this control scheme, known as the myoelectric control, a pattern recognition approach is usually utilized to discriminate between the MES signals that belong to different classes of the forearm movements. Since the MES is recorded using multiple channels, the feature vector size can become very large. In order to reduce the computational cost and enhance the generalization capability of the classifier, a dimensionality reduction method is needed to identify an informative yet moderate size feature set. This paper proposes a new fuzzy version of the well known Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) feature projection technique. Furthermore, based on the fact that certain muscles might contribute more to the discrimination process, a novel feature weighting scheme is also presented by employing Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for estimating the weight of each feature. The new method, called PSOFLDA, is tested on real MES datasets and compared with other techniques to prove its superiority.
Khushaba, R.N., Al-Ani, A. & Al-Jumaily, A. 2010, 'Orthogonal fuzzy neighborhood discriminant analysis for multifunction myoelectric hand control', IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1410-1419.
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Developing accurate and powerful electromyogram (EMG) driven prostheses controllers that can provide the amputees with effective control on their artificial limbs, has been the focus of a great deal of research in the past few years. One of the major challenges in such research is extracting an informative subset of features that can best discriminate between the different forearm movements. In this paper, a new dimensionality reduction method, referred to as orthogonal fuzzy neighborhood discriminant analysis (OFNDA), is proposed as a response to such a challenge. Unlike existing attempts in fuzzy linear discriminant analysis, the objective of the proposed OFNDA is to minimize the distance between samples that belong to the same class and maximize the distance between the centers of different classes, while taking into account the contribution of the samples to the different classes. The proposed OFNDA is validated on EMG datasets collected from seven subjects performing a range of 5 to 10 classes of forearm movements. Practical results indicate the significance of OFNDA in comparison to many other feature projection methods (including locality preserving and uncorrelated variants of discriminant analysis) with accuracies ranging from 97.66% to 87.84% for 5 to 10 classes of movements, respectively, using only two EMG electrodes. © 2010 IEEE.
Khushaba, R.N., Al-Jumaily, A. & Al-Ani, A. 2009, 'Evolutionary fuzzy discriminant analysis feature projection technique in myoelectric control', Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 699-707.
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The controller of a multifunction prosthetic hand usually employs a pattern recognition scheme to discriminate between the myoelectric signals (MES) from different classes of the forearm movements. The MES is recorded using a multichannel approach that makes the feature vector size very large. Hence a dimensionality reduction technique is needed to identify an informative moderate size feature set. This paper proposes a novel feature projection technique based on a combination of fisher linear discriminant analysis (LDA), fuzzy logic (FL), and differential evolution (DE) optimization technique. The new technique, DEFLDA, assigns different membership degrees to the data points in order to reduce the effect of overlapping points in the discrimination process. Furthermore, an optimized weighting scheme is presented in which certain weights are assigned to the features according to their contribution in the discrimination process. The proposed DEFLDA is tested on different datasets and compared with other projection techniques to prove its functionality. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.
Khushaba, R.N., AlSukker, A., Al-Ani, A., Al-Jumaily, A. & Zomaya, A.Y. 2009, 'A novel swarm based feature selection algorithm in multifunction myoelectric control', JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT & FUZZY SYSTEMS, vol. 20, no. 4-5, pp. 175-185.
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Atiya, A. & Al-Ani, A. 2009, 'A penalized likelihood based pattern classification algorithm', pattern recognition, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 2684-2694.
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Penalized likelihood is a general approach whereby an objective function is defined, consisting of the log likelihood of the data minus some term penalizing non-smooth solutions. Subsequently, this objective function is maximized, yielding a solution that achieves some sort of trade-off between the faithfulness and the smoothness of the fit. Most work on that topic focused on the regression problem, and there has been little work on the classification problem. In this paper we propose a new classification method using the concept of penalized likelihood (for the two class case). By proposing a novel penalty term based on the K-nearest neighbors, simple analytical derivations have led to an algorithm that is proved to converge to the global optimum. Moreover, this algorithm is very simple to implement and converges typically in two or three iterations. We also introduced two variants of the method by distance-weighting the K-nearest neighbor contributions, and by tackling the unbalanced class patterns situation. We performed extensive experiments to compare the proposed method to several well-known classification methods. These simulations reveal that the proposed method achieves one of the top ranks in classification performance and with a fairly small computation time.
Al-Ani, A. 2009, 'A dependency-based search strategy for feature selection', Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 12392-12398.
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Feature selection has become an increasingly important field of research. It aims at finding optimal feature subsets that can achieve better generalization on unseen data. However, this can be a very challenging task, especially when dealing with large feature sets. Hence, a search strategy is needed to explore a relatively small portion of the search space in order to find "semi-optimal" subsets. Many search strategies have been proposed in the literature, however most of them do not take into consideration relationships between features. Due to the fact that features usually have different degrees of dependency among each other, we propose in this paper a new search strategy that utilizes dependency between feature pairs to guide the search in the feature space. When compared to other well-known search strategies, the proposed method prevailed.
Khushaba, R.N., Al-Jumaily, A. & Al-Ani, A. 2009, 'Dimensionality Reduction with Neuro-Fuzzy Discriminant Analysis', International Journal of Computational Intelligence, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 225-232.
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One of the most important tasks in any pattern recognition system is to find an informative, yet small, subset of features with enhanced discriminatory power. In this paper, a new neuro-fuzzy discriminant analysis based feature projection technique is presented based on a two stages hybrid of Neural Networks, optimized with Differential Evolution (DE), and a proposed Fuzzy Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA) technique. Although dimensionality reduction via FLDA can present a set of well clustered features in the reduced space, but like any version of the existing DAs it assumes that the original data set is linearly separable, which is not the case with many real world problems. In order to overcome this problem, the first stage of the proposed technique maps the initially extracted features in a nonlinear manner into a new domain, with larger dimensionality, in which the features are linearly separable. FLDA acts then on these linearly separable features to further reduce the dimensionality. The proposed combination, referred to as NFDA, is validated on a prosthetic device control problem with Electroencephalogram (EEG) datasets collected from 5 subjects achieving a maximum testing accuracy of 85.7% for a three classes of EEG based imaginations of movements.
Al-Ani, A. 2005, 'Feature Subset Selection Using Ant Colony Optimization', International Journal of Computational Intelligence, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 53-58.
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Al-Ani, A. & Deriche, M. 2004, 'Multi-Channel Subspace Mapping Using an Information Maximization Criterion', Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 117-145.
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A new hybrid information maximization (HIM) algorithm is derived. This algorithm is able to perform subspace mapping of multi-channel signals, where the input (feature) vector for each of the channels is linearly transformed to an output vector. The algorithm is based on maximizing the mutual information (MI) between input and output sets for each of the channels, and between output sets across channels. Such formulation leads to a substantial redundancy reduction in the output sets, and the extraction of higher order features that exhibit coherence across time and/or space. In this paper, we develop the proposed algorithm and show that it combines efficiently the strengths of two well-known subspace mapping techniques, namely the principal component analysis (PCA) and the canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Unlike CCA, which is limited to two channels, the HIM algorithm can easily be extended to multiple channels. A number of simulations and real experiments are conducted to compare the performance of HIM to that of PCA and CCA.
Al-Ani, A., Deriche, M. & Chebil, J. 2003, 'A new mutual information based measure for feature selection', Intelligent Data Analysis, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 43-57.
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In this paper, we discuss the problem of feature selection and the importance of using mutual information in evaluating the discrimination ability of feature subsets between class labels. Because of the difficulties associated with estimating the exact value of mutual information, we propose a new evaluation measure that is based on the information gain and takes into consideration the interaction between features. The proposed measure is integrated into a robust feature selection scheme and compared with the well-known mutual information feature selection (MIFS) algorithm using the problems of texture classification, speech segment classification and speaker identification.